SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

Sustainability of life support systems in emergency situations

Vestnik MGSU 4/2014
  • Volkov Andrey Anatol’evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Rector, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Information Systems, Technology and Automation in Civil Engineering, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 929-52-29; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Shilova Lyubov’ Andreevna - Russian Energy Agency of the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation Chief Specialist, Agency of Energy Security Analysis of the Department of Energy Security and Special Programs, Russian Energy Agency of the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation, 40/2 Shchepkina street, Moscow, 129110, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 107-115

Modern humanity development is impossible without scientific and technological progress, energy, industry, transport. Despite the fact that industrialization and the constant increase of production capacity have helped people to expand their limits significantly, we should not forget that today our dependence on the established infrastructure is steadily increasing. It is most vivid in case of natural hazards or disasters, which lead to disruption of normal living conditions. Any of these negative phenomena is called "emergency situation". However, the occurrence of emergency situations in life support systems leads to the following negative consequences: disorganization of life support systems functioning on the object, local, regional, national levels; exclusion or complete destruction life support systems; partial or complete reduction of the opportunities for ensuring the needs of the population; danger to life and health of the population. Despite the considerable number of scientific publications, many theoretical and methodological aspects of creating mechanisms and resistance patterns of objects and systems require further investigation that is due to: the possibility of emergency situations doesn’t decrease; acceleration of scientific and technical progress; existing threat of war together with the continuous improvement of weapons; threat of terrorist acts, etc. The authors present a research of the opportunity to construct a sustainability model of life support systems under different emergency situations in respect of modern current trends in the development of information-analytical systems and principles of systems engineering approach. The development of a general stability model, in that case, must consider common sequence of actions, ranging from signs of disaster to the recommendations for eliminating its consequences for life support systems, and the issues of effective interaction between individual subsystems involved in this process at all stages.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.4.107-115

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  3. Volkov A.A. Kompleksnaya bezopasnost' uslovno-abstraktnykh ob"ektov (zdaniy i sooruzheniy) v usloviyakh chrezvychaynykh situatsiy [Integrated Safety of Conditionally Abstract Objects (Buildings and Structures) in Emergency Situations]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2007, no. 3, pp. 30—35.
  4. Volkov A.A. Kompleksnaya bezopasnost' zdaniy i sooruzheniy v usloviyakh ChS: formal'nye osnovaniya situatsionnogo modelirovaniya [Integrated Safety of Buildings and Structures in Emergency Situations: Formal Foundations of Situational Modeling]. Obsledovanie, ispytanie, monitoring i raschet stroitel'nykh konstruktsiy zdaniy i sooruzheniy: Sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Inspection, Testing, Monitoring and Calculation of Constructions and Structures: Collection of Works]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010, pp. 55—62.
  5. Volkov A.A. Osnovy gomeostatiki zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Fundamentals of Homeostatic Buildings and Structures]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and civil Engineering]. 2002, no. 1, pp. 34—35.
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  8. Volkov A.A. Intellekt zdaniy. Chast' 2 [Intelligence of buildings. Part 2]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 213—216.
  9. Volkov A.A. Ierarkhii predstavleniya energeticheskikh sistem [Hierarchies of Description of Energy Systems]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 1, pp. 190—193.
  10. Volkov A.A., Pikhterev D.V. K voprosu ob organizatsii informatsionnogo obespecheniya stroitel'nogo ob"ekta [On the Issue of Arrangement of Information Support of a Construction Facility]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 6, pp. 460—462.
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  12. Barbera J.A., Macintyre A.M., Shaw G.L., Seefried V.I., Westerman L., De Cosmo S. Emergency Response & Recovery Competencies: Competency Survey, Analysis, and Report. Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management, The George Washington University, May 25, 2005.
  13. Rubin C.B. Long Term Recovery from Disasters — the Neglected Component of Emergency Management. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management. 2009, vol. 6, no. 1. DOI: 10.2202/1547-7355.1616.
  14. Stambler K., Barbera J.A. Engineering the Incident Command and Multiagency Coordination Systems. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management. 2011, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 29—32. DOI: 10.2202/1547-7355.1838.
  15. Wolbers J., Groenewegen P., Mollee J., Bim J. Incorporating Time Dynamics in the Analysis of Social Networks in Emergency Management. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management. 2013, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 555—585. DOI: 10.1515/jhsem-2013-0019.

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Functional modeling of construction organization in emergency situations

Vestnik MGSU 10/2013
  • Fedoseeva Tatiana Aleksandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Assistant, Department of Information Systems, Technologies and Automation in Construction, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26, Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 272-277

The main purpose of construction organization (CO) is putting an object of a required quality into operation within the established time limit with the lowest labor and resources input. This aim remains relevant also in emergency situations. However, apart from the main tasks of CO in emergencies, there are additional challenges to stabilize and arrange construction works, reduce the impact of emergency situations and their results. Due to the lack of information about the domain objects in emergency situations the complexity of formulating and dealing with management problems increases. This provokes rebuilding of the manufacturing processes of a construction enterprise in order to adapt them to the new conditions and to optimize the results obtained in these conditions. Fast and efficient decisions based on the functional model of the components and processes will improve the efficiency of CO in emergency situations.The essence of the model proposed by the author is that the tasks of the CO are divided into conditional permanent and conditional variable. The functioning of conditional permanent tasks remain unchanged in emergency situations, but conditional variable depend on the emergency. Their composition is determined by the construction characteristics. The resulting sets of tasks are ranked by priority. A higher priority is assigned to the tasks of operational planning of the building production rehabilitation by restructuring the production processes disturbed in emergency situations.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.10.272-277

References
  1. Volkov A.A. Kompleksnaya bezopasnost' zdaniy i sooruzheniy v usloviyakh ChS: formal'nye osnovaniya situatsionnogo modelirovaniya [Integrated Safety of Buildings and Structures in Emergency Situations: Formal Foundations of Situational Modeling]. Obsledovanie, ispytanie, monitoring i raschet stroitel'nykh konstruktsiy zdaniy i sooruzheniy: Sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Inspection, Testing, Monitoring and Calculation of Constructions and Structures: Collection of Works]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010, pp. 55—62.
  2. Volovik M.V., Ershov M.N., Ishin A.V., Lapidus A.A., Lyang O.P., Telichenko V.I., Tumanov D.K., Fel'dman O.A. Sovremennye voprosy tekhnologicheskikh i organizatsionnykh meropriyatiy na stroitel'nom proizvodstve [Contemporary Issues of Technological and Organizational Measures for Building Production]. Tekhnologiya i organizatsiya stroitel'nogo proizvodstva [Technology and Organization of the Construction Industry]. 2013, no. 2(3), pp. 12—17.
  3. Il'in N.I., Novikova E.V., Demidov N.N. Situatsionnye tsentry. Opyt, sostoyanie, tendentsii razvitiya [Situational centers. Experience, State and Trends of Development]. Moscow, MediaPress Publ, 2011.
  4. Volkov A.A, Lebedev V.M. Proektirovanie sistemokvantov rabochikh operatsiy i trudovykh stroitel'nykh protsessov v srede informatsionnykh tekhnologiy [Designing of the System Quanta of Working Operations and Labor Building Processes in the IT environment]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 2, pp. 293—296.
  5. Volkov A.A. Intellekt zdaniy: formula [Intelligence of Buildings: Formula]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 3, pp. 54—57.
  6. Volkov A.A. Gomeostat stroitel'nykh ob"ektov. Chast' 3. Gomeostaticheskoe upravlenie [Homeostat of Construction Projects. Part 3. Homeostatic Management]. Stroitel'nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka [Building Materials, Equipment, Technologies of the 21st century]. 2003, no. 2, pp. 34—35.
  7. Volkov A.A., Yarulin R.N. Avtomatizatsiya proektirovaniya proizvodstva remontnykh rabot zdaniy i inzhenernoy infrastruktury [Computer-Aided Design of Repairs of Buildings and the Engineering Infrastructure]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 9, pp. 234—240.
  8. Volkov A.A., Sedov A.V., Chelyshkov P.D., Sukneva L.V. Geograficheskaya informatsionnaya sistema (atlas) al'ternativnykh istochnikov energii [Atlas: Geographic Information System of Alternative Sources of Energy]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no.1, pp. 213—217.
  9. Volkov A. Building Intelligence Quotient: Mathematical Description. Applied Mechanics and Materials (Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland). 2013, vol. 409—410, pp. 392—395.
  10. Volkov A.A., Ignatov V.P. Myagkie vychisleniya v modelyakh gomeostata stroitel'nykh ob"ektov [Soft Computing of the Homeostat Models of Buildings] Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 2. pp. 279—282.
  11. Volkov A.A. Udalennyy dostup k proektnoy dokumentatsii na osnove sovremennykh telekommunikatsionnykh tekhnologiy [Remote Access to Project Documents on the Basis of Advanced Telecommunications Technologies]. Stroitel'nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka [Building Materials, Equipment, Technologies of the 21st century]. 2000, no 4, p. 23.
  12. Ginzburg A.V., Kagan P.B. SAPR organizatsii stroitel'stva [CAD in Construction Organization]. SAPR i grafika [CAD and Graphics]. 1999, no. 9, pp. 32—34.

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DEVELOPMENT OF MECHANISMS FOR EMERGENCY RISK MANAGEMENT

Vestnik MGSU 5/2017 Volume 12
  • Burkov Vladimir Nikolaevich - V.A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences Doctor of Science, Head of Laboratory, V.A., V.A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences, 65 Profsoyuznaya str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation.
  • Titarenko Boris Petrovich - V.A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences Doctor of Science, Professor, Professor, Department of Applied Mathematics, V.A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences, 65 Profsoyuznaya str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation.

Pages 559-563

This paper shows that quite a large number of economic mechanisms reducing risk of occurrence of an emergency situation have been designed. These mechanisms are understood as complexes of interrelated evidence-based policies, procedures and methodological solutions that provide optimal economic forms of regulation in the field of safety management and risk management at the federal, regional and facility levels. The paper shows the management model and emphasizes the major economic mechanisms for managing safety level: economic responsibility mechanisms, risk redistribution mechanisms, mechanisms for generation and usage of budgetary and extra-budgetary funds, incentive mechanisms for the enhanced safety level, reservation mechanisms in case of emergencies.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.5.559-563

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EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ECONOMIC MECHANISMS FOR EMERGENCY RISK MANAGEMENT

Vestnik MGSU 5/2017 Volume 12
  • Titarenko Boris Petrovich - V.A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences Doctor of Science, Professor, Professor, Department of Applied Mathematics, V.A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences, 65 Profsoyuznaya str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation.
  • Burkov Vladimir Nikolaevich - V.A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences Doctor of Science, Head of Laboratory, V.A., V.A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences, 65 Profsoyuznaya str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation.

Pages 581-585

The paper shows the management model and emphasizes the major economic mechanisms for managing safety level: economic responsibility mechanisms, risk redistribution mechanisms, mechanisms for generation and usage of budgetary and extra-budgetary funds, incentive mechanisms for the enhanced safety level, reservation mechanisms in case of emergencies. A large number of economic mechanisms have been designed as complexes of interrelated evidence-based policies which provide optimal economic forms of regulation in the field of safety management and risk management at the federal, regional and facility levels.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.5.581-585

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USE OF AUTOMATED SYSTEMS FOR MONITORING OF STRUCTURES (ASMS)

Vestnik MGSU 2/2017 Volume 12
  • Sopegin Georgiy Vladimirovich - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) Master Student, Department of Construction Engineering and Material Science, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomol’skiy prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sursanov Dmitriy Nikolaevich - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) Senior Lecturer, Department of Construction Technology and Geotechnics, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomol’skiy prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 230-242

Buildings and installations in the course of construction and operation have to withstand sometimes tremendous loads and stresses depending on the impact of external factors and operating loads. Such external factors influencing the strains of buildings and installations may be the changes of external climatic conditions such as diurnal variation of air temperature, snow loads and seismic forces. Permanent impacts of external factors and operating loads result in gradual deterioration of buildings and installations, and at excess of rated loads they lead to premature wear, irreversible strains and destruction of structural elements. it is necessary to perform periodic inspections of structures in order to monitor and predict the state of structural elements of buildings and installations, for the purpose of the early warning of changes of geometrical parameters towards the unfavorable situation development. The need to track a state of erected buildings and installations, as well as to collect and analyze information during the whole period of operation resulted in development and implementation of automated systems for monitoring of the state of structures (ASMS). This article considers the general issues on organization of ASMS, with the examples of application of these systems in construction. Automated systems for monitoring of structures should be considered as the important constituent of the general system of the construction industry projects safety. Use of automated monitoring systems makes it possible to promptly obtain and analyze the current data about a state of erected or operated building; these systems may be effectively used for testing of foundations and structural elements of buildings and installations.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.2.230-242

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