ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

The importance of water bodies and structures in the persian garden architecture

Vestnik MGSU 4/2014
  • Haghshenas Abbas - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Building Design and Town Planning, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 29-36

Most parts of Iran have water shortage, so we do regard it as a land with limited water sources. At least Iran is not among the lands having high water levels. In Iran water is considered a holy element, and having a garden for relaxing was one of the concerns of Persian ancestors. Therefore, Persians really tried to create gardens to associate with Paradise in their minds. Persian garden is one of the best effects of meaning that has come from Persian beliefs. Persians have become experts in creating gardens and their unique style is now one of the four main styles in designing gardens. The most amazing element in Persian gardens is water, because it is a land, where there is no rain for six-seven months in the year and people always pray for rain. Every year there is a great religious ceremony appealing to the God for rain.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.4.29-36

References
  1. Massoudi A. Acquaintance with Iranian gardens Bagh-e shazdeh. Tehran, Faza publication, 2009, p. 44.
  2. Ghobadian V. Survey Climate Traditional Buildings in Iran. Tehran, University publication, 1998, p. 123.
  3. Moynihan E.B. Paradise as a Garden In Persia and Mughal India. Scholar Press, London, 1980, p. 4.
  4. Wilber D.N. Persian Gardens and Garden Pavilions. First edition. 1962, Tokyo, C. E. Tuttle Co., p. 52.
  5. Aboobakr Alkaraji. Kharazm. Extracting Hidden Waters. Consulting Engineers. 2009, no. 44, p. 81.
  6. Behnia A. Bibliography and Article of Kanat. First Edition. Tehran, Knowledge Publication, 2001, p. 36.
  7. Haeri M.R. Qanat in Iran. Teheran, 2009, p. 54.
  8. Sheybani M. Naghshe keshavarzi dar sheklghiriye manzare shahri. Tehran : Manzar, 2013. ¹ 22. p. 10.
  9. Pirnia A. Persian Garden. Abadi. 2008, no. 15, p. 56.
  10. Shahcheraqi A. Paradigms of Paradise, Recognition and Re-Creation of The Persian garden. Second edition. Tehran, Jahad University, 2011, p. 78.
  11. Naima G.R. Gardens of Persia. Teheran, 2009, p. 54.
  12. Moozeye honarhaye maaser. Baghe Irani hekmate kohan, manzare jadid. Tehran, 2004, p. 61.
  13. Farrokhyar H.A. Paradise on the margin of Kavir (salt desert). Teheran, 1997, p. 108.
  14. Heydarnetaj V. Persian Garden. Tehran, Office of Cultural Research, 2010, p. 64.
  15. Danesh Doust Y. Tabas Gardens. Tehran, Soroush Publication, 1991, p. 266.

Download

Hydrogeological model of the territory of Kowsar hydraulic project

Vestnik MGSU 3/2015
  • Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, chief research worker, Scientific and Technical Center “Examination, Design, Inspection”, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Khokhotva Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow branch of ENEX Deputy Head, Centre of Hydraulic Structures Safety, Moscow branch of ENEX, 13 Vol’naya str., Moscow, 105118, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 59-68

Mathematical hydrogeology model of the territory of Kowsar Project was created with account for the results of the engineering surveys and hydro geological monitoring, which was conducted in the process of Kowsar Project construction. In order to create the model in the present work a universal computer system Ansys was used, which implements the finite element method and solid modeling technology, allowing to solve the filtration problem with the use of thermal analogy. The three-dimensional geometric model was built with use of the principle “hard body” modeling, which displays the main line of the territory relief, including the created water reservoir, geological structure (anticline Duk) and the main lithological complexes developed within the territory. In the limestone mass As here is a zone characterized by water permeability on territory of Kowsar Project, and a layer characterized by seepage feeding, which occurs outside the considered territory. The water reservoir is a source of the change of hydro geological situation. The results of field observations witness, that the levels of underground waters within the area of the main structures reacts almost instantly on the water level change in the water reservoir; the delay period of levels change is not more than 1,5…2,0 weeks at maximum distance from the water reservoir. These particularities of the hydro geological regime allow using the steady-state scheme of the decision of forecast problems. The mass of limestone As, containing the structures of the Kowsar Project, is not homogeneous and anisotropy in its seepage characteristics. The heterogeneity is conditioned by exogenous influence on the mass up to the depth of 100…150 m. The seepage anisotropy of the mass is expressed by the difference of water permeability of the mass along and across the layers for almost one order. The structures of Kowsar Project is presented by a dam, grouting curtain on axis of the dam and consolidation curtain in its both banks, drainage structures. Underground waters of the territory are formed by infiltration. They unload in river Heirabad. In accordance with this circumstance, the northwest (the right bank) and the south-east (the left bank) hydro geological borders of the model are the borders with constant discharge seepage, entering from the area of the feeding in the area of unloading. The borders are distanced from the river on 2,5 km. In accordance with the regional direction of the flow of underground waters, the model is limited along the lines of the current (the impervious borders) at northeast (upwards on river) and south-west (down on river). Those borders are distanced from river on 2,2…2,3 km. As a result, the area of model is 28 km
2. Aroofing of almost watertight marls of the retinue Pb is the bottom border of the model. Theinternal borders are presented by the river Heirabad, the water reservoir and the drainage structures. The calibration of the model was conducted at the reservoir water mark of 580 m and 606…610 m. The correctness criterion of the decision had shown the convergence of the obtained values of discharge level of underground waters with the data of natural observations. In the process of calibration the revision of the input data was carried out - a seepage characteristic of thick limestone mass As and discharge, entering from the right and left bank borders of the model. The forecast calculation was performed for water reservoir level of 620 m. The creation of water reservoir has influenced the seepage regime of the territory by the area of more than 25 km
2. As a result of the buttress of the natural inflow there occurred the redistribution of the natural inflow and change of the direction of the natural inflow that has caused the appearance of springs in downstream of dam near the contact of the series As-Gs. The design inflow of underground waters in the river Heirabad on the area from dam up to the contact of the suites As and Gs in downstream is 2,4…2,6 m
3/s including springs. The share of the direct seepage from water reservoir forms ~40 % of this values, the rest 60 % correspond to the unload natural inflow redistributed as a result of buttress. It is possible to define the level and discharges of underground waters on the territory of hydro unit under any elevation of water reservoir with the help of the created geo seepage model. The model can be used for effectiveness evaluation of the grouting curtain in the operation period.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.3.59-68

References
  1. Lawrence K.L. ANSYS Tutorial Release 14. SDC Publication, 2012, 176 p.
  2. Basov K.A. ANSYS: spravochnik pol’zovatelya [ANSYS: User’s Guide]. Moscow, DMK Press, 2011, 640 p. (In Russian)
  3. Shestakov V.M. Gidrogeodinamika [Hydrogeodinamics]. 3rd edition, revised and enlarged. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1995, 368 p. (In Russian)
  4. Mironenko V.A. Dinamika podzemnykh vod [Dynamics of Groundwaters]. 5th edition. Moscow, Gornaya kniga Publ., 2009, 519 p. (In Russian)
  5. Segerlind L.J. Applied Finite Element Analysis. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Ink., 1976, 448 p.
  6. Orekhov V.V., Khokhotva S.N. Ob’’emnaya matematicheskaya model’ geofil’tratsii skal’nogo massiva, vmeshchayushchego podzemnye sooruzheniya GES Yali vo V’etname [Volume Mathematical Model of Geofiltration of the Rocky Massif Accommodating Underground Structures of Yali HPP in Vietnam]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo [Hydraulic Engineering]. 2004, no. 12, pp. 46—47. (In Russian)
  7. Aniskin N.A., Antonov A.S., Mgalobelov Yu.B., Deyneko A.V. Issledovanie fil’tratsionnogo rezhima osnovaniy vysokikh plotin na matematicheskikh modelyakh [Studying the Filtration Mode of Large Dams’ Foundations on Mathematical Models]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 10, pp. 114—131. (In Russian)
  8. Locke M., Indraratna B., Adikari G. Time-Dependent Particle Transport through Granular Filters. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 2001, vol. 127, no. 6, pp. 521—528. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2001)127:6(521)
  9. Lykov A.V. Teoriya teploprovodnosti [The Theory of Heat Conduction]. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1967, 600 p. (In Russian)
  10. Zienkiewicz O.C., Cheung Y.K. The Finite Element Method in Structural and Continuum Mechanics. London, McGraw-Hill, 1967, 240 p.
  11. Fadeev A.B. Metod konechnykh elementov v geomekhanike [Finite Element Method in Geomechanics]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1987, 221 p. (In Russian)
  12. Connor J.J., Brebbia C.A. Finite Element Technique for Fluid Flow. London, Newnes-Butterworth, 1977, 260 p.
  13. Randy H. Shih. SolidWorks 2015 and Engineering Graphics. SDC Publication, 2015, 632 p.
  14. Bol’shakov V.P., Bochkov A.L., Sergeev A.T. 3D-modelirovanie v AutoCAD, Kompas-3D, SolidWorks, Inventor, T-Flex [3D modeling in AutoCAD, Kompas-3D, SolidWorks, Inventor, N-Flex]. Saint Petersburg, Piter Publ., 2011, 328 p. (In Russian)
  15. Vladimirov V.B., Zaretskiy Yu.K., Orekhov V.V. Matematicheskaya model’ monitoringa kamenno-zemlyanoy plotiny gidrouzla Khoabin’ [Mathematical Monitoring Model for Rock-Earth Dam of the Hoa Binh HPP]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo [Hydraulic Engineering]. 2003, no. 6, pp. 47—52. (In Russian)
  16. Mgalobelov Yu.B., Il’in Yu.V. Ispol’zovanie trekhmernoy matematicheskoy modeli pri proektirovanii i obosnovanii nadezhnosti betonnykh sooruzheniy gidrouzla Merove (Sudan) [Using Three-Dimensional Mathematical Model For The Design And Rationale Reliability Of Merove HPP Concrete Structures (Sudan)]. Yubileynyy sbornik nauchnykh trudov Gidroproekta (1930—2000) [Anniversary Collection of Scientific Works of Gidroproekt (1930—2000)]. No. 159. Moscow, Gidroproekt Publ., 2000, pp. 327—339. (In Russian)
  17. Baranova T.E., Istochnikov V.O. Metodika i opyt postroeniya prostranstvennoy inzhenerno-geologicheskoy modeli skal’nogo massiva (na primere uchastka podzemnykh sooruzheniy GES Yali vo V’etname) [Technique And Experience In Building Space Engineering-Geological Model Of The Rock Mass (on the Example of the Area of Underground Structures of Yali HPP in Vietnam)]. Geotekhnika. Otsenka sostoyaniya osnovaniy i sooruzheniy : trudy Mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii [Proceedings of the International Conference “Geotechnics. Assessment of the State of Bases and Structures”]. Saint Petersburg, 2001, pp. 90—94. (In Russian)
  18. Orekhov V.V. Ob”emnaya matematicheskaya model’ i rezul’taty raschetnykh issledovaniy napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya osnovnykh sooruzheniy Rogunskoy GES [Volume Mathematical Model and the Results of the Numerical Studies of Stress-Strain State of Rogun HPP Main Structures]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo [Hydraulic Engineering]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 12—19. (In Russian)
  19. Shestakov V.M., Pozdnyakov S.P. Geogidrologiya [Geohydrology]. Moscow, Akademkniga Publ., 2003, 176 p. (In Russian)
  20. Darsy N. Les fontaines publicues de la ville de Dijon. Paris, Victor Dalmont, 1856, 647 p.

Download

Results 1 - 2 of 2