Heroic tunes and patriotic motives in moscow architecture of the 1940-1950s

Vestnik MGSU 8/2015
  • Gatsunaev Konstantin Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 18-29

Historically, Moscow architecture in its development has been following the political trends of the Russian society, and it is clearly reflected in the appearance and quality of Moscow buildings. The author discusses the most observable features and structural principles attributed to Soviet architecture in the middle of the 20th century and uses Moscow monuments as examples. The article is based on the analysis and systematization of spatial planning, architectural, design, and historical sources considering post-war Moscow architecture. The author proposes a historical approach to the problem of correlation between the architecture and post-war Soviet socio-cultural realities. The development of architecture demonstrates different features in different historical epochs. The victorious end of the World War II and crushing defeat of German Nazism generated intensive growth of patriotic emotions in the Soviet society. Heroic tunes and patriotic motives became the brightest features in Soviet architecture. The development of the Soviet architecture between 1945-1955 was determined by different factors. The author discusses the problem of consistency between the existing architectural environment of Moscow city centre and new architectural planning solutions, created by D.N. Chechulin. The importance of historical continuity and consistency of spatial planning policies of the urban development documentation such as the Master plot plan of Moscow (1951) is emphasized. New relations between Soviet government and Russian Orthodox Church were established in the end of the 1940s. Thereby, Soviet architects widely used the decorative elements and compositional principles of ancient Russian architecture. The column order of the Empire style became a required sample for Soviet architects. This style is built according to classical rules, although it has substantial deviations. The Government directives and skills of architects developed an own language of architectural forms typical for so-called “Stalin’s Empire” style.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.8.18-29

References
  1. Molokova T.A., Bunina E.V., Byzova O.M. Praviteli Rossii i razvitie stroitel’stva [Russian Rulers and the Development of Construction]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2012, 296 p. (Biblioteka nauchnykh razrabotok i proektov MGSU [The Library of Scientific Developments and Projects of MGSU]). (In Russian)
  2. Ikonnikov A.V. Arkhitektura i istoriya [Architecture and History]. Moscow, Arkhitektura Publ., 1993, 248 p.
  3. Mezentsev S.D. Problemy territorial’nogo planirovaniya i gradostroitel’stva: sotsial’no-filosofskiy aspekt [Problems of Spatial Planning and Urban Development: Social Philosophical Aspect]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 6, pp. 17—26. (In Russian)
  4. Molokova T.A., Frolov V.P. Pamyatniki kul’tury Moskvy: iz proshlogo v budushchee [Monuments of Culture of Moscow: from the Past to the Future]. 2nd edition, revised. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010, 168 p. (In Russian)
  5. Gregory D.A. Housing and Urban Development in the USSR. N.Y., State University of New York Press, 1985, 354 p.
  6. Taubman W. Governing Soviet Cities: Bureaucratic Politics and Urban Development in the USSR. N.Y., Praeger Publ., 1973, 166 p.
  7. Ikonnikov A.V. Arkhitektura Moskvy. XX vek [Architecture of Moscow. 20th Century]. Moscow, Moskovskiy rabochiy Publ., 1984, 222 p. (In Russian)
  8. Khan-Magomedov S.O. Ivan Zholtovskiy [Ivan Zholtovsky]. Moscow, S.E. Gordeev Publ., 2010, 352 p. (In Russian)
  9. Molokova T.A. Problema sokhraneniya kul’turnogo naslediya: istoricheskiy aspekt [The Problem of Cultural Heritage Preservation: Historical Aspect]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2007, no. 2, pp. 13—16. (In Russian)
  10. Byzova O.M. Narodnoe obrazovanie Moskvy v gody Velikoy Otechestvennoy voyny 1941—1945 gg. [National Education in Moscow during the Great Patriotic War 1941—1945]. Vestnik Tambovskogo universiteta. Seriya: Gumanitarnye nauki [Tambov University Review. Series: Humanities]. 2012, no. 4 (108), pp. 339—342. (In Russian)
  11. Efremova M.G. Iz opyta raboty tresta Mosstroy № 1 v 30—50-e gg. XX v. [Mosstroy no. 1 Trust Working Experience in the 30—50s of the 20th]. Internet-Vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya: Politematicheskaya [Internet Proceedings of the Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Polythematic series]. 2012, no. 3 (23), p. 25. Available at: http://vestnik.vgasu.ru/attachments/Efremova-2012_3(23).pdf. Date of access: 15.05.2015. (In Russian)
  12. Aleshchenko N.M. Moskva v planakh razvitiya i rekonstruktsii. 1918—1985 [Moscow in the Development and Reconstruction Plans. 1918—1985]. Moscow, Glavnoe arkhivnoe upravleniye goroda Moskvy Publ., 2009, 240 p. (In Russian)
  13. 16-y s”ezd VKP(b). Stenograficheskiy otchet [XVI Conference of the All-Union Communist Party. Stenographic report]. Moscow, Leningrad, Gosizdat Publ., 1930, 472 p. (In Russian)
  14. Ikonnikov A.V. Utopicheskoe myshlenie i arkhitektura [Utopian Thinking and Architecture]. Moscow, Arkhitektura-S Publ., 2004, 286 p. (In Russian)
  15. Molokova T.A., Frolov V.P. Vliyanie ital’yanskoy arkhitektury na gradostroitel’stvo Rossii [The influence of the Italian Architecture on the Russian Town Planning]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 128—134. (In Russian)
  16. Kuleshov M., Pozdnev A. Vysotnye zdaniya Moskvy [High-Rise Buildings of Moscow]. Moscow, Moskovskiy rabochiy Publ., 1954, 158 p. (In Russian)
  17. Oltarzhevskiy V.K. Stroitel’stvo vysotnykh zdaniy v Moskve [The Construction of High-rise Buildings in Moscow]. Moscow, Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo literatury po stroitel’stvu i arkhitekture Publ., 1953, 216 p. (In Russian)
  18. Pod”yapol’skiy S.S. Istoriko-arkhitekturnye issledovaniya. Stat’i i materialy [Historical and Architectural Researches. Articles and Materials]. Moscow, Indrik Publ., 2006, 320 p. (In Russian)
  19. Byzova O.M. Stroitel’stvo i vosstanovlenie chasovni v pamyat’ Otechestvennoy voyny 1812 goda v Pavlovskom Posade Moskovskoy oblasti [Construction and Restoration of a Pavlov Posad’s Chapel in the Memory of the Patriotic War of 1812]. Internet-Vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya: Politematicheskaya [Internet Proceedings of the Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Polythematic series]. 2012, no. 3 (23), p. 23. Available at: http://vestnik.vgasu.ru/attachments/Buzova-2012_3(23).pdf. Date of access: 15.06.2015. (In Russian)
  20. Frolov V.P. Sotsial’nye, etnokul’turnye i konfessional’nye osobennosti arkhitekturnogo naslediya monastyrey [Social, Ethnical, Cultural and Confessional Features of Architectural Heritage of Monasteries]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 6, pp. 35—43. (In Russian)
  21. Kornfel’d Ya.A. Laureaty Stalinskoy premii v arkhitekture. 1941—1950 [The Laureates of the Stalin’s Prize. 1941—1950]. Moscow, Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo literatury po stroitel’stvu i arkhitekture Publ., 1953, 220 p. (In Russian)
  22. Baranovskiy P. Trudy, vospominaniya sovremennikov [Works and Memories of the Contemporaries]. Moscow, Otchiy dom Publ., 1996, 279 p. (In Russian)
  23. Molokova T.A. Vosstanovlenie Moskvy posle pozhara 1812 g.: novyy oblik goroda [Reconstruction of Moscow after the 1812 Fire of Moscow: New Look of the City]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 17—22. (In Russian)
  24. Frolov V.P. Pamyatniki otechestvennoy voyny 1812 g. [Monuments to the Patriotic War of 1812]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 23—28. (In Russian)
  25. Markuzon V.F. Semiotika i khudozhestvennye problemy predmetno-prostranstvennyy sredy [Semiotics and Artistic Problems in Subject-Spatial Environment.]. Esteticheskie problemy dizayna : materialy konferentsiy, seminarov, soveshchaniy [Aesthetic Design Problems : Materials of Conferences, Seminars, Meetings]. Moscow, VNIITE Publ., 1978, p. 52. (In Russian)
  26. Uspenskiy B.A. O semiotike iskusstva [Semiotics of Art]. Simpozium po strukturnomu izucheniyu znakovykh system [The Symposium on the Structural Study of Sign Systems]. Moscow, AN SSSR Publ., 1962, p. 127. (In Russian)

Download

Urban aspects in the creative heritage of D. Gilardi in Moscow

Vestnik MGSU 8/2015
  • Frolov Vladimir Pavlovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 41-50

The interest to Domenico Gilardi, one of the leaders of Moscow classicism and Empire, to his masterpieces and geography of architectural heritage is expressed in different investigations. Russian and foreign scientists pay great attention to the features of his works, his place in the classical style and influence of the Italian school. One of the most important aspects of the architect’s creative work is urban planning, and especially his participation in creation of the architectural ensembles of Moscow, city-forming qualities of separate buildings. The article is dedicated to the 230th anniversary of the birthday and the 170th anniversary of the death of an architect Domenico Gilardi. The article discusses architectural features and creative ways of D. Gilardi, special attention is paid to his urban planning activity in Moscow, his contribution to the historic development of the capital city is analyzed. On the example of specific buildings and structures, which eventually became historical-cultural monuments of Moscow, the author shows the activity of the architect in a complex historical period of the city’s reconstruction after the fire of 1812. The author concludes that the main buildings of the architect D. Gilardi are still among the best examples of the architecture of the Russian Empire.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.8.41-50

References
  1. Arkhitektura i gradostroitel’stvo. Entsiklopediya [Architecture and Urban Planning. Encyclopedia]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 2001, p. 412. (In Russian)
  2. Bol’shaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya [Great Russian Encyclopedia]. Moscow, BRE Publ., 2008, vol. 10, 767 p. (In Russian)
  3. Bol’shaya illyustrirovannaya entsiklopediya : v 32 tt. [Big Illustrated Encyclopedia : in 32 volumes]. Moscow, AST : Astrel’ Publ., 2010, vol. 10 : EVR-IZ, 504 p. (Arguments and Facts) (In Russian)
  4. Lasunsky O.G., editor. Voronezhskaya istoriko-kul’turnaya entsiklopediya. VIKE. Personalii [Voronezh Historical and Cultural Encyclopedia. VICE. Personalities]. 2nd edition, revised. Voronezh, Tsentr dukhovnogo vozrozhdeniya Chernozemnogo kraya Publ., 2009, 456 p. (In Russian)
  5. Tvortsy tekhniki i gradostroiteli Moskvy (do nachala XX veka) [Creators of Technology and Urban Planning of Moscow (The Beginning of the 20th Century)]. Moscow, Yanus-K, 2002, 376 p. (Masters of Science and Education of Moscow — 18—20 in Portraits and Characters) (In Russian)
  6. Arkhitekturnye ansambli Moskvy XV — nachala XX vekov. Printsipy khudozhestvennogo edinstva [Architectural Ensembles of Moscow of the 15th — early 20th Centuries. Principles of Artistic Unity]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1997, 472 p. (Russian Urban Planning Art) (In Russian)
  7. Grabar’ I.E. Dementiy Ivanovich Zhilyardi i ego shkola [Domenico Gilardi and his School]. Istoriya russkogo iskusstva [History of Russian Art]. Moscow, I. Knebel Publ., 1910, vol. 1. Arkhitektura. Dopetrovskaya epokha [Architecture. Pre-Peter Epoch]. Pp. 42—43. (In Russian)
  8. Yaralov Yu.S., Zemtsov S.M., editors. Zodchie Moskvy [Architects of Moscow]. Book 1. Moscow, Moskovskiy rabochiy Publ., 1981, 302 p. (In Russian)
  9. Molokova T.A., editor. Praviteli Rossii i razvitie stroitel’stva [The Rulers of Russia and the Development of Construction]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2012, 296 p. (In Russian)
  10. Nikolaev E.V. Klassicheskaya Moskva. Ocherki arkhitektury moskovskogo klassitsizma i ampira [Classic Moscow. Essays on the Architecture of Moscow Classicism and Empire]. Moscow, Editorial URSS Publ., 2010, 272 p. (In Russian)
  11. Molokova T.A. Vosstanovlenie Moskvy posle pozhara 1812 g.: novyy oblik goroda [Reconstruction of Moscow after the 1812 Fire of Moscow: New Look of the City]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 17—22. (In Russian)
  12. Molokova T.A., Frolov V.P. Vliyanie ital’yanskoy arkhitektury na gradostroitel’stvo Rossii [Influence of Italian Architecture on Urban Planning of Russia]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 128—134. (In Russian)
  13. Angelini P., Navone N., Pfister A. Architetti neoclassici ticinesi fra Neva e Moscova: i fondi grafici degli archivi Adamini e Gilardi, catalogo della mostra (Venezia, 21 aprile — 20 maggio 2001). Fondazione Giorgio Cini — Archivio del Moderno, Accademia di Architettura, Università della Svizzera italiana, Venezia — Mendrisio, 2001, pp. 19—53, 87—90.
  14. Navone N., Tedeschi L. Dal mito al progetto. La cultura architettonica dei maestri italiani e ticinesi nella Russia neoclassica. Mendrisio : Mendrisio Academy Press, 2004, pp. 629—663.
  15. Pfister A., Angelini P. Gli architetti Gilardi a Mosca. La raccolta dei disegni conservati in Ticino. Mendrisio, Mendrisio Academy Press, 2006, 244 p.
  16. Il’in M., editor. Moskva: Pamyatniki arkhitektury XVIII –— pervoy treti XIX veka [The Architectural Monuments of 18th — the first third of the 19th Century]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1973, 354 p. (In Russian)
  17. Evsina N.A. Arkhitekturnaya teoriya Rossii vtoroy poloviny XVIII — nachala XX vv. [Architectural Theory of Russia of the 2nd Half of the 18th — early 10th Centuries]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1985, 316 p. (In Russian)
  18. Rzyanin M.I. Arkhitekturnye ansambli Moskvy i Podmoskov’ya XIV—XIX vekov [Architectural Ensembles of Moscow and Moscow region of the 14th — 19th Centuries]. M. : Stroyizdat, 1950. 232 p. (In Russian)
  19. Bykovtseva P. Zhilyardi — Gagarin — Gor’kiy. Dom na Povarskoy 25-a [House on Povarskaya 25A]. Moscow, Imli RAN Publ., 2003, 114 p. (In Russian)
  20. Korobko M.Yu. Usad’ba Kuz’minki [Estate Kuzminki]. Moscow, Veche Publ., 2009, 88 p. (Usad’by, dvortsy, osobnyaki Moskvy) (In Russian)
  21. Beletskaya E.I., Pokrovskiy Z.K. Zhilyardi [Gilardi]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1990, 168 p. (In Russian)
  22. Kirichenko E.I. Khram Khrista Spasitelya v Moskve. Istoriya proektirovaniya i sozdaniya sobora. Stranitsy zhizni i gibeli. 1913—1931 [The Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow. History of Design and Creation. Pages of Life and Destruction]. Moscow, Planeta Publ., 1992, 280 p. (In Russian)
  23. Ikonnikov A.V. Tysyacha let russkoy arkhitektury : razvitie traditsiy [Thousand Years of Russian Architecture : Development of Traditions]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1990, 386 p. (In Russian)
  24. Arkin D.E. Obrazy arkhitektury i obrazy skul’ptury [Images of Architecture and Images of Sculpture]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1990, 399 p. (In Russian)
  25. Bartenev I.A., Batazhkova V.N. Ocherki istorii arkhitekturnykh stiley [Essays on the History of Architectural Styles]. Moscow, Izobrazitel’noe iskusstvo Publ., 1983, 392 p. (In Russian)
  26. Serbovelikov N.G. Vosstanovlenie kupola raboty znamenitogo D. Zhilyardi [Restoration of the Dome by famous D. Gilardi]. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo [Architecture and Construction]. 2006, no. 6, pp. 7—8. (In Russian)
  27. Komarova I.I. Arkhitektory. Kratkiy biograficheskiy slovar’ [Architects. Concise Biographical Dictionary]. Moscow, Ripol klassik Publ., 2000, 511 p. (Concise Biographical Dictionaries) (In Russian)
  28. Oleynichenko E.V. Knyaz’ S.M. Golitsyn — khozyain usad’by Kuz’minki [Prince S.M. Golitsyn — the owner of the Kuzminki estate]. Moscow, Veche Publ, 2008, 397 p. (In Russian)
  29. Samin D.K. Samye znamenitye zodchie Rossii [The Most Famous Architects of Russia]. Moscow, Veche Publ., 2004, 480 p. (In Russian)
  30. Filippova N.A. Formirovanie parkovoy struktury usad’by Kuz’minki — Vlakhernskoe [Formation of the landscape structure of the estate Kuzminki — Blachernae]. Russkaya usad’ba : Sbornik obshchestva izucheniya russkoy usad’by [Russian Estate. The Collection of The Society of Russian Manor Study]. Moscow, 1999, no. 5 (21), pp. 260—261. (In Russian)

Download

Results 1 - 2 of 2