ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

Planning organization features of blocks of low-rise buildings in the structure of a big city irkutsk

Vestnik MGSU 11/2015
  • Yagol’nik Evgeniya Sergeevna - Irkutsk National Research Technical Univercity (INRTU) postgraduate student, Department of Architectural Design, Irkutsk National Research Technical Univercity (INRTU), 83 Lermontova str., Irkutsk, 664074, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 16-28

Low-rise residential buildings of different types occupy 48 % of residential areas of Irkutsk, which is practically a half of the housing stock of the city. That’s why the researcj of its planning structure and understanding of the features of each type formation in the city structure is quite current. In the process of investigation three main types of low-rise residential buildings were detected: private residential houses with land parcel; apartment houses; town houses. The authors investigated architectural and planning features of forming the areas of low-rise buildings of three types in the structure of a major city Irkutsk. The investigation is carried out with the aim to study the characteristic conditions of planning activity of the existing quarters of low-rise residential buildings, search for qualitative characteristics of the investigated types in the conditions of a big city.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.11.16-28

References
  1. Shpakov I.V. Praktika maloetazhnoy zastroyki v Kurske v dorevolyutsionnyy, dovoennyy periody i poslevoennoe desyatiletie [Low-rise Construction Practice in Kursk in Pre-revolution and Pre-war Periods and Postwar Decade]. Aktual’nye problemy sovremennogo regionovedeniya : sbornik materialov Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii (g. Kursk, 1 iyulya 2015 g.) [Current Problems of Contemporary Area Studies : Collection of the Materials of the International Science and Practice Conference (Kursk, June, 1, 2015)]. Kursk, OOO «Investsfera» Publ., 2015, pp. 44—48. (In Russian)
  2. Mikhalev Yu.A. Osnovy gradostroitel’stva i planirovki naselennykh punktov: uchebnoe posobie [Fundamentals of Urban Development and Populated Areas Planning: Manual]. Krasnoyarsk, 2012, 237 p. (In Russian)
  3. Igtisamov R.S. K voprosu o tipizatsii ob”ektov maloetazhnoy zastroyki i napravleniyakh razvitiya stroitel’stva maloetazhnykh zhilykh zdaniy [To the Question of Classification of the Objects of Low-Rise Construction and Development Directions of Low-rise Residential Buildings]. Izvestiya Kazanskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta [Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering News]. 2009, no. 1 (11), pp. 313—317. (In Russian)
  4. Stadnik E.B. Istoricheskie predposylki formirovaniya tipologicheskikh sistem maloetazhnogo zhilishcha v Rossii [Historical Backgrounds of Formation of Typological Systems of Low-Rise Buildings in Russia]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta [Vestnik of Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building]. 2013, no. 3 (40), pp. 47—63. (In Russian)
  5. Korobova O.P. Tendentsii razvitiya maloetazhnoy usadebnoy zastroyki v moskovskoy oblasti [Development Tendencies of Low-rise Manor Construction in Moscow Rehion]. Biosfernaya sovmestimost’: chelovek, region, tekhnologii [Biosphere Compatibility: Human, Region, Technologies]. 2015, no. 1, pp. 106—116. (In Russian)
  6. Babushkina L.V. Formirovanie komfortnykh usloviy prozhivaniya na territoriyakh zhiloy zastroyki sredstvami arkhitekturnogo blagoustroystva (na primere g. Ekaterinburga) [Forming Comfortable Living Conditions on the Territories of Residential Buildings by Means of Architectural Development]. Arkhitekton: izvestiya vuzov [Architecton: Proceedings of Higher Education]. 2011, no. 34. Supplement. Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2011_22/30. (In Russian)
  7. Ogly B.I. Irkutsk: o planirovke i arkhitekture goroda [Irkutsk: on City Planning and Architecture]. Irkutsk, Vostochno-Sibirskoe knizhnoe izdatel’stvo Publ., 1982, 112 p. (In Russian)
  8. Druzhinina I.E. Sotsial’no-prostranstvennaya sreda novykh gorodov irkutskoy oblasti na primere g. Sayanska [Social-Spatial Environment of New Cities of the Irkutsk Region on the Example of Sayansk City]. Vestnik Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta [Bulletin of Irkutsk State Technical University]. 2014, no. 11 (94), pp. 150—155. (In Russian)
  9. Ananyan I.I., Tkachev Yu.V. Tipologicheskie osobennosti lokal’nykh sotsial’no-territorial’nykh kompleksov rekonstruiruemoy zastroyki [Typological Features of Local Social-Territorial Complexes of Reconstructed Buildings]. Sovremennoe promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Modern Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2010, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 25—31. (In Russian)
  10. SP 31-107—2004. Arkhitekturno-planirovochnye resheniya mnogokvartirnykh zhilykh zdaniy [Requirements SP 31-107—2004. Architectural and Planning Solutions of Multiflat Residential Buildings]. Moscow, 2005. (In Russian)
  11. Chereshnev I.V. Ekologichnye zhilye doma dlya maloetazhnoy vysokoplotnoy zastroyki [Ecological Residential Houses for Low-rise Dense Construction]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2007, no. 11, pp. 14—17. (In Russian)
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Dynamics of the functional-planning development of the Chinese city of Anyang (mid 20th - beginning of the 21st century)

Vestnik MGSU 8/2018 Volume 13
  • Qu Rulan - Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPSUACE) post-graduate student of the Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPSUACE), 4 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya st., St. Petersburg, 190005, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Zavarikhin Svetozar P. - Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPSUACE) Doctor of Architecture, professor of the Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPSUACE), 4 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya st., St. Petersburg, 190005, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 924-934

Dynamics of the functional and planning development of the city of Anyang, the former capital of China, is considered. Based on the analysis of the stages of the city’s development, several master plans and the main historical urban development situations, the logic of the historical development of the functional-planning structure of Anyang is revealed. The identification and consideration of this logic in urban planning policy is one of the important conditions for the sustainable development of any historic city, including Anyang. The unconditional relevance of the topic of the article is also due to the fact that under conditions of the activity of the construction complex that has grown in the last five years, the process of transformation of the historical planning structure has begun, which negatively affects the possibility of preserving the identity of the image of the former capital of China. A high degree of detail in the analysis of interrelated factors in the formation of the city planning structure of Anyang is new in the scientific literature about this city, whose focus is limited to local lore and generalized urban planning aspects. This research approach has made it possible to identify sustainable urban development nodes and development axes, which must be taken into account in the development of modern urban planning documentation. The text and graphical illustrations of the article approve a promising methodical approach to research of the dynamics of development of historical cities. Subject: the main regularities of the interconnected development of the planning structure of Anyang in specific landscape, historical, social and economic conditions. Research objectives: by means of a comparative analysis of the parameters of the original landscape, historical plans and data for the dynamics of economic development, we reveal the main patterns of the development of the planning structure of Anyang. Materials and methods: the nature and parameters of the original landscape were studied using cartographic material by calculating the difference in the altitude of the earth along the latitudinal and meridional directions, and by making sections along the site, including river valleys. All data is in metric system of measurement. With a qualitative assessment of individual sites and zones, we took into account the seasonality, direction and power of the wind according to the data of reference books [1, 2]. The historical and social characteristics of the identified periods of development of Anyang were compiled on the basis of demographic data on the composition and size of population [3, 4], as well as according to the official reports of the governmental structures of Anyang [5, 6]. Stages of economic development of the city were determined on the basis of official sources [7, 8]. A comparative analysis of city plans and master plans was carried out by layer-by-layer overlapping of the developed planning schemes, reduced to the same scale in the metric system of measurement. We particularly focused on separate urban development nodes and directions of highways and roads which steadily maintained their position. Results: the study revealed the main regularities of the interrelated development of the planning structure of Anyang in specific landscape, historical, social and economic conditions. Conclusions: the conducted research made it possible to identify basic regularities of the historical development of the planning structure of Anyang, induced by landscape, historical, social and economic factors, such as the stage-by-stage enrichment of the initially basic orthogonal planning structure by more free layouts and the formation of the cruciform system of the main planning axes.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.8.924-934

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