Probability and statistical correlation of the climatic parameters for estimatingenergy consumption of a building

Vestnik MGSU 1/2014
  • Samarin Oleg Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant Professor, Department of the Heating and Ventilation, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federa- tion; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 146-152

The problem of the most accurate estimation of energy consumption by ventilation and air conditioning systems in buildings is a high-priority task now because of the decrease of energy and fuel sources and because of the revision of building standards in Russian Federation. That’s why it is very important to find simple but accurate enough correlations of the climatic parameters in heating and cooling seasons of a year.Therefore the probabilistic and statistical relationship of the parameters of external climate in warm and cold seasons are considered. The climatic curves for cold and warm seasons in Moscow showing the most probable combinations between the external air temperature and the relative air humidity are plotted using the data from the Design Guidelines to the State Building Code “Building Climatology”. The statistical relationship of the enthalpy and the external air temperature for climatic conditions of Moscow are determined using these climatic curves and formulas connecting relative air humidity and other parameters of the air moisture degree.The mean value of the external air enthalpy for the heating season is calculated in order to simplify the determination of full heat consumption of ventilating and air conditioning systems taking into account the real mean state of external air. The field of ap- plication and the estimation of accuracy and standard deviation for the presented dependences are found. The obtained model contains the only independent parameter namely the external air temperature and therefore it can be easily used in engineering practice especially during preliminary calculation.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.1.146-152

References
  1. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V. Trebovaniya k teplozashchite i energeticheskoy effektivnosti v proyekte aktualizirovannogo SNiP “Teplovaya zashchita zdaniy” [The Requirements to the Thermal Performance and Energy Efficiency in the Project of Actualized State Building Code «Thermal Performance of the Buildings»]. Zhilishchnoye stroitel’stvo [House Construction]. 2011, no. 8, pp. 2—6.
  2. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V. O trebovaniyakh k teplozashchite i energeticheskoy effektivnosti v proyekte aktualizirovannoy redaktsii SNiP “Teplovaya zashchita zdaniy” [On the Requirements to the Thermal Performance and Energy Efficiency in the Project of Actualized State Building Code «Thermal Performance of the Buildings»]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 7, pp. 59—66.
  3. Gagarin V.G. Makroekonomicheskiye aspekty obosnovaniya energosberegayushchikh meropriyatiy pri povyshenii teplozashchity ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiy zdaniy [The Macroeconomic Factors of Energy Saving Measures Justification in Case of Increasing the Thermal Performance of Building Enclosures]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010, no. 3, pp. 8—16.
  4. ?liogerien? J., Kaklauskas A., Zavadskas E.K., Bivainis J., Seniut M. Environment Factors of Energy Companies and their Effect on Value: Analysis Model and Applied Method. Technological and Economic Development of Economy. 2009, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 490—521.
  5. Uzsilaityte L., Martinaitis V. Impact of the Implementation of Energy Saving Measures on the Life Cycle Energy Consumption of the Building. Paper of the conference of VGTU. 2008, vol. 2, pp. 875—881.
  6. Wang J., Zhai Z., Jing Y., Zhang Ch. Influence Analysis of Building Types and Climate Zones on Energetic, Economic and Environmental Performances of BCHP Systems. Applied Energy. 2011, vol. 88, no. 9, pp. 3097—3112.
  7. Samarin O.D. Integral’nye kharakteristiki otopitel’nogo perioda [Integral Characteristics of the Heating Season]. SOK [Sanitary Engineering, Heating and Air Conditioning]. 2010, no. 2, pp. 38—40.
  8. Samarin O.D., Matveyeva E.G. Opredeleniye parametrov okhladitel’nogo perioda [Determination of the Parameters of the Cooling Season]. SOK [Sanitary Engineering, Heating and Air Conditioning], 2013, no. 1, pp. 120—122.
  9. Bulgakov S.N., Bondarenko V.M., Kuvshinov Yu.Ya. and oth. Teoriya zdaniya. T. 1. Zdanie — obolochka [Theory of a Building. Vol. 1. Building — Envelope]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2007, 280 p.
  10. Savin V.K., editor. Stroitel’naya klimatologiya: Spravochnoye posobiye k SNiP 23-01—99* [Building Climatology: Design Guideline to State Building Code 23-01—99*]. Moscow, NIISF Publ., 2006, 250 p.

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Solution to the problems of the elasticity theory using -splines

Vestnik MGSU 10/2013
  • Fedosova Anastasia Nikolaevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Senior Lector, Department of Theoretical Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26, Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Silaev Dmitry Alekseevich - Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU) Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Associated Professor, Department of Mechanics and Mathematics, Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU), 1, Leninskiye Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russia Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 75-84

This article is dedicated to 7 degree S -splines of the class C4 that maintain four continuous derivatives and though remain stable. S -spline is a piecewise-polynomial function. Its coefficients are defined due to two criteria. The first part of coefficients is defined by the smoothness of the spline. The other coefficients are defined by the least-square method. At this moment we have investigated 7 rate S -splines of the class C4.The classic problem the elasticity theory is handled by solving nonhomogeneous biharmonic equation using Galerkin method, where fundamental S -splines are chosen as the system of basic functions. This approach not only provides high accuracy of solution, but also lets determine the required loads easily. It is known, that in the process of determining the loads the obtained potential (which is the solution to biharmonic equation) ought to be differentiated twice, which leads to roundoff accumulation.The methodic of S -splines constructing is given. In the paper the authors introduce the theorems of existence and uniqueness, convergence and stability for constructed S -splines. We described methodics of the problem of space discretization using S -splines. The obtained numerical solution is compared to the known analytic solution to the problem. The approximation error is 0(h8). Taking h = 0,5236, which is equal to 24 grid points, the approximation error is about 0,005. For comparison, it would take 500 first members in order to provide such an error by using a tragicomic function system as basic function of Galerkin method.Described S -splines give an opportunity to use high degree polynomials without fear of stability loss, which provides significant reduction of the grid node quantity. Besides, S -splines provide a simple solution. In order to calculate it in every point the knowledge of only two arithmetic operations is required.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.10.75-84

References
  1. Schoenberg I.J. Contributions to the Problem of Approximation of Equidistant Data by Analytic Functions. Qaurt. Appl. Math. 1946, vol. 4, pp. 45—99, 112—141.
  2. Schumaker L. Spline Functions: Basic Theory. Cambridge University Press, 3 edition, Cambridge Mathematical Library Series. 2007, 598 p.
  3. Dmitriev V.I. and Ingtem J.G. A Two-Dimensional Minimum-Derivative Spline. Computational Mathematics and Modeling. 2013, vol. 24, no.1, p. 168.
  4. Benowitz B.A., Waisman H. A Spline-based Enrichment Function for Arbitrary Inclusions in Extended Finite Element Method with Applications to Finite Deformations. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. 2013, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 361—386.
  5. Kai QU, Bo Jiang. Galerkin Finite Element Method by Using Bivariate Splines for Parabolic PDEs. Progress in Applied Mathematics. 2013, vol. 6, no 1, pp. 64—73.
  6. Silaev D.A. Dvazhdy nepreryvno differentsiruemyy polulokal'nyy sglazhivayushchiy splayn [Twice Continuously Differentiable Semilocal Smoothing Spline]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 5, pp. 11—19.
  7. Silaev D.A., Korotaev D.O. Reshenie kraevykh zadach s pomoshch'yu S-splayna [Solution to Boundary Value Problems by Using S-spline]. Komp'yuternye issledovaniya i modelirovanie [Computer Research and Modeling]. 2009, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 161—167.
  8. Silaev D.A., Ingtem Zh.G. Polulokal'nye sglazhivayushchie splayny sed'moy stepeni [Semilocal Smoothing Splines of the Seventh Degree]. Vestnik Yu-UrGU [Proceedings of South-Ural State Univercity], no. 35(211), Mathematic Modeling and Programming Series. 2010, no. 6, pp.104—112.
  9. Silaev D.A. Polulokal'nye sglazhivayushchie S-splayny [Semilocal Smoothihg S-splines]. Komp'yuternye issledovaniya i modelirovanie [Computer Research and Modeling]. 2010, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 349—357.
  10. Tikhonov A.N., Samarskiy A.A. Uravneniya matematicheskoy fiziki [Equations of Mathematical Physics]. Moscow, Gostekhizdat Publ., 1953.
  11. Marchuk G.I., Agashkov V.I. Vvedenie v proektsionno-setochnye metody [Introduction to the Grid Projection Methods]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1981.
  12. Fletcher K. Chislennye metody na osnove metoda Galerkina [Numerical Methods Based on the Galerkin Method]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1988.

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Estimation of seismic resistanceof an industrial building: probabilistic approach

Vestnik MGSU 11/2013
  • Zolina Tat’yana Vladimirova - Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering (AICI) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, vice-rector, Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering (AICI), 18 Tatishchev str., 414056, Astrakhan, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sadchikov Pavel Nikolaevich - State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU") Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Automated Design and Modeling Systems, State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU"), 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 42-50

This article represents the results of the research of general approaches and methods of risk evaluation for further exploitation of industrial buildings under seismic loads. Algorithms, developed or adopted by the authors of the article are designed for evaluating strength and stability of an industrial building, considered as a three-dimensional two-mass system, where the calculation points are located at the nodes of intersection of columns and brake structures of frames and the longitudinal axis of coating.Solving the problem of integral reliability and durability of buildings and structures as well as well-balanced design and strength under extreme conditions means to perform quantitative assessment of risk and to minimize it. Most existing analysis and risk evaluation methods are qualitative and estimate the probability of an emergency situation.Algorithm, offered by the authors of this article, includes assessment of seismic vulnerability risk of a construction in case of an earthquake of certain intensity. Problems, arising due to the complexity of probabilistic calculations, are solved by using automated control systems.Using classic methods of statistic dynamics and reliability theory, the authors offer a probability calculation, including the following:• Cop has aland quarter phase spectraldensity components of seismic movements;• entrance and exit spectrums;• dispersion of generalized coordinatesfor each natural frequency of a building;• waveform factor matrix;• effective oscillation period of a con-struction under seismic load;• failure frequencies at significancevalue;• total dispersion for all waveforms;• conventional, external and full seismicrisk.The given method of evaluating resistance of buildings and constructions to seismic loads is a probabilistic method and can be used as a basis for algorithms to automatize corresponding calculations during engineering design and exploitation of buildings and constructions.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.42-50

References
  1. Lychev A.S. Veroyatnostnye metody rascheta stroitel’nykh elementov i sistem [Probabilistic Methods for Calculating Construction Components and Systems]. Moscow, Assotsiatsiya stroitelnyih vuzov Publ., 1995, 143 p.
  2. Esteva L., Rosenblueth E. Espectros de Tembloles a Distancians Moderadas y Grandes. Bol. Soc. Mex. Ing. Sism., 1964, no. 2(1), pp. 1—18.
  3. Rayzer V.D. Teoriya nadezhnosti v stroitel’nom proektirovanii: monografiya [The Theory of Reliability in Construction Design: monograph]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 1998, p. 304.
  4. Tichy M. On the reliability measure. Structural Safety. 1988, vol. 5, pp. 227—235.
  5. Tamrazyan A.G. Otsenka riska i nadezhnosti konstruktsiy i klyuchevykh elementov — neobkhodimoe uslovie bezopasnosti zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Risk and Reliability Assessment of Structures and Key Elements as a Necessary Factor for the Safety of Buildings and Structures]. Vestnik TsNIISK [Proceedings of Central Research Institute of Construction Structures Named after V.A. Kucherenko]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 160—171.
  6. Zolina T.V. Veroyatnostnyy raschet odnoetazhnogo promyshlennogo zdaniya, oborudovannogo mostovym kranom, s uchetom prostranstvennoy raboty ego karkasa [The Probabilistic Calculation of One Storey Industrial Building Equipped with a Bridge Crane, Taking into Account the Spatial Work of its Carcass]. Vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura [Proceedings of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Construction and Architecture Series]. 2012, no. 28 (47), pp. 7—13.
  7. Pshenichkina V.A., Belousov A.S., Kuleshova A.N., Churakov A.A. Nadezhnost’ zdaniy kak prostranstvennykh sostavnykh sistem pri seysmicheskikh vozdeystviyakh [Reliability of buildings as spatial composite systems under seismic effects]. Volgograd, VolgGASU Publ., 2010, 224 p.
  8. Barshteyn M.F. Prilozhenie veroyatnostnykh metodov k raschetu sooruzheniy na seysmicheskie vozdeystviya [The Application of Probabilistic Methods to the Analysis of Structures for Seismic Effects]. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 1960, no. 2, pp. 6—14.
  9. Tamrazyan A.G. Raschet elementov konstruktsiy pri zadannoy nadezhnosti i normal’nom raspredelenii nagruzki i nesushchey sposobnosti [Calculation of Structural Elements at a Given Reliability and the Normal Load Distribution and Bearing Capacity]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 10, pp. 109—115.
  10. Zolina T.V., Sadchikov P.N. Avtomatizirovannaya sistema rascheta promyshlennogo zdaniya na kranovye i seysmicheskie nagruzki [The Automated System of Calculation of an Industrial Building on the Crane and Seismic Loads]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 8, pp. 14—16.

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MATHEMATICAL ECONOMIC MODEL DESIGNATED FOR THE FORECASTING OF THE LOW-RISE CONSTRUCTIONMARKET DEVELOPMENT IN THE ROSTOV REGION

Vestnik MGSU 2/2013
  • Ivakin Evgeniy Konstantinovich - Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (RGSU) Doctor of Economics, Professor, Honoured Builder of the Russian Federation, Chair, Department of Marketing and Logistics; +7 (863) 20-19-045, Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (RGSU), 162 Sotsialisticheskaya St., Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Vagin Aleksandr Vladimirovich - Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (RGSU) +7 (863) 20-19-045, Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (RGSU), 162 Sotsialisticheskaya St., Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 189-196

An effective resolution of the housing problem may consist in development and implementation of low-rise housing projects. Intensive development of the low-rise construction sector in the Rostov region needs the balance of supply and demand factors to be implemented in the effective legislation applicable to this market.A balance of supply and demand factors is feasible if methods of forecasting of the future trends of the low-rise housing market are developed and implemented. The authors have chosen the approximation method in the mode of Microsoft Word 2010 options as the problem solving vehicle.By approximating the statistical series of the low-rise housing market trends for 2002-2010, the authors have built a graphic dependence describing the housing construction market development pattern. Thereafter, the authors have concluded that the economic and mathematical description of the market of low-rise housing in the Rostov region is preferable in the form of a model of linear or exponential approximation.Statistical processing was made using the method of distribution of factors in the form of a radar chart employed to generate a visual image of the distribution of factors and the impact of each factor on the growth of the market of private housing in the Rostov region.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.2.189-196

References
  1. Gasilov V.V., Shul’gina L.V., Volobueva T.V., Zueva L.M. Upravlenie innovatsionno-investitsionnymi proektami maloetazhnogo zhilishchnogo stroitel’s’va [Management of Innovative Investment Projects That Encompass Construction of Low-rise Housing]. Voronezh, Voronezh. gos. un-t inzhen. tekhnol. publ., 2012, 172 p.
  2. Ivakin E.K., Belevtsov S.P. Maloetazhnoe stroitel’stvo: development i logistika [Lowrise Construction: Development and Logistics]. Inzhenernyy vestnik Dona [News Bulletin of Engineering in the Don Region]. 2011, no. 4. Available at: ivdon.ru/magazine/archive/n4y2011/708/ Date of access: 15.12.2012.
  3. Berezin A.O., Ushanova N.A. Obshchie metodologicheskie printsipy prognozirovaniya funktsionirovaniya regional’noy zhilishchno-stroitel’noy sfery [General Methodological Principles of Projecting the Operation of the Regional Housing Construction Industry]. Problemy sovremennoy ekonomiki [Problems of the Present-day Economics]. 2010, no. 1(33). Available at: http://www.m-economy.ru/art.php?nArtId=3035.
  4. Akchurina I.G. Planirovanie i prognozirovanie zhilishchnogo stroitel’stva krupnogo goroda v sovremennykh usloviyakh: na primere g. Bratska [Planning and Projecting the Housing Construction in a Big City in the Present-day Environment Exemplified by Bratsk]. Nauchnaya biblioteka dissertatsiy i avtoreferatov disserCat [“disserCat”, an Academic Library of Dissertations and Author’s Theses]. Available at: http://www.dissercat.com/content/planirovanie-i-prognozirovanie-zhilishchnogo-stroitelstva-krupnogo-goroda-v-sovremennykhusl#ixzz2CIjIMjMj Date of access: 15.12.2012.
  5. Sternik G.M. Metodika srednesrochnogo prognozirovaniya razvitiya rynka zhil’ya goroda (regiona) [Methodology of Mid-term Projections of the Urban (Regional) Housing Market Development]. Imushchestvennye otnosheniya v Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Property Relations in the Russian Federation]. 2012, no. 8(131), pp. 1—14.
  6. Oblastnaya dolgosrochnaya tselevaya programma «Razvitie zhilishchnogo stroitel’stva v Rostovskoy oblasti na 2010—2015 gody» [Regional Long-term Target-oriented Programme for Development of Residential Housing in the Rostov Region for 2010—2015]. Ofitsial’nyy portal Pravitel’stva Rostovskoy oblasti [Official Website of the Government of Rostov Region]. 2012. Available at: http://www.donland.ru/Default.aspx?pageid=89691. Date of access: 15.12.2012.

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