Social and cultural background of the emergence and development of fachwerk architecture

Vestnik MGSU 8/2015
  • Gavrikov Denis Sergeevich - Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU) degree-seeking student, Department of Architectural Design, Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU), 65 Il’inskaya str., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Mezentsev Sergey Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-17

The article is devoted to the preconditions of the occurrence and development of half-timbered architecture in different regions of the world. The starting point is giving account of the content of the concept of “Fachwerk”. Using the term “Fachwerk” the article refers to a type of building structure which uses three-dimensional farm inclined at different angles as the basis for carrying out wooden beams; beside, the article defines the construction materials used in construction of timber-framed buildings, and the technology of their construction. The history of the formation and development of Fachwerk is among objectives of the study of half-timbered architecture as well. The main methods of research are observation, analysis, comparison, historical methods. Some photographs of certain half-timbered buildings were used to make a reader familiar with the aesthetic impact of this kind of architecture. The oldest building of protofachwerk could be found on the territory of modern Turkey and China. Later, in the Middle Ages, half-timbered buildings appeared among the Germans, Gauls, and other Western European nations. Still preserved, half-timbered buildings date back to the 14th century. Improvement of building materials and technologies of construction, economic, religious and cultural changes and transition of Western peoples from Middle Ages to modern times played a significant role in the formation of half-timbered architecture. It is also noted that there is a direct link or correlation between the religious characteristics of a society and a form of Fachwerk corresponding to them. A special place in the article is taken by Protestantism which contributed to the progressive development of technology, including construction and thereby changed the vector of development of the Western society from traditionalism to modernity. In the 20th century Fachwerk in Europe experienced a new prosperity, thanks to its use as a stylistic foundation of Swiss-style buildings, styles, stick, hips, Jugend, Storybook, Adirondack. Regional variants of Fachwerk and its interpretations are now available in some regions of Western, Central, South and East Asia, Africa, North and South America, and Australia. In the course of the study we revealed the influence of socio-cultural factors in the half-timbered architecture in different regions of its distribution. It is concluded that Fachwerk is an indicator of predisposition of a particular culture to the progressive development.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.8.7-17

References
  1. Gavrikov D.S. Terminologicheskoe utochnenie ponyatiya «fakhverk» [Terminological Redetermination of the Term “Fachwerk”]. V mire nauchnykh otkrytiy [In the World of Scientific Discoveries]. 2010, no. 6.3 (12), pp. 115—117. (In Russian)
  2. Gerner M. Fachwerk. Entwicklung, Entstandsetzung, Neubau. Muenchen, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 2007, 224 p.
  3. Issel H. Holzbau: Fachwerk-, Block-, Ständer- und Stabbau. Leipzig, Reprint-Verlag, 2004, 197 p.
  4. Flenley J.R., King S. Late Quarternary Pollen Records from Easter Island. Nature. 1984, vol. 307, pp. 47—50. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/307047a0.
  5. Franklin B. The Way to Wealth: Preface to Poor Richard Improved. 1758, Bedford, MA, ApplewoodBooks, Inc., 1986, 30 p.
  6. Goethe J. Faust. Translated from German by B. Pasternak. Moscow, Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo khudozhestvennoy literatury Publ., 1953, 616 p. (In Russian)
  7. Weber M. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. 2013, Merchant Books; abridged edition edition, 132 p.
  8. Harrison L. Jews, Confucians, and Protestants: Cultural Capital and the End of Multiculturalism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2012, 230 p.
  9. Söries R. Von Kaisers Gnaden: protestantische Kirchenbauten im Habsburger Reich. Köln, Weimar, Böhlau Verlag, 2008, 225 p.
  10. Micklitza K., Micklitza A. Lausitz. Berlin, Trescher Verlag, 2013, 320 p.
  11. Schmidt R. Fachwerkkirchen im Vogelsberg. R. Schmidt, 2013, 19 p.
  12. Konovaloff A. Ornament am Fachwerk: Eine Untersuchung der Gestaltung von Bürgerhäusern in Hannoversch-Münden. Lit, 1985, 86 p.
  13. Großmann G.U. Fachwerk in Deutschland: Zierformen seit dem Mittelalter. Imhof, 2006, 144 p.
  14. Föppl A. Das Fachwerk im Raume. Books on Demand, 2012, 68 p.
  15. Tishler W.H. Fachwerk Construction in the German Settlements of Wisconsin. W.H. Tishler, 1986. 292 p.
  16. Großmann G.U. Runen und Fachwerk. Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Available at: http://www.gnm.de/fileadmin/redakteure/Museum/pdf/GUGro_mann_Runen_und_Fachwerk.pdf. Date of access: 31.03.2015.
  17. Mezentsev S.D., Gavrikov D.S. Fakhverkovye reministsentsii v arkhitekture rossiyskikh nemtsev v XVIII—XX vv. [Fachwerk Reminiscences in Architecture of Russian Germans in 18—20th Centuries]. Internet-vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya: Politematicheskaya [Internet-Vestnik of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Polythematic series]. 2013, no. 4 (29). Available at: http://vestnik.vgasu.ru/attachments/MezentsevGavrikov-2013_4(29).pdf. Date of access: 15.03.2015. (In Russian)
  18. Krivykh E.G. Fakhverk kak gumanitarnaya tekhnologiya [Fachwerk as a Humanitarian Technology]. Integratsiya, partnerstvo, innovatsii v stroitel’noy nauke i obrazovanii : sbornik materialov Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii [Integration, Pertnership, Innovations in the Construction Science and Education : Collection of the Materials of International Scientific Conference]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2015, pp. 52—54. (In Russian)
  19. Ekonomov S.L. Garmoniya starogo i novogo [Harmony of the Old and the New]. Krasivye doma [Beautiful Houses]. 2005, no. 4 (57), 96 p. (In Russian)
  20. Popper K. The Open Society and Its Enemies. New One-Volume edition. 2013, Princeton University Press, 780 p.

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MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF THE AEROCONCRETE TECHNOLOGY

Vestnik MGSU 4/2012
  • Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) C andidate o f Technical S ciences, A ssociated P rofessor, D epartment of Technology of Finishing and Insulating Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoeshosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Chugunkov Aleksandr Viktorovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Director, Department of Examination of Buildings, postgraduate student, Department of Technology of Finishing and Insulation Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Gudkov Pavel Kirillovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Engineer, Web-editor, Editorial and Publishing Centre, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 155 - 159

Heat-insulating cellular concrete manufactured in the variotropic pressure environment, may be used both for making single-piece products, and for monolithic construction purposes. Optimization of technology-related parameters prevents excessive consumption of principal components, while output products maintain pre-set characteristics. Both the product and the technology are based on the provisions of the general methodology of development of highly porous materials.
The technology is based on the principle of adjustable formation of the state of stress in the variotropic pressure environment. The state of stress maintained in the course of blowout contributes to formation of optimized cellular structure (in accordance with the criteria that include the shape, dimensions of pores, and characteristics of interpore partitions).
The process of manufacturing of the heat-insulating cellular concrete breaks down into the following stages: preparation of raw materials, preparation of the cellular concrete mixture, casting of products, thermal processing or ageing in the natural environment. Products are placed under heating domes, equipped with electric heaters, and exposed to heat treatment for six hours. Before the heat treatment, products are kept in their moulds for four hours. In the absence of heat treatment, products are kept on their pallets for 14 days.
Selection of the appropriate composition and optimal technological parameters is performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 software programme developed at MSUCE. The software is based on the methodology that is based on complete factorial experiments, experiments based on fractional replicates and testing of all essential statistical hypotheses. Linear, incomplete quadratic and quadratic equations generated as a result of experiments make it possible to design a model that represents natural processes in the adequate manner. The model is analytically optimized and interpreted thereafter.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.155 - 159

References
  1. Zhukov A.D., Chugunkov A.V. Lokal'naya analiticheskaya optimizatsiya tehnologicheskikh protsessov [Local Analytical Optimization of Technology-related Processes]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 1, vol. 2, pp. 273—278.
  2. Zhukov A.D., Chugunkov A.V. Rudnitskaya V.A. Reshenie tehnologicheskikh zadach metodami matematicheskogo modelirovaniya [Resolution of Technology-related Problems by Methods of Mathematical Modeling]. Moscow, MSUCE, 2011, 176 p.

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REINFORCING FIBRES AS PART OF TECHNOLOGY OF CONCRETES

Vestnik MGSU 4/2012
  • Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) C andidate o f Technical S ciences, A ssociated P rofessor, D epartment of Technology of Finishing and Insulating Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoeshosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Rudnitskaya Viktoriya Aleksandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) master student, Department of Technology of Finishing and Insulation Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Smirnova Tat'yana Viktorovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) ROCKWOOL postgraduate student Leading Specialist, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) ROCKWOOL, 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 160 - 164

Methods of modification of the foamed fibre concrete technology and optimization of its parameters within the framework of methodologies of new construction materials developed by the specialists of Department of Technology of Finishing and Insulation Materials of MSUCE is considered in the paper. The methodology of highly porous materials is based on the research and modeling of their structure, and optimization of the process of their manufacturing. The core constituent of the proposed methodology is the identification of the markets for the designed products, as well as the pre-setting of their properties and assurance of their stability over the time.
The foamed fibre concrete technology represents modified procedures of preparation of the foam, the mineral component, and the basalt fiber, the blending of the components, their casting and heat treatment. The process-related parameters were subjected to double-staged analysis: Stage 1 represented an experiment encompassing the whole process. As a result of the experiment, factors of major impact (or control parameters) were identified. At Stage 2, factorial experiment was conducted to identify second-order mathematical dependencies. The results were subjected to analytical optimization, and graphical representation of dependencies was performed. Selection of the composition and optimal process parameters was performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 software programme developed at MSUCE.
It was identified that the basalt fibre consumption rate influences both the strength and the density of products made of cellular concrete. The length of the basalt fibre impacts the strength of products. A nomogram was developed to identify the consumption rate of the basalt fibre driven by the strength of products and the Portland cement consumption rate. The authors also studied the influence of the consumption rate of Portland cement and basalt fibre onto the structural quality ratio of the foamed fibre concrete.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.160 - 164

References
  1. Zhukov A.D., Chugunkov A.V. Rudnitskaya V.A. Reshenie tehnologicheskikh zadach metodami matematicheskogo modelirovaniya [Resolution of Technology-related Problems by Methods of Mathematical Modeling]. Moscow, MSUCE, 2011, 176 p.
  2. Zhukov A.D., Chugunkov A.V. Lokal'naya analiticheskaya optimizatsiya tehnologicheskikh protsessov [Local Analytical Optimization of Technology-related Processes]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 1, vol. 2, pp. 273—278.

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Increasing energy efficiency of wall materials with the help of cenospheres

Vestnik MGSU 7/2014
  • Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Composite Materials Technology and Applied Chemistry, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Bessonov Igor' Vyacheslavovich - Scientific and Research Institute of Construction Phisics of Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences (NIISF RAASN) Candidate of Technical Sciences, leading research worker, Scientific and Research Institute of Construction Phisics of Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences (NIISF RAASN), 21 Lokomotivnyy proezd, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sapelin Andrey Nikolayevich - Scientific and Research Institute of Construction Phisics of Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences (NIISF RAASN) postgraduate student, Scientific and Research Institute of Construction Phisics of Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences (NIISF RAASN), 21 Lokomotivnyy proezd, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Naumova Natal'ya Vladimirovna - Xella-Aeroblock-Centre head, Technical Support Department, Xella-Aeroblock-Centre, 93/2 Rabochaya str., Moscow, 109544, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 93-100

Hollow filling by brick mortar may take place in engineering structures with hollow tiles, which leads to thermal properties worsening of a construction. One of solutions to the problem of increasing energy efficiency of enveloping structures is the development of heat insulation material based on cenospheres with increased strength and decreased thermal conductivity in case of operational watering. Homogeneous construction systems based on cellular concrete and porous ceramics meet the structural requirements and also provide required thermal performance. In order to improve operational characteristics of enclosing structures it is possible to apply ceramic materials with effective high porous filler. Manufacturing technology of materials based on high porous filler and clay does not require significant capital expenditures to upgrade existing facilities and it’s similar to technology of ceramic wall materials.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.93-100

References
  1. Gagarin V.G. Makroekonomicheskie aspekty obosnovaniya energosberegayushchikh meropriyatiy pri povyshenii teplozashchity ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiy zdaniy [Macro-economic Aspects of Energy Saving Measures’ Substantiation by Increasing Thermal Protection of Enclosing Structures of Buildings]. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010, no. 3, pp. 8—16.
  2. Shmelev S.E. Puti vybora optimal'nogo nabora energosberegayushchikh meropriyatiy [Ways of Selecting the Optimal Set of Energy-saving Measures]. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013, no. 3, pp. 7—9.
  3. Ashmarin G.D., Salakhov A.M., Boltakova N.V., Morozov V.P., Gerashchenko V.N., Salakhova R.A. Vliyanie porovogo prostranstva na prochnostnye kharakteristiki keramiki [The Influence of Pore Space on the Strength Behaviour of Ceramics]. Steklo i keramika [Glass and Ceramics]. 2012, no. 8, pp. 24—30.
  4. De Lange R.S.A., Hekkink J.H.H., Keizer K., Burggraaf A.J. Microporous sol-gel Modified Membranes for Hydrogen Separation. In Proceedings of ICIM-2, 1—4 July, 1991. Montpellier, France. Key Engineering Materials. Trans. Tech. Publishers, Zurich, Switzerland, 1992, vol. 61—62, pp. 77—82.
  5. Baker R.B. Membrane Technology and Applications. 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., 2004, 538 p.
  6. Rumyantsev B.M., Zhukov A.D. Printsipy sozdaniya novykh stroitel'nykh materialov [Principles of Creation of New Construction Materials]. Internet-Vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya: Politematicheskaya [VolgGASU Internet Bulletin. Series: Polytopical]. 2012, no. 3 (23). Available at: http://vestnik.vgasu.ru/attachments/RumyantsevZhukov-2012_3(23).pdf.
  7. Rumyantsev B.M., Zhukov A.D., Smirnova T.V. Teploprovodnost' vysokoporistykh materialov [Heat Conductivity of Highly Porous Materials]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 3, pp. 108—114.
  8. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V. Teoreticheskie predposylki rascheta privedennogo soprotivleniya teploperedache ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiy [Theoretical Premises of the Calculation of Reduced Resistance to Heat Transfer of Enclosing Structures]. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010, no. 12, pp. 4—12.
  9. Grigorieva T.F., Vorsina I.A., Barinova A.P., Boldyrev V.V. Mechanochemical Interaction of the Kaolinite with the Solid State Acids. XIII International Symposium on the Reactivity of Solids. Hamburg, Germany, Abstr. and Program, 1996, p. 132.
  10. Moore F. Rheology of Ceramic Systems. Institute of Ceramics Textbook Series, Applied Science Publishers, 1965, 170 p.
  11. Vos B., Boekwijt W. Ausf?llung des Hohlraumes in bestehengen Hohlmauern. Gesundheits-Ingenier, 1974, no. 4, pp. 36—40.
  12. Oreshkin D.V. Vysokokachestvennye tsementnye tamponazhnye materialy s polymi steklyannymi mikrosferami [High Quality Oil-well Cement Materials with Hollow Glass Microspheres]. Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more [Construction of Oil and Gas Wells on Land and Sea]. 2003, no. 7, pp. 20—31.
  13. Sapelin A.N. Sorbtsionnye svoystva stenovykh materialov s primeneniem mikrosfer [Sorptive Properties of the Wall Materials Using Microspheres]. Academia. Arkhitektura I stroitel'stvo [Academia. Architecture and Construction]. 2013, no. 3, pp. 101—104.
  14. Sapelin A.N., Bessonov I.V. Koeffitsienty struktury kak kriteriy otsenki teplotekhnicheskogo kachestva stroitel'nykh materialov [Pattern Coefficients as a Criterion for Assessing Thermal Performance of Construction Materials]. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 26—28.
  15. Pedersen T. Experience with Selee Open Pore Foam Structure as a Filter in Aluminium Continuous Rod Casting and Rolling. Wire Journal. 1979, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 74—77.
  16. Worral W.E. Clays and Ceramic Raw Materials. Great Britan, University of Leeds, 1978, 277 p.
  17. Zhukov A.D., Smirnova T.V., Zelenshchikov D.B., Khimich A.O. Thermal Treatment of the Mineral Wool Mat. Advanced Materials Research (Switzerland). 2014, vol. 838—841, pp. 196—200.
  18. Hall Ch.A.S. Energy Return on Investment: Introduction to Special Issue on New Studies in EROI. 2011, no. 3 (10), pp. 1773—1777. Available at: www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/3/10/1773. Date of access: 15.01.2014.

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FOAM CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT BY BASALT FIBRES

Vestnik MGSU 6/2012
  • Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Technology of Finishing and Insulation Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Rudnitskaya Viktoriya Aleksandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) master student, Department of Technology of Finishing and Insulation Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 83 - 87

The authors demonstrate that the foam concrete performance can be improved by dispersed reinforcement, including methods that involve basalt fibres. They address the results of the foam concrete modeling technology and assess the importance of technology-related parameters. Reinforcement efficiency criteria are also provided in the article.
Dispersed reinforcement improves the plasticity of the concrete mix and reduces the settlement crack formation rate. Conventional reinforcement that involves metal laths and rods demonstrates its limited application in the production of concrete used for thermal insulation and structural purposes. Dispersed reinforcement is preferable. This technology contemplates the infusion of fibres into porous mixes. Metal, polymeric, basalt and glass fibres are used as reinforcing components.
It has been identified that products reinforced by polypropylene fibres demonstrate substantial abradability and deformability rates even under the influence of minor tensile stresses due to the low adhesion strength of polypropylene in the cement matrix.
The objective of the research was to develop the type of polypropylene of D500 grade that would demonstrate the operating properties similar to those of Hebel and Ytong polypropylenes. Dispersed reinforcement was performed by the basalt fibre. This project contemplates an autoclave-free technology to optimize the consumption of electricity. Dispersed reinforcement is aimed at the reduction of the block settlement in the course of hardening at early stages of their operation, the improvement of their strength and other operating properties. Reduction in the humidity rate of the mix is based on the plasticizing properties of fibres, as well as the application of the dry mineralization method.
Selection of optimal parameters of the process-related technology was performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 Software, developed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. The authors also provide their overview of intellectual property rights and an economic efficiency assessment.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.6.83 - 87

References
  1. Novitskiy A.G., Efremov M.V. Volokno iz gornykh porod dlya armirovaniya betonov [Rock Fibres Designated for Concrete Reinforcement]. Proceedings of the 7th All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference in Belokurikha. Moscow, Khimmash Publ., 2007, pp. 116—120.
  2. Sakharov G.P., Strebitskiy V.P., Voronin V.A. Novaya effektivnaya tekhnologiya neavtoklavnogo porobetona [New Effective Technology of the Autoclave-Free Concrete]. Stroitel’nye materialy i obrudovanie tekhnologii XX veka [Building Materials and Equipment Technologies of the 20th Century]. 2002, no. 6, pp. 28—29.
  3. Zhukov A.D., Chugunkov A.V. Lokal’naya analiticheskaya optimizatsiya tekhnologicheskikh protsessov [Local Analytical Optimization of Technology-related Processes]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 273—279.

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A MODERN APPROACH TO THE CONCEPT OF THE NOOSPHERE AND DEVELOPMENTOF ITS THEORY

Vestnik MGSU 6/2013
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Ryabova Svetlana Sergeevna - Academy of Public Administration of the President of the Republic of Belarus (Academy of Management) Senior Lecturer, Department of Management of Regional Development, Academy of Public Administration of the President of the Republic of Belarus (Academy of Management), 17 Moskovskaya st., Minsk, 220007, Republic of Belarus; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 139-147

The authors elaborate on a new critical approach to the assessment of the concept of the “noosphere”. The basic principles of Vernadskiy’s concept of the “noosphere” are assessed from the viewpoint of the current state of the human civilization. It is proven that the key principles of Vernadskiy’s theory cannot serve as the basis for the noosphere. So far, the theory of the “noosphere” does not exist. There are just a few prerequisites for the attainment of the noosphere, due to the limited knowledge and information about the natural environment and the human ability to interact with it without inflicting any damage. The authors argue the noosphere can only be attained if and when the superiority of the anthropocentrism is overcome and the shift-over to the biocentrism is implemented. The authors insist that the concept of “sustainable development”, which is widely regarded as the primary method for overcoming the global ecological crisis, can be evaluated as a limited and purely pragmatic solution to the environmental problems arising at this phase of the human development; therefore, it may serve as the basis for the modern theory of the “noosphere” to a limited extent.The basic principles of the method of harmonization used to arrange the conditions needed for the implementation of the noosphere are considered in the article. The authors demonstrate that the co-evolutionary approach to further development of the humanity and the biosphere is the basis for the formation of the noosphere. The conclusion is that both mutualism and competition facilitate evolution. The concept of co-evolution applies to the philosophical principle of harmonization valid both for an individual person and the whole humankind. A widening gap between the research achievements and the ability of the biosphere to perceive and to assimilate them is the reason for the ecological crisis. The solution consists in the ecologization of science and technology, as well as in the generation by each person and the whole humankind of the noosphere-centered mode of thinking. Compilation of the modern theory of the “noosphere” is a key task of natural sciences to be attained through the employment of technological advancements.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.6.139-147

References
  1. Vernadskiy V.I. Biosfera i noosfera [Biosphere and Noosphere]. Moscow, 1989,185 p.
  2. Le Roye E. L’exigence idealiste et le fait d’evolution. Paris, 1927, 196 p.
  3. Teilhard de Chardin P. Fenomen cheloveka [Phenomenon of Man]. Moscow, 1988, 224 p.
  4. Vernadskiy V.I. Avtotrofnost’ chelovechestva. Russkiy kosmizm. [Autotrophy of the Humankind. Russian Cosmism]. Moscow, 1993, 368 p.
  5. Schweitzer A. Blagogovenie pered zhizn’yu [Reverence for Life]. Moscow, Progress Publ., 1992, 572 p.
  6. Shmal’gauzen I.I. Puti i zakonomernosti evolyutsionnogo protsessa [Routes and Patterns of the Evolutionary Process]. Moscow-Leningrad, Iz-vo AN SSSR Publ., 1939, 232 p.
  7. Odum J. Ecology. Springer-Verlag, 1986, vol. 1, 328 p., vol. 2, 376 p.
  8. Nietzsche F. Will for Power. Experience in Revaluation of All Values. [Volya k vlasti. Opyt pereotsenki vsekh tsennostey]. Kul’turnaya revolyutsiya publ., 2005, 880 p.
  9. Lovelock J. Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth. Oxford University Press, 2000, 85 p.
  10. Gartman N. K osnovopolozheniyu ontologii [The Founding Principle of the Ontology]. St.Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 2003, 639 p.
  11. Bergson A. Tvorcheskaya evolyutsiya [Creative Evolution]. Moscow, 2006, 1408 p.
  12. Potapov A.D., Ryabova S.S. Ekologizatsiya nauki i tekhniki kak metod formirovaniya noosfery [Ecologizaiton of Science and Technology as the Noosphere Formation Method]. V.I. Vernadskiy i noosfernaya paradigma razvitiya obshchestva, nauki, kul’tury, obrazovaniya i ekonomiki v XXI veke. [V.I. Vernadskiy and the Noospheric Paradigm for Development of Society, Science, Culture, Education and Economy in the 21st Century]. Tr. Mezhdunar. konf. [Works of International Conference]. March 12—14, 2013, St. Petersburg, vol. 1, pp. 176—190.

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Raising the 3-d blocks production efficiency using expert evaluation

Vestnik MGSU 5/2014
  • Efimenko Anatoliy Zakharovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Technology of Finishing and Isolation Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Grin'ko Boris Grigor'evich - Khoroshevsky Concrete Products Plant DSK-1 chief industrial engineer, Khoroshevsky Concrete Products Plant DSK-1, 3-a, 3 Khoroshevskiy proezd, Moscow, 123007, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 162-169

The method of expert evaluation is used in the cases when there is lack of efficient formalized methods for choosing necessary measures for solving production or scientific problems. In construction industry the field of application of expert evaluation method is quite wide. In the article the method of expert evaluation is described, the data on the peculiarities of producing three-dimensional utility blocks on hypso-cement-trass concretes on the Khoroshevsky Concrete Products Plant DSK-1 is presented. The authors present pall results and expert evaluations on ten-point scale. Expert opinions were processed using mathematical statistics method. The results of statistical indicators calculation is presented and optimal ways of raising the production efficiency for three-dimensional utility blocks are chosen basing on them.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.162-169

References
  1. Efimenko A.Z. Upravlenie predpriyatiyami stroyindustrii na osnove informatsionnykh tekhnologiy: monografiya [Management of Construction Industru Enterprises Basing on Information Technologies. Monograph]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2009, 304 p.
  2. Kramerov D.V., Efimenko A.Z. Izuchenie proizvodstva neavtoklavnogo gazo-betona na osnove ekspertnykh otsenok [Investigation of Non-autoclaved Aerated Concrete Production Basing on Expert Opinion]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, Special issue, no. 1, pp. 352—356.
  3. Ferronskaya A.V. Gipsovye materialy i izdeliya. Proizvodstvo i primenenie: Spravochnik [Gypsum Materials and Products. Production and Application: Reference Book]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2004, 488 p.

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