SUBSTANTIATION OF DESIGN MEASURES TO INCREASE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF EXTERIOR WALLS

Vestnik MGSU 11/2017 Volume 12
  • Musorina Tat'yana Aleksandrovna - Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) postgraduate student, Hydraulics and Strength Department, Civil Engineering Institute, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), 29 Politechnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation.
  • Gamayunova Ol'ga Sergeevna - Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) senior lecturer, Department of Construction of Unique Buildings and Structures, Civil Engineering Institute, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), 29 Politechnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation.
  • Petrichenko Mikhail Romanovich - Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Hydraulics and Strength Department, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), 29 Politechnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation.

Pages 1269-1277

Subject: multi-layer building envelope is the subject of the paper. Recently, in the context of energy conservation policies, the heat engineering requirements for enveloping structures of buildings and structures have significantly increased. At the same time, their moisture condition has a significant impact on the operational properties of materials of structures and on microclimate of rooms constrained by these structures. Research objectives: emphasize importance of the task of predicting the temperature and moisture condition of the walling at the stage of design and construction of building envelopes. In this paper, the temperature distributions in layered walls are analyzed. Materials and methods: to achieve the objectives, computational and experimental studies are conducted. By alternating (rearranging) layers and preserving the thermal resistance of the wall on the whole, we find the optimal alternation of layers that minimizes deviation of the maximum wall temperature from the average temperature. Results: for the optimal location of layers in the wall’s structure, the moisture penetration into the wall is minimal or absent altogether. This is possible if the heat-insulating layer is mounted on the outer surface of the structure. Conclusions: the obtained results of computational and experimental studies allow us to verify appropriateness of accounting for alternation of layers in multilayer structures. These calculations proved that the higher the average temperature level, the more energy-efficient the structure will be.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.11.1269-1277

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Fire hazard of phosphorus-containing hard casting polyurethane foams

Vestnik MGSU 12/2018 Volume 13
  • Ushkov Valentin A. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) , Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Sokoreva Evgeniya V. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) , Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Goryunova Anna V. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) , Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Demjanenko Stanislav A. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) , Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 1524-1532

Introduction. Fire-safe rigid filling polyurethane foams (PUF), meant for low-temperature thermal insulation of pipelines and technological equipment were developed. The effect of concentration of oxyethylated tetraalkylphosphonate pentaerythritol (phostetrol-1) on technological, physico-mechanical and thermal properties, contents of pyrolysis products and main fire hazard indicators of PUFs was explored. The effect of chemical nature and metal compounds concentration of variable valence on fume-generation ability of phosphorous-containing PUFs was examined. Main technological and physico-mechanical properties and fire hazard indicators of developed styrofoams are provided. Materials and methods. Rigid filling PUFs were obtained on the basis of simple oxyethylated polyols and polyisocyanate. Phostetrol-1 was used as a reactive phosphorous-containing compound. As a foaming and hardening catalyst of developed PUF’s a nitrogen-containing polyol (mark Lapromol 294) and dimethylethanolamine was used, and as a foaming agent - mixture of freon - 11 and water. Different metal compounds of variable valence were used to reduce fume-generation ability and toxicity of pyrolysis products of rigid phosphorous-containing PUFs. Thermal properties of examined PUFs were studied with the help of thermoanalytical complex Du PONT 9000. Main technological and physico-mechanical properties and fire hazard indicators of styrofoams were determined under existing GOSTs. Results. The effect of phostetrol-1 concentration in polyester compound on main technological and physico-mechanical properties, contents of pyrolysis products and main fire hazard indicators of rigid filling PUFs was established. It is shown that to obtain moderately flammable PUFs the phosphorous concentration in styrofoam must exceed 2.5 mass. %. The correlation between low-scale evaluation methods of flammability of rigid PUFs was found. The effect of phosphorous concentration on fume-generation ability and contents of pyrolysis products of rigid PUFs was found. The effect of chemical nature and metal compounds concentration of variable valence on fume-generation ability of phosphorous-containing PUFs was examined. It is shown that effective decrease of fume-generation ability and toxicity of pyrolysis products of moderately flammable PUFs occurs when Cu2O or chrome spinels are introduced to the polyester compound. Conclusions. As a result of conducted research it was established that the combined use of phostetrol-1, Cu2O and chrome spinels makes it possible to obtain rigid fire-safe PUFs with high physico-mechanical properties. Fire-safe rigid filling PUFs, developed with the use of raw native materials, are recommended to be used for low-temperature thermal insulation of pipelines and technological equipment.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.12.1524-1532

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