ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

Transformation of artistic ideas of visual art into architectural space

Vestnik MGSU 4/2014
  • Enyutina Ekaterina Dmitrievna - Samara State University of Architecture and Construction (SGASU) postgraduate student, Department of Urban Planning, Samara State University of Architecture and Construction (SGASU), 194 Molodogvardeyskaya street, Samara, 443001, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-13

Transformation of a two-dimensional composition into a volumetric and spatial solution is based on the abstract art painting. Theoretical part of the style of the twenties laid the basic groundwork for this solution. The group "Unovis" under the supervision of Malevich aimed to create the "Suprematic Utilitarian World": the development of a new architecture, a new ornament and new forms of furniture, as well as a new type of a modern book. The theory of P. Mondrian and the group "Style" had a tremendous effect on the architecture of the twentieth century, and first of all due to the “Bauhaus” school of design, that clearly represented the rationalistic principles of architecture. Originated in art a new understanding of the material world was reflected in architecture in the most striking and decisive manner. It can be illustrated by the example of modern prominent architects who also use the methods created by artists of the early twentieth century. For example, a designer and architect Zaha Hadid uses this method in many of her projects. When modeling her future projects she designs a volumetric and spatial conceptual model - composition of desired architectural space, using suprematic composition as a basis. Modeling method makes it possible to solve a range of problems competently and methodically interesting. Their solution is necessary for the architectural practice, conceptual design and training. Among the tasks lying "on the surface" of architectural creativity we can emphasize the following: 1. Abstracting. The aim is to design a volumetric and spatial conceptual model - a composition of desired architectural space, which will reflect reality from a new angle. 2. Conceptualization allows to reveal the main idea, the basic concept, the design principle in artistic activity, to investigate the conditions of functioning and aesthetic perception of architectural work in general. 3. Defining the structure and variability in the modular design of architectural objects. In the work, the author has investigated the process of environment volumetric and spatial solution based on planar images. Study of certain laws, clearly seen in the practice of many contemporary architects and designers, has been oriented on identifying the main principles for the development of graphical models of composite grid to create a new space.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.4.7-13

References
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  2. Khan-Magomedov S.O. Arkhitektura sovetskogo avangarda. Sotsial'nye problemy [Architecture of the Soviet Avant-garde. Social Problems]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 2001, 712 p.
  3. Azizyan I.A. Teoreticheskoe osoznanie rozhdeniya avangarda i modernizma [Theoretical Awareness of the Birth of the Avant-garde and Modernism]. Ocherki istorii i teorii arkhitektury Novogo i Noveyshego vremeni [Essays on the History and Theory of Architecture of New and Newest Time]. Saint-Petersburg, Kolo Publ., 2009, 656 p.
  4. Deicher S. Piet Mondrian, 1872—1944: Structures in Space. Cologne, Benedikt Taschen, 1995.
  5. Gropius W. Granitsy arkhitektury [The Boundaries of Architecture]. Seriya: Problemy material'nokhudozhestvennoy kul'tury [Series: Problems of Material and Artistic Culture]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1971, 286 p.
  6. Zaha Hadid Architects. Official website. Available at: http://www.zaha-hadid.com/home. Date of access: March 2014.
  7. Bernard Tschumi Architects. Official website. Available at: http://www.tschumi.com/ Date of access: March 2014.
  8. Predeina A.M. Futuristicheskie kontseptsii proshlogo v arkhitekture nastoyashchego [Futuristic Concepts of the Past in the Architecture of the Present] Arkhitekton: izvestiya vuzov [Architecton: News of the Universities]. 2012, no. 38. Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2012_22/65.
  9. Dutsev M.V. Sovremennye avtorskie kontseptsii arkhitekturno-khudozhestvennogo sinteza [Contemporery Author's Concepts of the Architectural Synthesis]. Izvestiya KGASU [News of Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering]. 2012, no. 1(19), pð. 7—16.
  10. Gel'fol'd A.L., Dutsev M.V. Arkhitekturno-khudozhestvennyy sintez kak sredstvo dialoga [Architectural and Artistic Synthesis as Means of Dialogue]. Privolzhskiy nauchnyy zhurnal [Scientific Journal of the Volga Region]. 2010, no. 4, ðp. 147—152.
  11. Lekareva N.A. Kreativnye zadachi v obuchenie landshaftnomu proektirovaniyu [Creative Tasks in the Studying Landscape Modeling]. Arkhitekton: izvestiya vuzov [Architecton: News of the Universities]. 2010, no. 29. Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2010_1/13.
  12. Bystrova T.Yu. 10 tezisov o proektnom myshlenii arkhitektorov: kriticheskiy analiz stat'i Charl'za Dzhenksa [10 Theses on Design Thinking of Architects: a Critical Analysis of the Article by Charles Jencks]. Akademicheskiy vestnik UralNIIproekt RAASN [Academic Proceedings of UralNIIproekt RAACS]. 2010, no. 2. Available at: http://uniip.ru/juornal/arhiv/soderghanie/59-av-2-2010/97-2-2010-bystrova.

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Universal human habitat. Basic principles

Vestnik MGSU 9/2012
  • Stepanov Vyacheslav Konstantinovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Architectural Sciences, Professor, Professor of Department of Design of Buildings, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Starikov Aleksandr Sergeevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Assistant Lecturer, Department of Design of Buildings, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 39 - 43

Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities were adopted
in 1993 by the United Nations. They have been valid since then. The number of disabled and
elderly people is ever growing due to injuries, accidents, environmental problems, deterioration of
health, population aging and demographic disorders.
The term "universal habitat" reads as "universal design" worldwide. The concept of "universal
design" was developed by Ronald Mace, American architect, in the 80ies of the twentieth century.
The idea was picked up in Japan and several European countries, especially in product design and
architecture.
Universal design is a logical development of principles of the barrier-free environment. Universal
design emerged in the late 20th century. The universal design is friendly in respect of all people
without restriction. The article describes basic principles of universal design, including its equitable
use, flexibility in use, simplicity and intuitive nature, perceptivity, low physical effort, size and space.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.9.39 - 43

References
  1. Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities. Adopted by General Assembly Resolution 48/96 at United Nations General Assembly on December 20, 1993.
  2. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Adopted by General Assembly Resolution 217 A (III), UN General Assembly on December 10, 1948.
  3. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Adopted by General Assembly Resolution 2200 A (XXI) UN General Assembly on December 16, 1966.
  4. The Convention on the Rights of the Child. Adopted by General Assembly Resolution 44/25, United Nations General Assembly on November 20, 1989.
  5. The World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons. Adopted by General Assembly Resolution 37/52 United Nations General Assembly on December 3, 1982.
  6. Interview of Gregory Lekarev (Director, Department in charge of Disabled Persons, Ministry of Healthcare and Social Development). Novaya Gazeta [New Newspaper], December 3, 2010.
  7. Safronov K.E. Bezbar’ernaya gorodskaya sreda [Barrier-free Urban Environment]. Omsk, 2010.
  8. Stepanov V.K., Starikov A.S. Predposylki formirovaniya arkhitekturnoy sredy dlya sportsmenov invalidov [Prerequisites for Formation of the Architectural Environment for Disabled Athletes]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 4, pp. 87—91.
  9. Stepanov V.K., Tesler K.I. Raschet kommunikatsionnykh parametrov obshchestvenno-torgovykh tsentrov s uchetom uchastiya v dvizhenii pokupateley-invalidov [Calculation of Communicative Parameters of Public Trade Centres with Account for Disabled Customers]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 4, pp. 92—96.
  10. Kalmet Kh.Yu. Zhilaya sreda dlya invalida [Human Habitat for Disabled Persons]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1990.
  11. Wolfgang F.E. Preiser, Korydon H. Smith. Universal Design Handbook. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2011.
  12. Carstens Diane Y. Site Planning and Design for the Elderly. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc. New York, 1985.
  13. Houglund J. David. Housing for the Elderly. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc. New York, 1985.
  14. Stepanov V.K. Spetsializirovannye uchebno-lechebnye tsentry [Specialized Training and Treatment Centres]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1987.
  15. Stepanov V.K., Shchetinina N.N., Tyuricheva M.N., edited by Stepanov V.K. Arkhitekturnaya sreda obitaniya invalidov i prestarelykh [Architectural Habitat for Disabled and Elderly Persons]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1989.
  16. Conell B.R., Jones M.L., Mace R.L., Mueller J.L., Mullick A., Ostroff E., Sanford J. The Principles of Universal Design. Centre for Universal Design, North Carolina State University, 1997.

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