HYDRAULICS. ENGINEERING HYDROLOGY. HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING

JUSTIFICATION OF THE MAIN PARAMETERS FOR HPP’S SUCTION PIPES

Vestnik MGSU 9/2015
  • Bal’zannikov Mikhail Ivanovich - Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SSUACE) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Environment Protective and Hydrotechnical Construction, Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SSUACE), 194 Molodogvardeyskaya str., Samara, 443001, Russian Federation.

Pages 111-121

Hydraulic turbine suction pipes at hydropower plants (HPPs) play an important role for providing high power indices of HPP operation. At the same time for channel type HPPs with vertical reactive hydraulic turbines curved large size suction tubes are used and this leads to great costs for their installation. That is why the significance of economic analysis for justification of the size of such suction pipes is underlined. Minimally possible sizes of curved pipes (height and length) are determined by hydraulic turbine normal operation requirements and are given in reference books. Nevertheless often such conditions arise when the correction of their size leading to their enlargement becomes inevitable. In particular, when there are rocks at a small depth below of the project position of the foundation slab it is feasible to increase a suction pipe’s height to place the foundation concrete on the strong rock. Or if it is necessary to make a motorway at the downstream side of a channel HPP lengthening of a suction pipe appears sensible. In such cases economic calculations are necessary on feasibility of suction pipe size change proposals. The use of an integral effect technique for such an analysis is proposed. The article provides a criterion for economic efficiency of the given technique. In conformity with it the calculations for a hydraulic turbine with 9 m diameter under acting head of 24 m are made. The calculation results are presented as graphs of dependencies of integral effect on varying parameters. The analysis of the results shows that a parameter being changed (suction pipe lengthening) has a distinct optimal value, which in the investigated variants is 2.5...3.0 m. Herewith a maximal value of economically justified hydrogenerator suction pipe lengthening satisfying the criterion adopted is in the range of 7.5...8.0 m. It is also shown that the value of the integral effect depends significantly on electric energy tariffs and the conditions of HPP operation.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.9.111-121

References
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  2. Elistratov V.V. Ispol’zovanie vozobnovlyaemykh istochnikov energii — put’ k ustoychivomu razvitiyu i energoeffektivnosti [Use of Renewable Energy Sources Is a Way to Sustainable Development and Energy Efficiency]. Nauchno-tekhnicheskie vedomosti SPbGPU [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University Journal]. 2012, no. 3 (154), pp. 77—83. (In Russian)
  3. Svitala F., Evdokimov S.V., Galitskova Yu.M. Osobennosti konstruktsiy gidrotekhnicheskikh sooruzheniy i agregatnykh zdaniy pervykh gidroelektrostantsiy [Structural Peculiarities of Hydrotechnical Structures and Aggregate Buildings of First Power Plants]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 12, pp. 87—90. (In Russian)
  4. Svitala F., Galitskova Yu.M. Ispol’zovanie gidravlicheskikh energoagregatov s naklonnoy os’yu dlya malykh gidroelektrostantsiy [Use of Hydraulic Energy Installations with Inclined Axis at Small HPPs]. Nauchnoe obozrenie [Scientific Review]. 2014, no. 10 (2), pp. 450—456. (In Russian)
  5. Bal’zannikov M.I., Evdokimov S.V., Galitskova Yu.M. Razvitie vozobnovlyaemoy energetiki — vazhnyy vklad v obespechenie zashchity okruzhayushchey sredy [Development of Renewable Energy Engineering as a Significant Contribution to Providing Environmental Protection]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 3, pp. 16—19. (In Russian)
  6. Evdokimov S.V., Dormidontova T.V. Otsenka nadezhnosti gidrotekhnicheskikh sooruzheniy [Hydrotechnical Structures’ Reliability Estimation]. Vestnik SGASU. Gradostroitel’stvo i arkhitektura [Vestnik of SSUACE. Town Planning and Architecture]. 2012, no. 1 (5), pp. 64—68. (In Russian)
  7. Evdokimov S.V. Problemy bezopasnosti stroitel’stva energeticheskikh ustanovok, akkumuliruyushchikh netraditsionnye (vozobnovlyaemye) istochniki energii [Problems of Construction Safety for Power Installations Accumulating Non-Traditional (Renewable) Energy Sources]. Vestnik SGASU. Gradostroitel’stvo i arkhitektura [Vestnik of SSUACE. Town Planning and Architecture]. 2012, no. 2 (6), pp. 68—74. (In Russian)
  8. Piyavskiy S.A., Evdokimov S.V. Obosnovanie konstruktsiy vodopropusknykh gidrotekhnicheskikh sooruzheniy v usloviyakh neopredelennosti [Reasoning for Design of Culvert Hydrotechnical Structures under Uncertainty Conditions]. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Stroitel’stvo [News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction]. 2012, no. 6 (643), pp. 36—42. (In Russian)
  9. Bal’zannikov M.I., Evdokimov S.V., Shekhova N.V. Ekologo-ekonomicheskoe obosnovanie effektivnosti gidroakkumuliruyushchikh i vetrovykh elektrostantsiy [Ecological and Economic Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Pumped Storage and Wind Power Plants]. Ekonomika i upravlenie sobstvennost’yu [Economy and Property Management]. 2015, no. 1, pp. 68—72. (In Russian)
  10. Bal’zannikov M.I. Obosnovanie ustanovlennoy moshchnosti GES energeticheskogo gidrouzla [Justification of a HPP’s Set Capacity at Power Waterworks]. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Stroitel’stvo [News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction]. 2014, no. 8 (668), pp. 32—40. (In Russian)
  11. Bal’zannikov M.I., Seliverstov V.A. Characteristics of Substantiation of Water-Intake Parameters at WSPP as Component Parts of the Power Complex. Power Technology and Engineering. 2015, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 22—26. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10749-015-0567-5.
  12. Urishev B.U., Mukhammadiev M.M., Nosirov F., Zhuraev S.R. Snizhenie zaileniya avankamery meliorativnykh nasosnykh stantsiy [Reduction of Forebays Siltation at Ameliorative Pump Stations]. Vestnik SGASU. Gradostroitel’stvo i arkhitektura [Vestnik of SSUACE. Town Planning and Architecture]. 2013, no. 4 (12), pp. 49—53. (In Russian)
  13. Bal’zannikov M.I., Elistratov V.V. Rezul’taty energogidravlicheskikh issledovaniy pryamotochnogo vodovypuska krupnoy nasosnoy stantsii [Results of Power Hydraulic Investigations of Straight-Through Output of a Large Pump Plant]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo [Hydrotechnical Construction]. 1994, no. 12, pp. 19—22. (In Russian)
  14. Vasil’ev Yu.S., Kubyshkin L.I. O tekhnologii proektirovaniya ob
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  16. Bal’zannikov M.I., Seliverstov V.A. Osobennosti vybora osnovnykh parametrov konstruktsii vodovypusknogo sooruzheniya sektsionnogo tipa krupnoy nasosnoy stantsii [Peculiarities of Main Design Parameters Selection for Section-Type Water Output Structure of a Large Pump Plant]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 8, pp. 17—19. (In Russian)
  17. Elistratov V.V., Konishchev M.A., Davydov K.I. Laboratornye energeticheskie issledovaniya nizkonapornogo bloka mikro-GES [Laboratory Power Investigations of a Micro HPP Low Pressure Block]. Nauchno-tekhnicheskie vedomosti SPbGPU [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University Journal]. 2012, no. 154—2, pp. 189—194. (In Russian)
  18. Bakhtina I.A., Ivanov V.M., Il’inykh S.V., Stepanova P.V., Elizarov E.S. Eksperimental’nye issledovaniya mikro-GES s osevoy gidroturbinoy na gidravlicheskom stende [Experimental Tests of Micro-HPP with Axial Hydroturbine at the Hydraulic Stand]. Polzunovskiy vestnik [Polzunovsky Vestnik]. 2013, no. 4—2, pp. 12—19. (In Russian)
  19. Ivanov V.M., Bakhtina I.A., Ivanova T.Yu., Il’inykh S.V. Elektrosnabzhenie i energosberezhenie s ispol’zovaniem vozobnovlyaemykh istochnikov energii energii [Electric Power Supply and Energy Saving When Using Renewable Energy Sources]. Vestnik SGASU. Gradostroitel’stvo i arkhitektura [Vestnik of SSUACE. Town Planning and Architecture]. 2015, no. 2 (19), pp. 88—93. (In Russian)
  20. Ivanov V.M., Ivanova T.Yu., Stoyan I.A., Pchelintsev S.G. Osevaya gidroturbina novoy konstruktsii i stend dlya modelirovaniya protochnykh chastey gidroturbin [Axial Hydro Turbine of a New Design and a Stand for Flow-Through Hydro Turbine Parts Simulation]. Vestnik Severo-Kavkazskogo federal’nogo universiteta [Herald of North-Caucasus Federal University]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 102—106. (In Russian)
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OPERATIONAL PECULIARITIES OF HPP SUCTION TUBES AND THEIR PROSPECTIVE DESIGNS

Vestnik MGSU 10/2015
  • Bal’zannikov Mikhail Ivanovich - Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SSUACE) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Environment Protective and Hydrotechnical Construction, Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SSUACE), 194 Molodogvardeyskaya str., Samara, 443001, Russian Federation.
  • Piyavskiy Semen Avraamovich - Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SSUACE) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Environment Protective and Hydrotechnical Construction, Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SSUACE), 194 Molodogvardeyskaya str., Samara, 443001, Russian Federation.

Pages 127-137

The article deals with the peculiarities of suction tubes operation at HPP hydraulic turbines. The suction tubes are shown to provide the recovery of head due to the static and dynamic reduction of pressure under the working wheel. The conditions of their successful functioning on head recovery are shown. In particular, the necessity of providing water movement without breakaway and whirlpool areas in suction pipe elements are underlined. The importance of providing more uniform velocities field at the output section of diffuser element is indicated since this leads to reduction of velocity head losses and increase in efficiency of hydraulic turbine operation. The results of flow velocities hydraulic tests at diffusor diverting waterway are made using a spatial model. Flow relative velocity distribution at the output section is shown. Based on experimental data processing the flow main features are determined. In particular, water flow velocity variation factor is obtained. Its value reaches 2.09 due to the use of water discharge installation with asymmetric increase of section height. The necessity to use large scale suction tube structures of a toggle type for low and average pressure HPPs with reactive vertical axial hydroturbines is proved. It is important to develop suction tube designs which would not raise the construction costs when being installed and at the same time would not permit unfavorable cavitation conditions. Advanced suction tube designs developed with the participation of the authors are given. Specifically it is recommended to change the ceiling inclination angle in the section ceiling element to provide a breakaway-free water flow from the walls at the changing operation modes of the hydraulic turbogenerator unit differing from each other by the amounts of passing water discharge and hence, by the velocities of the water flow. In another design - in a suction tube with a bypass cavity - a system of holes is provided in the ceiling of the diffuser parts. Through them the water input can be made into the zone of the maximal pressure drop of the output diffuser. Thanks to it the vacuum value is diminished and the conditions for cavitation are eliminated. Reduction of flow pressure pulsation is achieved as well. Thus, a conclusion is made on the expediency of developing new efficient designs of suction tubes providing the improvement of their operation conditions.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.10.127-137

References
  1. Bal’zannikov M.I., Elistratov V.V. Vozobnovlyaemye istochniki energii. Aspekty kompleksnogo ispol’zovaniya [Renewable Energy Sources. Aspects of the Complex Use]. Samara, OOO «Ofort», SGASU Publ., 2008, 331 p. (In Russian)
  2. Elistratov V.V. Vozobnovlyaemaya energetika [Renewable Power Engineering]. 2nd edition, enlarged. Saint Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 2013, 308 p. (In Russian)
  3. Elistratov V.V. Ispol’zovanie vozobnovlyaemykh istochnikov energii — put’ k ustoychivomu razvitiyu i energoeffektivnosti [Use of Renewable Energy Sources Is a Way to Sustainable Development and Energy Efficiency]. Nauchno-tekhnicheskie vedomosti SPbGPU [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University Journal]. 2012, no. 3—1 (154), pp. 77—83. (In Russian)
  4. Bal’zannikov M.I., Evdokimov S.V., Galitskova Yu.M. Razvitie vozobnovlyaemoy energetiki — vazhnyy vklad v obespechenie zashchity okruzhayushchey sredy [Renewable Energy Engineering is a Significant Contribution to Providing Environmental Protection]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 3, pp. 16—19. (In Russian)
  5. Bal’zannikov M.I. Energeticheskie ustanovki na osnove vozobnovlyaemykh istochnikov energii i osobennosti ikh vozdeystviya na okruzhayushchuyu sredu [Power Installations on the Basis of Renewable Energy Sources and Their Impact on the Environment]. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. Seriya :Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura [Bulletin of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Series: Construction and Architecture]. 2013, no. 31 (50), part 1, pp. 336—342. (In Russian)
  6. Evdokimov S.V., Dormidontova T.V. Otsenka nadezhnosti gidrotekhnicheskikh sooruzheniy [Hydrotechnical Structures Reliability Estimation]. Vestnik SGASU. Gradostroitel’stvo i arkhitektura [Proceedings of Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Urban Planning and Architecture]. 2012, no. 1 (5), pp. 64—68. (In Russian)
  7. Evdokimov S.V. Problemy bezopasnosti stroitel’stva energeticheskikh ustanovok, akkumuliruyushchikh netraditsionnye (vozobnovlyaemye) istochniki energii [Problems of Construction Safety for Power Installations Accumulating Non-Traditional (Renewable) Energy Sources]. Vestnik SGASU. Gradostroitel’stvo i arkhitektura [Proceedings of Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Urban Planning and Architecture]. 2012, no. 2 (6), pp. 68—72. (In Russian)
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  9. Svitala F., Galitskova Yu.M., Evdokimov S.V. Osobennosti konstruktsiy gidrotekhnicheskikh sooruzheniy i agregatnykh zdaniy pervykh gidroelektrostantsiy [Structural Peculiarities of Hydrotechnical Structures and Aggregate Buildings of First Power Plants]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 12, pp. 87—90. (In Russian)
  10. Svitala F., Galitskova Yu.M. Ispol’zovanie gidravlicheskikh energoagregatov s naklonnoy os’yu dlya malykh gidroelektrostantsiy [The Use of Hydraulic Energy Installations with Inclined Axis at Small HPPs]. Nauchnoe obozrenie [Scientific Review]. 2014, no. 10 (2), pp. 450—456. (In Russian)
  11. Piyavskiy S.A., Evdokimov S.V. Obosnovanie konstruktsiy vodopropusknykh gidrotekhnicheskikh sooruzheniy v usloviyakh neopredelennosti [Reasoning for Design of Culvert Hydrotechnical Structures under Uncertainty Conditions]. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Stroitel’stvo [News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 36—43. (In Russian)
  12. Bal’zannikov M.I., Seliverstov V.A. Characteristics of Substantiation of Water-Intake Parameters at WSPP as Component Parts of the Power Complex. Power Technology and Engineering. 2015, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 22—26. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10749-015-0567-5.
  13. Evdokimov S.V. Povyshenie konkurentosposobnosti energoustanovok, ispol’zu-yushchikh energiyu techeniy [Raising the Competitive Ability of Energy Installations Using Current Energy]. Regional’naya ekologiya [Regional Ecology]. 2000, no. 3—4, pp. 90—97.(In Russian)
  14. Urishev B.U., Mukhammadiev M.M., Nosirov F., Zhuraev S.R. Snizhenie zaileniya avankamery meliorativnykh nasosnykh stantsiy [Reduction of Forebays Siltation at Ameliorative Pump Stations]. Vestnik SGASU. Gradostroitel’stvo i arkhitektura [Proceedings of Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Urban Planning and Architecture]. 2013, no. 4 (12), pp. 49—53. (In Russian)
  15. Bakhtina I.A., Ivanov V.M., Il’inykh S.V., Stepanova P.V., Elizarov E.S. Eksperimental’nye issledovaniya mikro-GES s osevoy gidroturbinoy na gidravlicheskom stende [Experimental Tests of Micro-HPP with Axial Hydroturbine at the Hydraulic Stand]. Polzunovskiy vestnik [Polzunovsky vestnik]. 2013, no. 4—2, pp. 12—19. (In Russian)
  16. Ivanov V.M., Bakhtina I.A., Ivanova T.Yu., Il’inykh S.V. Elektrosnabzhenie i energosberezhenie s ispol’zovaniem vozobnovlyaemykh istochnikov energii [Electric Power Supply and Energy Saving When Using Renewable Energy Sources]. Vestnik SGASU. Gradostroitel’stvo i arkhitektura [Proceedings of Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Urban Planning and Architecture]. 2015, no. 2 (19), pp. 88—93. (In Russian)
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  24. Vissarionov V.I., Belyaev S.G., Pimenov V.I., Urishev B.U. A. s. 1341370 SSSR, MPK F03B3/12, F03B11/04. Lopast’ osevogo rabochego kolesa [Inventors certificate 1341370 USSR, MPK F03B3/12, F03B11/04. Axial Working Wheel Blade]. No. 4012467/25-06 ; appl. 21.01.1986, publ. 30.09.1987, bulletin no. 36. Leningrad Polytechnic Institute named after M.I. Kalinin, 2 p. (In Russian)

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