ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

SEISMICITY FACTOR IN THE FORMATION OF MUSLIM ARCHITECTURE STYLE

Vestnik MGSU 7/2016
  • Elmanova Elena Leonidovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Elena Leonidovnapostgraduate student, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 8-17

The proportions of buildings, design and building materials in traditional Muslim architecture depended on geoecological factors of different regions of Islamic countries. One of those factors is a high seismicity site. It had the greatest influence on the appearance of monuments in the selected region. The influence of seismicity on the architecture of the buildings is considered in the article on the example of the architectural monuments of the Republic of Uzbekistan - madrasah of Ulugbek of the 15th century in Samarkand, the Kalyan mosque in Bukhara and the Syrian Umayyad mosque (708 buildings) in Damascus. The seismicity of the region is high. In order to determine the seismic resistance of architectural monuments the requirements SP 14.13330.2014 (the Current set of rules “Construction in seismic regions” (Seismic Building Design Code), revised edition of SNiP II-7-81*) and the Eurocode EN 1998-1 were used. On the basis of calculations tables comparing performance were made. The structural characteristics of monuments were compared with the characteristics required by the standards. The point value of seismicity of the territory which ensured the stability of the buildings was determined. Comparing the proportions of the monuments with Russian and European regulations on earthquake-resistant construction, we demonstrated the compliance of their architectural forms with the seismic activity of the area. Traditional architecture evolved from random search under the influence of the centuries of experience protecting the buildings from adverse natural influences. The design and shape of these ancient Muslim buildings, limited by the requirements of seismic resistance, has been subsequently reiterated in other structures, determining the style of Muslim architecture. The analysis allows us to see how the architects used the general principles of earthquake-resistant construction on different buildings. The destructions during earthquakes occurred only after structural deterioration of the materials, and were local in nature. Most of the buildings have symmetrical structure, the corresponding proportions in plan and in height, with using materials of sufficient “strength and elasticity”. The whole appearance of the buildings and the architectural style is not accidental. The proportions of the buildings - the height, width of span load-bearing structures, walls and openings, the symmetry of the buildings, domes, arches, windows, all structural dimensions were dictated by the requirements of seismic resistance.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.7.8-17

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