ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

The fact of the lack of wood in the formation of muslim architecture style

Vestnik MGSU 2/2015
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-83-47; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Elmanova Elena Leonidovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Elena Leonidovnapostgraduate student, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-20

The article includes an analysis of the influence of the natural conditions of the region on the structural and stylistic features of Arab architecture. National architecture depends on the features of natural-climatic conditions of the region: geographical location (the climate, terrain, building materials), seismic activity, geological structure. The Muslim architecture was influenced by: high seismic activity; the lack of wood; dry and hot climate; high temperature drops in the daytime and at night. These are the peculiarities of Asia. The Arab countries are located in several climatic zones: in subtropical, the Northern tropical and subequatorial zones. The climate here is hot and arid. Forests grow only on some slopes. A significant part of Africa and Arabia is situated in the area of the desert. In Syria forests are found only on the Eastern slopes of the mountains. There are stunted coniferous and deciduous trees. These trees are thin, low and unsuitable for construction purposes. In Iran forests grow on the Northern slopes of the Mount Elbrus, at the altitudes of up to 2500 m, and on the coast of the Caspian Sea. The Central Iranian plateau has almost no vegetation. There is very little rainfall (100...250 mm per year). The air cools down quickly at night. There are also large diurnal and seasonal temperature changes. Rock formation is weathered therefore the sandy-clay deposits are formed. They are suitable for making bricks. The clay in the form of bricks was used as a building material. The unfired adobe was used too. It worked rather well in dry climatic conditions. The widespread use of the adobe influenced the color of the buildings - they were the color of soil. The wood as a construction material was scarce, so in large spans domes were built. Vaults and arches were built without the use of scaffolding and cradling. This influenced their shape. Wood is only used for architectural elements of palaces (rare wooden tall columns, ceilings and window grates made of wooden elements) and for construction of ceiling of traditional houses. Thin and uneven beams were unsuitable for the interior of the palaces.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.2.7-20

References
  1. Jawondo I.A. Architectural History of Ilorin Mosques in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Social Dynamics: A Journal of African Studies. Department of History and International Studies, University of Ilorin, Nigeria, 1 June 2012, vol. 38, issue 2, pp. 303—313. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02533952.2012.719394.
  2. Guggenheim M. The Laws of Foreign Buildings: Flat Roofs and Minarets. Social and Legal Studies. Department of Anthropology, University of Zürich, Switzerland, December 2010, vol. 19, issue 4, pp. 441—460.
  3. Amar N.Z.M., Ismail Z., Salleh H. Guidelines for Internal Arrangement of Islamic House. BEIAC 2012 — 2012 IEEE Business, Engineering and Industrial Applications Collquium. 2012, art. no. 6226049, pp. 189—194. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/BEIAC.2012.6226049.
  4. Karimi Z.R. Spaces of Worship in Islam in the West. Interiors: Design, Architecture, Culture. Architecture Department, Southern Polytechnic State University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2010, vol. 1, issue 3, pp. 265—279. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2752/204191210X12875837764174.
  5. Al-Lahham A. Traditionalism or Traditionalieism: Authentication or Fabrication? Archnet-IJAR. College of Design, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. 2014, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 64—73.
  6. Alhazim M., Littlewood J., Canavan K., Carey P. Design Philosophy of the Traditional Kuwaiti House. AEI 2013: Building Solutions for Architectural Engineering — Proceedings of the 2013 Architectural Engineering National Conference. State College, PA; United States; Code 100669, 2013, pp. 1018—1029. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/9780784412909.099.
  7. Tariq S.H., Jinia M.A. The Contextual Issues in the Islamic Architecture of Bengal Mosques. Global Journal Al-Thaqafah. 2013, vol. 3, issue 1, pp. 41—48. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7187/GJAT322013.03.01.
  8. Imz E., Uinton K., Bell B. Ispaniya. Okno v mir [Spain. Window to the World]. Translated from English, 2nd edition. Moscow, Ekom-Press, 1998, 396 p. (In Russian)
  9. Bilets'kiy V.S., editor. Mala girnichna entsiklopediya [Small Mining Encyclopedia]. In 3 volumes. Donets'k, Donbas Publ., 2004, vol. 1, 640 p. (in Ukranian)
  10. Haghshenas A. The Importance of Water Bodies and Structures in the Persian Garden Architecture. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 4, pp. 29—36.
  11. Embi M.R., Abdullahi Y. Evolution of Islamic Geometrical Patterns. Global Journal Al-Thaqafah. 2012, vol. 2, issue 2, pp. 27—39.
  12. Glancey J. Architecture: World’s Greatest Buildings, Styles and History, Architects (Eyewitness Companions). 2006, DK ADULT, 512 p.
  13. Khaled Kh.A. Obespechenie seysmostoykosti arkhitekturnykh pamyatnikov arabskogo zodchestva na territorii Sirii : dissertatsiya … kandidata tekhnicheskikh nauk [Earthquake Protection of Architectural Monuments of Arabic Architecture in Syria. Dissertation of the Candidate of Technological Sciences]. Saint Petersburg, 2003, 159 p. (In Russian)
  14. Lloyd S. Ruined Cities of Iraq. London, Oxford University Press, 1942, 111 p.
  15. Brockhaus F.A., Efron I.A. Entsiklopedicheskiy slovar’ [Encyclopedic Dictionary]. Vol. 39. Reprinted edition. 1890, Moscow, Terra Publ., 1992, 516 p. (In Russian)
  16. Voronina V.L. Srednevekovyy gorod arabskikh stran [Medieval City of the Arab Countries]. Moscow, VNIITAG Goskomarkhitektury Publ., 1991, 103 p. (In Russian)
  17. Gritsak E.N. Kordova i Granada. Pamyatniki vsemirnogo naslediya [Cordoba and Granada. World Heritage Sites]. Moscow, Veche Publ., 2006, 224 p. (In Russian)
  18. Nikityuk O.D. Kordova. Granada. Sevil'ya. Drevnie tsentry Andalusii [Cordoba. Granada. Seville. Ancient Centers of Andalusia]. Goroda i muzei mira [Cities and Museums of the World]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1972, 192 p. (In Russian)
  19. Prina F. Arkhitektura: elementy, formy, materialy : Entsiklopediya iskusstva [Architecture: Elements, Forms, Materials : Encyclopedia of Art]. Translated from Italian. Moscow, Omega Publ., 2010, 384 p. (In Russian)
  20. Sidorova N.A., Starodub T.Kh. Goroda Sirii. Goroda i muzei mira [The Cities of Syria. Ciries and Museums of the World]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1972, 231 p. (In Russian)
  21. Khodzhash S.I. Kair. Goroda i muzei mira [Cairo. Cities and Museums of the World]. 2nd edition. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1975, 184 p. (In Russian)
  22. Favvaz al’-Dakhir. Kul’tovaya arkhitektura arabskikh stran Blizhnego Vostoka i Tsentral’noy Azii (genezis, evolyutsiya, istoriko-arkhitekturnye sopostavleniya) : avtoreferat dissertatsii. …. kandidata arkhitaktury [The Iconic Architecture of the Arab Countries of the Middle East and Central Asia (Genesis, Evolution, Historical and Architectural Mapping) : Abstract of the Dissertation of the Candidate of Architecture]. Bishkek, 2001, 23 p. (In Russian)
  23. Kartsev V.N. Zodchestvo Afganistana [Architecture of Afghanistan]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1986, 248 p. (In Russian)
  24. Richer X. Syrie. Paris, Delroisse, 1975, 192 p.
  25. Shuazi O. Istoriya arkhitektury : v 2-kh tomakh [History of Architecture in two Volumes]. Translated from French. Moscow, Vsesoyuznaya akademiya arkhitektury Publ., 1937, vol. 1, 298 p. (In Russian)
  26. Ivyanskaya I.S. Mir zhilishcha: Arkhitektura. Dizayn. Stroitel’stvo. Istoriya. Traditsii. Tendentsii [World of the Home: Architecture. Design. Construction. History. Tradition. Trends]. Moscow, Dograf Publ., 2000, 304 p. (In Russian)

Download

SEISMICITY FACTOR IN THE FORMATION OF MUSLIM ARCHITECTURE STYLE

Vestnik MGSU 7/2016
  • Elmanova Elena Leonidovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Elena Leonidovnapostgraduate student, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 8-17

The proportions of buildings, design and building materials in traditional Muslim architecture depended on geoecological factors of different regions of Islamic countries. One of those factors is a high seismicity site. It had the greatest influence on the appearance of monuments in the selected region. The influence of seismicity on the architecture of the buildings is considered in the article on the example of the architectural monuments of the Republic of Uzbekistan - madrasah of Ulugbek of the 15th century in Samarkand, the Kalyan mosque in Bukhara and the Syrian Umayyad mosque (708 buildings) in Damascus. The seismicity of the region is high. In order to determine the seismic resistance of architectural monuments the requirements SP 14.13330.2014 (the Current set of rules “Construction in seismic regions” (Seismic Building Design Code), revised edition of SNiP II-7-81*) and the Eurocode EN 1998-1 were used. On the basis of calculations tables comparing performance were made. The structural characteristics of monuments were compared with the characteristics required by the standards. The point value of seismicity of the territory which ensured the stability of the buildings was determined. Comparing the proportions of the monuments with Russian and European regulations on earthquake-resistant construction, we demonstrated the compliance of their architectural forms with the seismic activity of the area. Traditional architecture evolved from random search under the influence of the centuries of experience protecting the buildings from adverse natural influences. The design and shape of these ancient Muslim buildings, limited by the requirements of seismic resistance, has been subsequently reiterated in other structures, determining the style of Muslim architecture. The analysis allows us to see how the architects used the general principles of earthquake-resistant construction on different buildings. The destructions during earthquakes occurred only after structural deterioration of the materials, and were local in nature. Most of the buildings have symmetrical structure, the corresponding proportions in plan and in height, with using materials of sufficient “strength and elasticity”. The whole appearance of the buildings and the architectural style is not accidental. The proportions of the buildings - the height, width of span load-bearing structures, walls and openings, the symmetry of the buildings, domes, arches, windows, all structural dimensions were dictated by the requirements of seismic resistance.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.7.8-17

References
  1. Potapov A.D., Revelis I.L., Chernyshev S.N. Slovar’ po inzhenernoy geologii [Dictionary for Engineering Geology]. Moscow, Infra-M Publ., 2015. (In Russian)
  2. Medvedev S.V., Shebalin N.V. S zemletryaseniem mozhno sporit’ [It is Possible to Argue with an Earthquake]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1967, 131 p. (Nauchno-populyarnaya seriya [Popular Science Series]) (In Russian)
  3. Hussam Eldein Zaineh, Hiroaki Yamanaka, Yadab Prasad Dhakal, Rawaa Dakkak, Mohamad Daoud. Simulation of Near Fault Ground Motion of the Earthquake of November 1759 with magnitude of 7.4 along Serghaya Fault, Damascus City, Syria. 15 WCEE LISBOA — 2012. Available at: http://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/wcee/article/WCEE2012_1800.pdf.
  4. Chernyshev S.N. Treshchiny gornykh porod [Rock Cracks]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1983, 240 p. (In Russian)
  5. Chernyshev S.N. Printsipy klassifikatsii gruntovykh massivov dlya stroitel’stva [Principles of Classification of Soil Masses for Construction Purposes]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 9, pp. 41—46. (In Russian)
  6. Chernyshev S.N. Podkhod k klassifikatsii dispersnykh i skadi gruntovykh massivov dlya stroitel’stva [Approach to the Classification of Disperse Soil Masses for Construction]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 10, pp. 94—101. (In Russian)
  7. Chernyshev S.N., Man’ko A.V., Mikhaylov V.V. Obosnovanie vklyucheniya v GOST 25100-2011 klassifikatsii massivov skal’nykh gruntov [Rationale for Inclusion of the Classification of Hard Rock Soils into Russian State Standard GOST 25100-2011]. Inzhenernye izyskaniya [Engineering Surveys]. 2013, no. 14, pp. 22—25. (In Russian)
  8. Potapov A.D., Leybman M.E., Lavrusevich A.A., Chernyshev S.N., Markova I.M., Bakalov A.Yu., Krasheninnikov V.S. Monitoring ob”ektov inzhenernoy zashchity na imeretinskoy nizmennosti [Monitoring of the Objects of Engineering Protection in Imereti Lowland]. Geoekologiya, inzhenernaya geologiya, gidrogeologiya, geokriologiya [Geoecology, Engineering Geology, Hydrogeology, Geocryology]. 2012, no. 5, pp. 406—413. (In Russian)
  9. Khaled Kh.A. Obespechenie seysmostoykosti arkhitekturnykh pamyatnikov arabskogo zodchestva na territorii Sirii : dissertatsiya … kandidata tekhnicheskikh nauk [Earthquake Protection of Architectural Monuments of Arab Architecture in Syria : Dissertation of the Candidate of Technical Sciences]. Saint Petersburg, 2003, 159 p. (In Russian)
  10. Nikonov A.A. «Uzhasnoe potryasenie» Evropy. Lissabonskoe zemletryasenie 1 noyabrya 1755 g. [“The Terrible Shock” of Europe. The Lisbon Earthquake on 1 November 1755]. Priroda [Nature]. 2005, no. 11, pp. 21—29. (In Russian)
  11. Hojatollah R. Kupol kak arkhitektonicheskaya forma mecheti Irana [Dome as a Traditional Architectonic Form of the Mosque of Iran]. Arkhitekton: izvestiya vuzov [Architecton: Proceedings of Higher Education]. 2008, no. 23, article 3. Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2008_3/3. (In Russian)
  12. Ashkan M., Ahmad Y. Persian Domes: History, Morphology and Typologies. Archnet-IJAR. International Journal of Architectural Research. November 2009, vol. 3, issue 3, pp. 98—115.
  13. Ashkan M., Ahmad Y., Arbi E. Pointed Dome Architecture in the Middle East and Central Asia: Evolution, Definitions of Morphology, and Typologies. International Journal of Architectural Heritage. 2012, vol. 6, issue 1, pp. 46—61. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15583058.2010.501400.
  14. Ashkan M., Ahmad Y. Discontinuous Double-Shell Domes Through Islamic Eras in the Middle East and Central Asia: History, Morphology, Typologies, Geometry, and Construction. Nexus Network Journal. 2010, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 287—319. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00004-010-0013-9.
  15. Rababeh S., Al Qablan H., El-Mashaleh M. Utilization of Tie-Beams for Strengthening Stone Masonry Arches in Nabataean Construction. Journal of Architectural Conservation. 2013, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 118—130. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13556207.2013.819656.
  16. Rababeh S., Al Qablan H., Abu-Khafajah S., El-Mashaleh M. Structural Utilization of Wooden Beams as Anti-Seismic and Stabilising Techniques in Stone Masonry in Qasr El-Bint, Petra, Jordan. Construction and Building Materials. 2014, vol. 54, pp. 60—69. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.12.018.
  17. Borisenko A.Yu., Khudyakov Yu.S. Opyt sistematizatsii dannykh o zemletryaseni-yakh, proiskhodivshikh na territorii stran dal’nego, srednego i blizhnego vostoka v drevnosti i srednevekov’e, i ob ikh posledstviyakh dlya naseleniya i sredy obitaniya [Experience of Data Systematization on Earthquakes Having Occurred on the Territory of the Countries of the Far, Middle and Near East in Ancient and Medieval Times and on Their Consequences for Population and Environment]. Vestnik NGU. Seriya: Istoriya, filologiya [Proceedings of Novosibirsk State University Series: “History and Philology”]. 2012, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 239—261. Available at: http://www.nsu.ru/xmlui/handle/nsu/6434. (In Russian)
  18. Lawler Andrew. Earthquake Allows Rare Glimpse Into Bam’s Past and Future. Science. 2004, vol. 303, issue 5663, p. 1463. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.303.5663.1463.
  19. Mel’nik V.V. Osobennosti arkhitektury drevnego Damaska [Peculiarities of the Architecture of Ancient Damascus]. Arkhitekton: izvestiya vuzov [Architecton: Proceedings of Higher Education]. 2007, no. 17, art. 9. Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2007_1/9. (In Russian)
  20. Hojatollah R. Ayvan kak traditsionnaya forma v arkhitekture Peredney Azii [Iwan as a Traditional Form of Architecture in Southwest Asia]. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo [Academia. Architecture and construction. 2008, no. 1, pp. 74—81. (In Russian)
  21. Chernyshev S.N., Elmanova E.L. Faktor otsutstviya drevesiny v formirovanii stilya musul’manskoy arkhitektury [The Fact of the Lack of Wood in the Formation of Muslim Architecture Style]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2015, no. 2, pp. 7—20. (In Russian)
  22. Potapov A.D., Revelis I.L. Zemletryaseniya. Prichiny i posledstviya [Earthquakes. Causes and Consequences]. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola Publ., 2009, 246 p. (In Russian)

Download

Account for geometrical nonlinearity in the analysis of reinforced concrete columns of rectangular section by finite element method

Vestnik MGSU 4/2014
  • Agapov Vladimir Pavlovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (495) 583-47-52; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Vasil'ev Aleksey Viktorovich - limited liability company "Rodnik" design engineer, limited liability company "Rodnik", 22 Kominterna str., Tver, 170000, Russian Federation; +7 (482) 2-761-004; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 37-43

The superelement of a column of rectangular section made of homogeneous material and intended for linear analysis, developed by authors earlier on the basis of the three-dimensional theory of elasticity, is updated with reference to static analysis of reinforced concrete columns with account for geometrical nonlinearity. In order to get the superelement the column is divided on sections and longwise into eight-node solid finite elements modelling the concrete and two nodes rod elements modelling reinforcement. The elements are connected with one another in the nodes of finite element mesh that provides joint operation of concrete and reinforcement. The internal nodes of the obtained finite element mesh are excluded at the stage of stiffness matrix and load vector of a column calculation. Formulas for calculation of linearized stiffness matrix of a superelement and a vector of the nodal forces statically equivalent to internal stresses are received. The element is adjusted to the computer program PRINS, and can be used for geometrically nonlinear analysis of complex structures containing reinforced concrete columns of rectangular section. Separately standing reinforced concrete column was calculated on longitudinal-transverse bending for the verification of the received superelement. The critical load was determined according to the results of calculation. The determined critical force value corresponds to the theoretical value. Thus, the proposed method of accounting for the geometric nonlinearity in the analysis of reinforced concrete columns can be recommended for practical use.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.4.37-43

References
  1. Geniev G.A., Kissyuk V.N., Tyupin G.A. Teoriya plastichnosti betona i zhelezobetona [Plasticity Theory of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1974, 316 p.
  2. Yashin A.V. Kriterii prochnosti i deformirovaniya betona pri prostom nagruzhenii dlya razlichnykh vidov napryazhennogo sostoyaniya [Strength and Strain Criteria of Concrete at Simple Loading for Various Kinds of the Stress State]. Raschet i proektirovanie zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy [Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures]. Moscow, 1977, pp. 48—57.
  3. Karpenko N.I. Obshchie modeli mekhaniki zhelezobetona [General Models of Reinforced Concrete Mechanics]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1996, 396 p.
  4. Chen W.F. Plasticity in Reinforced Concrete. J. Ross Publishing, 2007. 463 p.
  5. Gedolin L., Deipoli S. Finite Element Studies of Shear-critical R/C Beams. ASCE Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division. 1977, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 395—410.
  6. Ngo D., Scordelis A.C. Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete. J. Am. Conc. Inst., 1967, vol. 64, pp. 152—163.
  7. Kotsovos M.D. Effect of Stress Path on the Behaviour of Concrete under Triaxial Stress States. J. Am. Conc. Inst., vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 213—223.
  8. Nam C.H., Salmon C.G. Finite Element Analysis of Concrete Beams. ASCE J. Struct. Engng. Div. Vol. 100, no. ST12, pp. 2419—2432.
  9. Willam, K.J., Warnke E.P. (1975). Constitutive Models for the Triaxial Behavior of Concrete. Proceedings of the International Assoc. for Bridge and Structural Engineering. Vol. 19, pp. 1—30.
  10. Hinton E., Owen D.R.J. Finite Element Software for Plates and Shells. Pineridge Press, Swansea, U.K., 1984, 403 pp.
  11. Beglov A.D., Sanzharovskiy R.S. Teoriya rascheta zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy na prochnost' i ustoychivost'. Sovremennye normy i Evrostandarty [The Theory of Strength and Buckling Analysis of the Reinforced Concrete Structures. Modern Norms and Eurostandards]. Saint Petersburg, Moscow, ASV Publ., 2006, 221 p.
  12. Mailyan D.R., Muradyan V.A. K metodike rascheta zhelezobetonnykh vnetsentrenno szhatykh kolonn [The Method of Calculating Eccentrically Compressed Reinforced Concrete Columns]. Inzhenernyy vestnik Dona [The Engineering Bulletin of Don]. 2012, no. 4 (part 2). Available at: http://www.ivdon.ru/magazine/archive/n4p2y2012/1333.
  13. Agapov V.P., Vasil'ev A.V. Modelirovanie kolonn pryamougol'nogo secheniya ob"emnymi elementami s ispol'zovaniem superelementnoy tekhnologii [Modeling Columns of Rectangular Cross-section with Superelement Technology]. Stroitel'naya mekhanika inzhenernykh konstruktsiy i sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics of Engineering Buildings and Structures]. 2012, no. 4, pp. 48—53.
  14. Agapov V.P. Issledovanie prochnosti prostranstvennykh konstruktsiy v lineynoy i nelineynoy postanovkakh s ispol'zovaniem vychislitel'nogo kompleksa «PRINS» [Strength Analysis of Three-dimensional Structures with Computer Program PRINS]. Prostranstvennye konstruktsii zdaniy i sooruzheniy (issledovanie, raschet, proektirovanie, primenenie): sbornik statey [Three-dimensional Structures of Buildings (Investigation, Calculation, Design, Application): Collection of Articles]. Moscow, 2008, no. 11, pp. 57—67.
  15. Agapov V.P., Vasil'ev A.V. Superelement kolonny pryamougol'nogo secheniya s geometricheskoy nelineynost'yu [Superelement of the Rectangular Cross Section Column Having Physical Nonlinearity]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 6, pp. 50—56.

Download

Localization of the places of stress-strain state changes of building structures based on the vibrodiagnostic measurement data

Vestnik MGSU 9/2014
  • Shakhraman'yan Andrey Mikhaylovich - SODIS LAB LLC Candidate of Technical Sciences, Director General, SODIS LAB LLC, 11-1 Bolotnikovskaya str., 117556, Moscow, Russian Federation; +7 (495) 545-48-40; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 54-66

The method of localization of changes in the deflected mode is based on the analysis of time series of oscillations (displacement, velocity, acceleration) of building constructions and structures. The method is based on the hypothesis that any changes in the deflected mode of structures result in changes in the oscillation energy. In this case, once the information on the structure oscillation parameters in different points of the building is available, the changes in the oscillation energy will signify the changes in the deflected mode in the relevant points.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.9.54-66

References
  1. Senderov B.V. Avarii zhilykh zdaniy [Emergencies of Residence Buildings]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1992, 216 p.
  2. Barkov Yu.V., Zakharov V.F., Opyleva S.N. Nekotorye sluchai povrezhdeniy i vosstanovleniya zdaniy [Some Cases of Damages and Reconstruction of Buildings]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2000, no. 8, pp. 18—20.
  3. Senderov B.V., Barkov Yu.V. Povrezhdeniya zdaniy i mery po ikh predotvrashcheniyu [Damages of Buildings and Preventive Measures]. Moscow, Znanie Publ., 1986, 62 p.
  4. Eremin K.I., Makhutov N.A., Pavlova G.A., Shishkina N.A. Reestr avariy zdaniy i sooruzheniy 2001—2010 [Register of Emergencies of Buildings and Constructions in 2001—2010]. Moscow, RAASN Publ., 2011, 320 p.
  5. Shakhraman'yan A.M. Metodicheskie osnovy sozdaniya system monitoringa nesushchikh construktsiy unikal'nykh ob''ektov [Methodological Principles of the Development of Monitoring Systems of Load-bearing Structures in Unique Buildings]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 1, vol. 1, pp. 256—261.
  6. Grigor'ev Yu.P., Gur'ev V.V., Dmitriev A.N., Dorofeev V.M., Stepanov A.Yu. Patent 2292433 RF, MPK E04G23/00, G01M7/00. Sposob opredeleniya izmeneniy napryazhennodeformirovannogo sostoyaniya konstruktsiy zdaniya ili sooruzheniya slozhnoy prostranstvennoy formy; patentoobladatel' Moskovskiy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy i proektnyy institut tipologii, eksperimental'nogo proektirovaniya. 2005128100/03; zayavl. 09.09.2005; opubl. 27.01.2007. Byul. ¹ 3 [Russian Patent 2292433 RF, MPK E04G23/00, G01M7/00. The Method of Determining the Stress and Strain State Changes in the Structures of a Building or a Construction of a Complex Spatial Form; Patent Holder — Moscow Scientific Research and Design Institute of Typology, Experimental Design. 2005128100/03; applied 09.09.2005; publ. 27.01.2007. Bulletin no. 3]. 6 p.
  7. Grigor'ev Yu.P., Gur'ev V.V., Dmitriev A.N., Dorofeev V.M. Patent 2254426 RF, MPK E04G23/00, G01M7/00. Sposob opredeleniya izmeneniy napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya konstruktsiy zdaniya ili sooruzheniya; patentoobladatel' Moskovskiy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy i proektnyy institut tipologii, eksperimental'nogo proektirovaniya. ¹ 2004128916/03; zayavl. 04.10.2004; opubl. 20.06.2005. Byul. ¹ 17 [Russian Patent 2254426 RF, MPK E04G23/00, G01M7/00. The Method of Determining the Stress and Strain State Changes in the Structures of a Building or a Construction; Patent Holder — Moscow Scientific Research and Design Institute of Typology, Experimental Design. No. 2004128916/03; applied 04.10.2004; publ. 20.06.2005. Bulletin no. 17]. 6 p.
  8. Shablinskiy G.E. Naturnye dinamicheskie issledovaniya stroitelnykh konstruktsiy [Field Dynamic Surveys of Building Structures]. Monograph. Moscow, 2009, 214 p.
  9. Shakhraman'yan A.M. Analiz vozmozhnostey monitoring sostoyaniya vysotnykh zdaniy na osnove kontrolya sobstvennykh chastot kolebaniy [Analysis of Monitoring Possibility of High-rise Buildings’ State on the Basis of Natural Frequencies Control]. Russkiy inzhener [Russian Engineer]. 2013, no. 1 (36), pp. 34—36.
  10. Shakhraman'yan A.M. Systemy monitoringa i prognoza tekhnicheskogo sostoyaniya zdaniy i sooruzheniy. Teoriya i praktika [Monitoring and Forecast Systems of Technical State of Buildings and Constructions. Theory and Practice]. Russkiy inzhener [Russian Engineer]. 2011, no. 1 (28), pp. 54—64.

Download

SUPERELEMENT OF THE RECTANGULARCROSS SECTION COLUMN HAVING PHYSICAL NONLINEARITY

Vestnik MGSU 6/2013
  • Agapov Vladimir Pavlovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (495) 583-47-52; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Vasil’ev Aleksey Viktorovich - Rodnik Limited Liability Company design engineer, Rodnik Limited Liability Company, 22 Kominterna St., Tver, 170000, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 50-56

The superelement of the rectangular cross section column designed by the authors earlier for the linear analysis purposes is now applied to analyze the same column with account for the geometric nonlinearity. The superelement is composed of eight solid finite elements. The stiffness matrix technique, the initial stress matrix and the analysis of the vector of unbalanced nodal forces are described.The procedure for excluding internal degrees of freedom of a superelement, using the layer-by-layer reduction method, is described in detail. All calculation formulas are provided in the article. The element, developed by the authors, was adapted to PRINS finite element software; therefore, it can be used to perform the nonlinear analysis of building structures. The console beam, having a rectangular cross section, was analyzed in transverse longitudinal bending to verify the developed element. The comparison of the theory and calculations using PRINS software proved the accuracy of the proposed technique.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.6.50-56

References
  1. Belokonev E.N., Abukhanov A.Z., Belokoneva T.M., Chistyakov A.A. Osnovy arkhitektury zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Fundamentals of Architecture of Buildings and Structures]. Rostov-on-Don, Feniks Publ., 2009, 324 p.
  2. NASTRAN Theoretical Manual. NASA, Washington, 1972.
  3. Basov K.A. ANSYS. Spravochnik pol’zovatelya [ANSYS. User’s Manual]. Moscow, DMK-Press Publ., 2005, 637 p.
  4. Bathe K.J., Wiener P.M. On Elastic-plastic Analysis of I-Beams in Bending and Torsion. Computers and Structures. 1983, vol. 17, pp. 711—718.
  5. Klinkel S., Govindjee S. Anisotrophic Bending-torsion Coupling for Warping in Non-linear Beam. Computational Mechanics. 2003, no. 31, pp. 78—87.
  6. Ayoub A., Filippou F.C. Mixed Formulation of Nonlinear Steel-concrete Composite Beam. J. Structural Engineering. 2000, ASCE, no. 126, pp. 371—381.
  7. Hjelmstad K.D., Tacirouglu E. Mixed Variational Methods for Finite Element Analysis of Geometrically Non-linear, Inelastic Bernoulli-Euler Beams. Communications in Numerical Methods of Engineering. 2003, no. 19, pp. 809—832.
  8. Zienkiewicz O.C., Taylor R.L. The Finite Element Method for Solid and Structural Mechanics. McGraw-Hill, 2005, 631 p.
  9. Bathe K.J. Finite Element Procedures. Prentice Hall, Inc., 1996, 1037 p.
  10. Agapov V.P., Vasil’ev A.V. Modelirovanie kolonn pryamougol’nogo secheniya ob”emnymi elementami s ispol’zovaniem superelementnoy tekhnologii [Modeling Rectangular Section Columns Using 3D Elements and the Superelement Technology]. Stroitel’naya mekhanika inzhenernykh konstruktsiy i sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Structures]. 2012, no. 4, Moscow, RUDN Publ., pp. 48—53.
  11. Agapov V.P. Shugaev V.V. Issledovanie prochnosti prostranstvennykh konstruktsiy v lineynoy i nelineynoy postanovkakh s ispol’zovaniem vychislitel’nogo kompleksa «PRINS» [Research into Strength of Spatial Structures Based on Linear and Non-linear Problem Definitions Using PRINS Software]. Prostranstvennye konstruktsii zdaniy i sooruzheniy (issledovanie, raschet, proektirovanie, primenenie). [Spatial Constructions of Buildings and Structures (Research, Analysis, Design and Application). Collection of works, no. 11, Moscow, MOO «Prostranstvennye konstruktsii» Publ., 2008, pp. 57—67.

Download

SUPERELEMENT OF A COLUMN HAVING A RECTANGULAR CROSS SECTION AND CHARACTERIZED BY PHYSICAL NONLINEARITY

Vestnik MGSU 5/2013
  • Agapov Vladimir Pavlovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor departmet of applied mechanics and mathematics; +7 (495) 583-47-52, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Vasil’ev Aleksey Viktorovich - Rodnik Limited Liability structural engineer; +7 (482)276-10-04., Rodnik Limited Liability, 22 Kominterna St., 170000, Tver, Russian Federation.

Pages 29-34

They cause mistakes in the transfer of forces in specific points and invariability of sizes and types of cross sections of rods in the course of their deformation. The approach to the analysis of rectangular section columns is proposed. The new approach originates from the three-dimensional theory supplemented by the superelement technology. The column is divided into sections and finite elements. The analysis of physically nonlinear structures is executed using the PRINS software. The flow theory is used to identify the characteristics of finite elements. Huber-Mises plasticity criterion is applied. The console beam loaded by concentrated forces on the free end is calculated to verify the element. The limiting load value identified by PRINS software complies with the theoretical values derived using the theory of limit equilibrium.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.5.29-34

References
  1. NASTRAN Theoretical Manual. NASA, Washington, 1972.
  2. Basov Ê.À. ANSYS. Spravochnik pol’zovatelya [ANSYS. User Manual]. Moscow, DMK-Press Publ., 2005, 637 p.
  3. Bathe K.J., P.M. Wiener. On Elastic-plastic Analysis of I-Beams in Bending and Torsion. Computers and Structures. 1983, vol. 17, pp. 711—718.
  4. Barabash M.S., Genzerskiy Yu.V., Marchenko D.V. LIRA 9.2. Primery rascheta i proektirovaniya. Ch. 1 [LIRA 9.2. Examples of Analysis and Design. Part 1]. Kiev, FAKT Publ., 2005, 84 p.
  5. Filin A.P. Matritsy v statike sterzhnevykh system [Matrixes in the Statics of a Bar System]. Moscow-Leningrad, Izd-vo literatury po stroitel’stvu publ., 1966, 438 p.
  6. Zienkiewicz O.C., Taylor R.L. The Finite Element Method for Solid and Structural Mechanics. McGraw-Hill, 2005, 631 p.
  7. Bathe K.J. Finite Element Procedures. Prentice Hall, Inc., 1996, 1037 p.
  8. Agapov V.P. Issledovanie prochnosti prostranstvennykh konstruktsiy v lineynoy i nelineynoy postanovkakh s ispol’zovaniem vychislitel’nogo kompleksa «PRINS» [Study of Linear and Non-linear Strength of 3D Structures Using PRINS Software]. Prostranstvennye konstruktsii zdaniy i sooruzheniy (issledovanie, raschet, proektirovanie, primenenie) [3D Constructions of Buildings and Structures (study, analysis, design, application)]. Collection of works, edited by Shugaev V.V. Moscow, 2008, no. 11, pp. 57—67.
  9. Agapov V.P., Vasil’ev A.V. Modelirovanie kolonn pryamougol’nogo secheniya ob”emnymi elementami s ispol’zovaniem superelementnoy tekhnologii [Modeling of Rectangular Section Columns Using 3D Elements Backed by Theory of Superelements]. Stroitel’naya mekhanika inzhenernykh konstruktsiy i sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Structures]. 2012., no. 4, pp. 48—54.
  10. Rzhanitsyn A.R. Raschet sooruzheniy s uchetom plasticheskikh svoystv materialov [Analysis of Structures with Account for Plastic Properties of Materials]. Moscow, Gos. izd-vo literatury po stroitel’stvu i arkhitekture publ., 1954, 288 p.

Download

SYSTEMATIZATION OF KEY PARAMETERS FOR PROGNOSTICATION OF RESIDUAL SERVICE LIFEOF BUILDING STRUCTURES

Vestnik MGSU 8/2013
  • Shmelev Gennadiy Dmitrievich - Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (Voronezh GASU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Urban Development and Municipal Engineering, Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (Voronezh GASU), 84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya str., Voronezh, 394006, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 89-96

The author considers the key parameters used to monitor the condition of structures in the course of their long-term use. In the process of analyzing the expediency of employment of the parametric method of prognostication, the author identified the main parameters of structures made of different materials to be monitored for the above purpose. The research team led by the author systematized the key parameters of masonry, reinforced masonry, concrete, reinforced concrete and structural steel. Thus, the key parameters of reinforced concrete structures include displacement of supports, size reduction of the cross-section of a structural element, loading value, concrete strength in compression, tensile strength, cross sectional area of reinforcement, bearing capacity (for all sections), crack opening width (normal and oblique), deflections, and adhesion between concrete and reinforcement.Prognostication requires identification of the limit values of the above-mentioned parameters. Most of them are specified in the effective regulatory documents; some may be found in the reference and research literature. For example, any increase of corrosion in excess of 15% of the cross sectional area will not cause the failure of the structure. It is recommended to use the method of intervals as a most efficient one in the context of limited information. It contemplates development of interval boundaries of the most probable values of changing parameters. A general pattern for the prognostication of the remaining service life of building structures using the key parameters (the parametric method) may be used to identify initial values of these parameters and limits of changes in their values.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.8.89-96

References
  1. GOST R 53778—2010. Zdaniya i sooruzheniya. Pravila obsledovaniya i monitoringa tekhnicheskogo sostoyaniya [National State Standard 53778—2010. Buildings and Structures. Procesures for Inspection and Monitoring of Their Technical Condition]. Moscow, Stroyizdatinform Publ., 2010, 65 p.
  2. SP 13-102—2003. Pravila obsledovaniya nesushchikh stroitel'nykh konstruktsiy zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Construction Regulations 13-102—2003. Procedures for Inspection of Bearing Structural Elements of Buildings and Structures]. Moscow, Gosstroy Rossii GUP TsPP Publ., 2003, 32 p.
  3. Schueremans L., Van Gemert D. Service Life Prediction of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Based on In-service Chloride Penetration Profiles. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components. 1999, vol. 1, pp. 84—93.
  4. Dotreppe J.-C. Degradation Mechanism and Service Life on Concrete Slabs on Composite Bridges. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components. 1999, vol. 1, pp. 16—27.
  5. Faber M.H., Kubler O., Fontana M., Knobloch M. Failure Consequences and Reliability Acceptance. Hochschulverlag AG on der ETH. Zurich, 2004, 43 p.
  6. Sarja A. Integrated Life Cycle Design of Structures. Tailor and Francis e-Library, 2005, 130 p.
  7. Kumar M.P., Burrows R.W. Building Durable Structures in the 21st century. The Indian Concrete Journal. 2001, no. 6, pp. 437—443.
  8. Kaliske M., Schmidt J., Schaur. A New Design Proposal for Timber/Concrete-composite Beams. Improvement of Buildings' Structural Quality by New Technologies. London, Tailor and Francis Group, 2005, pp. 21—34.
  9. Shmelev G.D., Ishkov A.N. Prognozirovanie ostatochnogo resursa izgibaemykh zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy ekspluatiruemykh v neagressivnykh sredakh [Forecasting the Residual Service Life of Inflexible Reinforced Concrete Structures in the Non-aggressive Environment]. Rostov-on-Don, RGSU Publ., 2007, 219 p.
  10. Mal'ganov A.I., Plevkov V.S., Polishchuk A.I. Vosstanovlenie i usilenie stroitel'nykh konstruktsiy avariynykh i rekonstruiruemykh zdaniy. Atlas skhem i chertezhey [Reconstruction and Reinforcement of Building Structures of Dangerous and Reconstructed Buildings. Atlas of Patterns and Drawings]. Tomsk, Tomskiy mezhotraslevoy TsNT publ., 1990, 315 p.

Download

Solid models of rectangular section columns within the framework of analysis of building structures using the method of finite elements

Vestnik MGSU 9/2012
  • Agapov Vladimir Pavlovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (495) 583-47-52; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Vasilev Aleksey Viktorovich - Rodnik Limited Liability Company design engineer 8 (482) 2-761-004, Rodnik Limited Liability Company, 22 Kominterna st., Tver, 170000, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 55 - 59

The theory of the strength of materials has produced a substantial influence on the development
and practical implementation of computer methods of the strength analysis of beams and
beam systems. Beams are modeled through the employment of one-dimensional elements within
the overwhelming majority of the finite element method software programmes; the stiffness matrix
is derived on the basis of the hypothesis of flat sections, and end forces concentrate in the centres
of the gravity of cross sections. This approach makes it possible to develop effective algorithms,
although it has several drawbacks. They include an incorrect transmission of forces from beams
to plates and massive elements of structures, difficulties in taking account of the warping effect of
the beam, and the complexity of taking account of physical and geometrical nonlinearities. Some
authors suggest using the three-dimensional theory with account for the flat sections hypothesis. It
encompasses the patterns of rotations of sections in the analysis of structures, although the problems
of warping and shear deformations remain.
The authors propose a new approach to rectangular column modeling by means of the finite
element analysis of building structures. Each column is presented as a set of three-dimensional
8-node elements with arbitrary discretization alongside the cross section and the height of the column.
The inner nodes of the finite element mesh are excluded sequentially layer by layer, thus,
reducing the stiffness matrix and other characteristics of the column with reference to its top and
bottom cross sections. The finite element method has been adapted to PRINS software programme.
The comparative analysis of the two structures has been completed with the help of this software.
The structures exposed to the structural analysis included slabs and columns. In one case,
columns were modeled with the help of one-dimensional elements, and in the another case, the
proposed elements were used. The comparison of the results demonstrates that the employment
of the proposed elements makes it possible to avoid problems associated with the transmission of
the force in a particular point.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.9.55 - 59

References
  1. Filin A.P. Matritsy v statike sterzhnevykh sistem [Matrices in the Statics of Framework Structures]. Ìoscow-Leningrad, Izd-vo literatury po stroitel’stvu publ. [Publishing House of Civil Engineering Literature]. 1966, 438 p.
  2. Rabotnov Yu.N. Soprotivlenie materialov [Strength of Materials]. Moscow, Fizmatgiz Publ., 1962, 456 p.
  3. Feodos’ev V.I. Soprotivlenie materialov [Strength of Materials]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1986, 512 p.
  4. Aleksandrov A.V., Lashchennikov B.Ya., Shaposhnikov N.N., Smirnov V.A. Metody rascheta sterzhnevykh sistem, plastin i obolochek s primeneniem EVM [Computer Methods of Analysis of Framework Structures, Plates and Shells]. Moscow, 1976.
  5. Kornoukhov N.V. Prochnost’ i ustoychivost’ sterzhnevykh sistem [Strength and Stability of Framework Structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1949, 376 p.
  6. Zienkiewicz O.C., Taylor R.L. The Finite Element Method for Solid and Structural Mechanics. McGraw-Hill, 2005, 631 p.
  7. Bathe K.J. Finite Element Procedures. Prentice Hall, Inc., 1996, 1037 p.
  8. Ayoub À., Filippou F.C. Mixed Formulation of Nonlinear Steel-concrete Composite Beam Element. J. Structural Engineering. ASCE, 2000.
  9. Hjelmstad K.D., Taciroglu E. Mixed Variational Methods for Finite Element Analysis of Geometrically Non-linear, Inelastic Bernoulli-Euler Beams. Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering. 2003.
  10. Agapov V.P. Issledovanie prochnosti prostranstvennykh konstruktsiy v lineynoy i nelineynoy postanovkakh s ispol’zovaniem vychislitel’nogo kompleksa «PRINS» [Strength Analysis of Three-dimensional Linear and Non-linear Structures Using PRINS Software Programme]. Collection of works “Threedimensional Constructions of Buildings and Structures: Research, Analysis, Design and Application”. no. 11, Moscow, 2008, pp. 57—67.

Download

Results 1 - 8 of 8