ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

Features of Water Supply of Settlements in the Zone of Attraction of Megapolises

Vestnik MGSU 2/2018 Volume 13
  • Evdokimov Pavel Artem’evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Postgraduate Student, Department of Hydraulics and Water Resources, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 196-202

Urbanization leads to the development of megacities. Three quarters of Russians live in large cities. Negative factors of urban habitation are environmental problems: air pollution, waste production, etc. Ecological problems of large cities stimulate relocation to the suburbs. Proximity to the megacity negatively affects the territories in its area of attraction. The greatest pollution of surface waters is observed in the central and Eastern regions. The maximum levels of pollution are recorded in the rivers Moskva, Oka and Klyazma. The settlements located downstream and within the area of influence of the metropolis are deprived of the use of surface water for drinking due to strong contamination. Megapolis consumes a large amount of resources, thereby creating a deficit of resources consumed by it in the zone of its influence. Mainly, water resources are affected. A settlement located in the thirty kilometer zone around the metropolis can not fully use the scheme of water supply due to groundwater. Intensive water withdrawal for the needs of a megapolis leads to the formation of a regional depression cone with the formation of zones of gravity filtration, which is caused by a high operating load. Subject: the subject of this research is the study of water supply problems in the zone of attraction of megalopolises. Materials and methods: the method of integrated assessment and analysis of the obtained data was used. Results: the article describes the problem of providing quality drinking water to settlements in the zone of attraction of big cities. It discusses the basic schemes of water supply. The main advantages and disadvantages of each of the considered schemes are revealed. A necessity to create a single integrated method for assessing the efficiency of the water supply scheme, aimed at the efficient use of natural resources in the present environmental and economic situation, is revealed. It is shown that the described methods of water supply have different characteristics, depending on the geographical, natural and social conditions in which the settlement is located. Assessment of the applicability of a method should be carried out primarily on the basis of natural indicators, since financial indicators are derived from the natural indicators and are often subjective. As a result of the research, the megacity influence zone was identified, assessment of the current situation in the water supply field was carried out on the example of the city of Moscow and the absence of a universal system for assessing the effectiveness of water supply methods was revealed. Conclusions: an analysis of the main methods of water supply to settlements located in the zone of attraction of large cities was carried out, water supply peculiarities of such settlements are formulated, and it is shown that none of the traditional methods of water supply is universal. To select the optimal method under specific conditions, it is advisable to develop and apply the generalized natural indicators that will determine the most effective method of water supply.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.2.196-202

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Sources and causes of surface water pollution in Hanoi (Vietnam)

Vestnik MGSU 10/2018 Volume 13
  • Nguyen Dinh Dap - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) postgraduate student, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Telichenko Valery I. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Academician of RAACS, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Slesarev Mikhail Yu. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Construction of Heat and Nuclear Power Facilities, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 1234-1242

Introduction. One of the most significant environmental problems facing the Vietnamese city of Hanoi is anthropogenic pollution of surface water, especially in the To Lich river system. Currently, these rivers accept large quantities of wastewater from urban areas and industrial zones, which effluents are not treated prior to discharge into water bodies. The results of the study show that surface water in Hanoi has been contaminated by direct discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater. Considered the To Lich river system, including the To Lich, Lu, Set and Kim Nguu rivers, which receive sewage pollution from urban areas, industrial zones and other sources. Materials and methods. The most common approach to improving the situation is to identify sources of syrface water pollution and assess the quality of To Lich river and its tributaries in order to develop and propose effective and synchronous solurion for the management of water safety and quality in the water bodies of Hanoi city. The water samples were preserved and analysed in the laboratory of Environmental Analysis in accordance with standard Vietnamese methods. For this purpose, analytic apparatus, including Shimadzu AAS 6800 atomic absorption spectrophotometre (Japan), UV-VIS spectrometre, as well as a number of common laboratory instruments and equipment, are used. Results. The results of the study show that surface water in Hanoi has been contaminated by direct discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater. For many years, the rivers have been covered with rubbish, with the water turning black in colour and having an unpleasant smell. The primary cause of the pollution is drainage from many surrounding households discharging waste water directly into the rivers. Conclusions. In order to restore the aqueous ecosystems of Hanoi city, it is necessary to conduct continuous environmental monitoring of changes in the state of water bodies and develop effective and timely solutions for the management of safety and quality of water in the waterways of Hanoi.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.10.1234-1242

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