ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

Experience of restoration and reconstruction of architectural monuments: from engineering researches to projects implementation by scientists and students of MGSU

Vestnik MGSU 7/2014
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 18-27

For more than 20 years the author with his colleagues conducts engineering researches, design of restoration and reconstruction of various architectural monuments. Full cycles of works from engineering investigations to implementation of the own projects are executed on three objects: 1) architectural monument of the 19th century, the church in the museum preserve Abramtsevo (Moscow region), during 2005-2006; 2) a monument of Orthodox church history, a unique soil construction which is called "The Holy Ditch" in the village Diveevo (Nizhny Novgorod region) since 1997 to the present; 3) Church of Our Lady of Kazan also in Diveevo village during 1997-2002. For churches engineering researches are executed, calculations of the bases are made, ways of strengthening the bases are chosen, architectural projects of restoration are created. The church is restored by students under supervision of the experts from the university. The church in Diveevo was partially destroyed during the Soviet period. During restoration high-rise parts of the church were constructed. The works were performed by working restorers under control of the author of article in 2002-2004. Participation of students, masters, graduate students in restoration works had great educational value, gave to young people experience and knowledge. Students studied under professional restorers. Generalization is given in summary. D.S. Likhachyov's theory and our own experience are used. The principle of reconstructing barbarously destroyed engineering constructions, buildings and architectural complexes is formulated. It corresponds to the realities of the 21st century, new technological capabilities and requirements of modern society. Briefly: the reconstructed structure, in our opinion, has to face not only the past, but also the future. It is not always necessary to create the exact copy of the lost construction. Recreating the destroyed construction, it is necessary to apply new materials to increase the reliability and eliminate constructive imperfection of ancient constructions together with preserving old forms. Buildings and constructions have to be under construction anew mainly for performance of former functions, but the buildings have to meet modern requirements on the equipment and internal planning, modern technical norms. The project of the lost building needs to be made taking into account the change of environment. These provisions were successfully incarnated in the process of construction of St. Ditch in Diveev and they are also illustrated on the examples of the reconstruction of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow and Frauenkiche in Dresden.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.18-27

References
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  3. Kunstlerkolonien in Europa im Zeichnen der Ebene und des Himmels. Ausstellungskatalog des Germanischen Nationalmuseums. Nurenberg, 2002, 124 S.
  4. Chernyshev S.N., Shcherbina E.V. Svyataya Bogorodichnaya Kanavka: prirodnye usloviya i tekhnicheskie resheniya po vossozdaniyu [St. Ditch: Environmental and Technical Solutions for Reconstruction]. Prirodnye usloviya stroitel'stva i sokhraneniya khramov Pravoslavnoy Rusi: sbornik trudov 2-go Mezhdunarodnogo nauchno-prakticheskogo simpoziuma [Proceeding of the 2-nd International Scientific and Practical Symposium "Environmental Conditions of Construction and Preservation of the Temples of Orthodox Russia]. Sergiev Posad, the Moscow Patriarchate Publ., 2005, pp. 247—253.
  5. Tserkov' Kazanskoy ikony Bozhiey Materi v Diveeve [Church of Our Lady of Kazan in Diveevo]. Moscow, Yabloko Publ., 2004, pp. 99—106.
  6. Kornilov A.M., Cherkasova L.I., Chernyshev S.N. Prognoz osadok fundamentov pravoslavnykh khramov pri ikh restavratsii s uchetom istorii nagruzheniya osnovaniya i osobennostey konstruktsii fundamentov na primere tserkvi Kazanskoy ikony Bozhiey Materi Sv.-Troitskogo Serafimo-Diveevskogo monastyrya [Forecast of Foundation Settlement of Orthodox Temples at their Restoration Taking into Account the History of the Basis Loading and Features of the Bases Design on the Example of Church of Our Lady of Kazan of St. Troitsky Serafimo-Diveevsky monastery]. Akademicheskie chteniya N.A.Tsytovicha: 2-e Denisovskie chteniya [Proceeding of the N.A.Tsytovich's academic readings: 2-nd Denisov readings]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2003, pp. 80—84.
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  8. Chernyshev S.N., Timofeev V.Yu. Merzlotnye i gibridnye inzhenerno-geologicheskie protsessy v glinistykh gruntakh sooruzheniy Svyatoy Bogorodichnoy kanavki [Frost and Hybrid Engineering Geological Processes in Clay Soil of the Constructions of the St. Ditch]. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 68—72.
  9. Tazina N.G., Darchiya V.I. Sozdanie gazonnykh travostoev na ochen' krutykh sklonakh sil'noy zatenennosti v Diveeve [Creation the Lawn Herbages on Very Cool Slopes of Strong Opacity in Diveevo]. Resursosberegayushchie tekhnologii v lugovom kormoproizvodstve: Materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 100-letiyu kafedry lugovodstva. Sbornik [Resource-saving Technologies in a Meadow Forage Production. St. Materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference Devoted to the 100 Anniversary of the Chair of Grassland Culture]. SPbGAU Publ., 2013, pp. 240—245.
  10. Batsukh N., Chernyshtv S.N., Surmaagav M., Tkachev V.N. Influence of Engineering-Geological Conditions in the Mongolian Architecture. The Engineering Geology of Ancient Works, Monuments and Historical Sites, Proceedings of International Symposium. IAEG, Athens, 1988, pp. 223—228.
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  12. Chernyshev S.N. Ekologiya kul'tury — chast' ucheniya o noosfere, ideynoe osnovanie vossozdaniya zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Culture in Ecology — a Part of the Noosphere, the Ideological Base in Reconstruction]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 12, pp. 123—130.
  13. Volker Stoll, Carsten Leibenart. Geotechnische und Hydrogeologische Arbeiten fur den Wiederaufbau der Frauenkirche Dresden und deren Umfeld. Prirodnye usloviya stroitel'stva i sokhraneniya khramov pravoslavnoy Rusi: sbornik tezisov 5-go Mezhdunarodnogo nauchno-prakticheskogo simpoziuma [Proceeding of the 5th International Scientific and Practical Symposium "Environmental Conditions of Construction and Preservation of the Temples of Orthodox Russia]. N. Novgorod, 2013, pp. 41—49.

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NEW ARHIVED DOCUMENTS CONCERNING THE CHURCH CONSTRUCTION IN VOZDVIZHENSKOE VILLAGE

Vestnik MGSU 3/2012
  • Chetyrina Natalya Arkadevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Department of History and Culturology; (499) 183-21-29, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 6 - 11

The paper considers civil engineering in retrospect. The paper presents the records of the two contracts that date back to 1837 and 1838. The contracts cover the two stages of construction of a famous church in Vozdvizhenskoe Village in the Moscow Province. These documents were stored in the Central Historic Archive, namely, in the collection of the town hall of Sergievskij Possad. These records of the two agreements in the collection of the brokers notes (or in other books of the same type) are of particular value, as the majority of authentic contracts have been lost. One of the contracts covers the organizational procedure and pre-construction works, while the other one covers the construction of the church. The first document gives the idea of environmental protection, employment of ecological technologies, and safe disposal and recycling of human biowaste in the course of dismantling of an old structure in Vozdvizhenskoe village. The second document that dates back to 1838 covers the sequence of construction works, starting from the foundation and ending with the arches, the types of building materials used, and peculiarities of stone masonry. The information recorded in the contract includes the names of the counterparties, day-to-day mode of life of seasonal workers, remuneration of labour and procedures that assure the quality of construction. This agreement makes it possible to outline the construction process that includes workers, bricklayers, the foreman, the contractor, the architect, and the customer. On the whole, both documents help us outline and assess some of the building practices of the 19th century. This issue is relevant nowadays, as our society has entered the phase of the market economy, while the experience accumulated by the past generations is of undeniable value.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.3.6 - 11

References
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  2. Pamiatniki arhitekturi Moskovskoy oblasti [Architectural Monuments of the Moscow Region]. No. 2, Moscow, Stroiisdat Publ., 1999, p. 91.
  3. Penezhko O. Khramy Sergievo-Posadskogo blagochiniya [Sergijev-Possad Churches]. Vladimir, 2007, pp. 86—87, 231.
  4. Marreze L.M. Bab’e tsarstvo: dvoryanki i vladenie imushchestvom v Rossii (1700—1861) [The Female Kingdom: Noble Ladies and Property Ownership in Russia (1700—1861)]. Moscow, 2009.
  5. Samoylov A. Sergievo-Posadskiy tserkovnyy okrug [Sergijev-Possad Church District]. Moskovskie eparkhial’nye vedomosti [Moscow Church District News]. 2003, no. 9-10, p. 91.
  6. Chetyrina N.A. Snos starykh stroeniy kak primer stroitel’noy praktiki [Demolition of Old Structures and an Example of Building Practice]. Sovremennye issledovaniya gumanitarnykh, sotsial’nykh i ekonomicheskikh problem stroitel’stva i arkhitektury [Modern Research of Humanitarian, Social and Economic Problems of Construction and Architecture]. Moscow, 2010, pp. 325—328.
  7. M.V. Nikolaeva Chastnoe stroitel’stvo v Moskve i Podmoskov’e pervoy chetverti XVIII veka [Private Construction in Moscow and Moscow Region in the First Quarter of the 18th Century]. Podryadnye zapisi [Records of Contractors], Vol. 2, Moscow, URSS, 2004.

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Social, ethnical, cultural and confessional features of architectural heritage of monasteries

Vestnik MGSU 6/2014
  • Frolov Vladimir Pavlovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 35-43

Monasteries, their activity and lifestyle have always played an important role in the culture of various nations. Monasteries are objects of cultural heritage. Their architecture is connected with national features on a nation, particular canons of Christian (orthodox, catholic), Buddhistic or other religion. The article describes ancient monasteries in Russia amid the global development, historical national characteristics monasteries are analyzed, as well as architectural ensembles, reflecting the function and role of monasteries in public life, showing their spiritual and cultural heritage, monastic tradition, the historical value of the monastic landscape and its conservation conditions, the inclusion of the monasteries in the world cultural heritage is noted.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.6.35-43

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  7. Skopin V.V., Shchennikova L.A. Arkhitekturno-khudozhestvennyy ansambl' Solovetskogo monastyrya [Architectural Ensemble of the Solovetsky Monastery]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1981, p. 53.
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  13. Chelnokov A. Pokrovskiy stavropigial'nyy zhenskiy monastyr' u Pokrovskoy zastavy [Intercession Pokrovsky Monastery]. Moscow, Pokrovskiy stavropigial'nyy zhenskiy monastyr' Publ., 2010, p. 57.
  14. Shchenkov A.S., editor. Arkhitekturnoe nasledie na rubezhe XX—XXI vekov: Problemy restavratsii i okhrany naslediya [Architectural Heritage in 20—21st Centuries. Moscow, KRASAND Publ., 2010, p. 51.
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