DESIGNING AND DETAILING OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. MECHANICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

Behaviour of high stretch bolts in tension working as part of elements of steel structures, and their tendency to delayed fracturing

Vestnik MGSU 11/2014
  • Moyseychik Evgeniy Alekseevich - Novosibirsk State Universityof Architecture and Civil Engineering (NSUACE (Sibstrin)) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Doctoral Student, Department of Metal and Wooden Structures, Novosibirsk State Universityof Architecture and Civil Engineering (NSUACE (Sibstrin)), 113 Leningradskaya str., Novosibirsk, 630008, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 58-67

In the article, the author has proven that manufacturing and installation errors, as well as contact deformations of high strength bolts, if analyzed as part of tensile connections of steel structures, work in eccentric tension. In pursuance of the effective state standards, the analysis of these bolts is based on the axial tension. The author has analyzed the failure of a steel structure, caused by the fracture of eccentrically loaded bolts made of steel grade XC 42 (France), or C40 (Germany), that later followed the delayed fracturing pattern. The author provides the findings of the lab tests, whereby the above bolts were tested in the presence of an angle washer. The author has also analyzed the findings of low-temperature tests of bolts in tension. The author demonstrates that the strength of high strength bolts is driven by the material, the structure shape, and the thermal treatment pattern. Eccentric tension tests of bolts have proven that cracks emerge in the areas of maximal concentration of stresses (holes in shafts, etc.) that coincide with the areas where fibers are in tension; cracks tend to follow the delayed fracturing pattern, and their development is accompanied by the deformation-induced metal heating in the fracture area. Therefore, the analysis of high strength bolts shall concentrate on the eccentric tension with account for contact-induced loads, while the tendency to delayed fracturing may be adjusted through the employment of both metallurgical and process techniques.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.11.58-67

References
  1. Augustin Ya., Shledzevskiy E. Avarii stal'nykh konstruktsiy [Accidents on Steel Structures]. Translated from Polish. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1978, 183 p. (In Russian).
  2. Katyushin V.V. Zdaniya s karkasami iz stal'nykh ram peremennogo secheniya (raschet, proektirovanie, stroitel'stvo) [Building with Steel Frames of Variable Cross Section (Calculation, Design, Construction)]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 2005, 656 p. (In Russian).
  3. SP 16.13330.2011. Stal'nye konstruktsii. Aktualizirovannaya redaktsiya SNiP II-23—81* [Requirements SP 16.13330.2011. Steel Structures. The Updated Edition of Construction Rules SNIP II-23—81*]. Minregion Rossii [Ministry of Regional Development of Russia]. Moscow, OAO «TsPP» Publ., 2011, 178 p. (In Russian).
  4. Moyseychik E.A. Avarii sooruzheniy i ikh uchet pri nauchnom i normativnom obespechenii mostostroeniya [Crash of Structures and Accounting for Them in the Scientific and Regulatory Provision of Bridge Construction]. Avtomobil'nye dorogi i mosty [Highways and Bridges]. 2010, no. 1(5), pp. 109—114. (In Russian).
  5. Goritskiy V.M., Khromov D.P. Kachestvo i ekspluatatsionnaya nadezhnost' vysokoprochnykh boltov iz stali 40Kh «selekt» [Quality and Operational Reliability of High-strength Bolts of 40 "Select" Steel]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 1999, no. 5, pp. 21—22. (In Russian).
  6. Goritskiy V.M., Guseva I.A., Sotskov N.I., Kulemin A.M. Ustanovlenie prichiny razrusheniya vysokoprochnykh boltov M30 klassa prochnosti 12.9 importnogo proizvodstva [Determining Destruction Causes of Imported High-Strength Bolts M30 of 12.9 Strength Class]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 5, pp. 21—24. (In Russian).
  7. Fridman Ya.B. Mekhanicheskie svoystva metallov : v 2-kh chastyakh. Ch. 2. Mekhanicheskie ispytaniya. Konstruktsionnaya prochnost' [Mechanical Properties of Metals. In 2 parts. 3rd edition, revised and enlarged. Part 2. Mechanical Tests. Structural Strength]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1974, 368 p. (In Russian).
  8. Potak Ya.M. Khrupkie razrusheniya stali i stal'nykh izdeliy [Brittle Fracture of Steel and Steel Products]. Moscow, Oborongiz Publ., 1955, 389 p. (In Russian).
  9. Sil'vestrov A.V., Chibryakov G.G., Moyseychik E.A. Prochnost' boltov uzlovykh sopryazheniy strukturnykh konstruktsiy tipa «MArkhI» pri nizkikh temperaturakh [Strength Bolts for Interface Structural Designs of "MArkhI" Type at Low Temperatures]. Nadezhnost' konstruktsiy v ekstremal'nykh usloviyakh : sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Reliability of Structures under Extreme Conditions : Collection of Scientific Articles]. Yakutsk, YaGU Publ., 1984, pp. 77—82. (In Russian).
  10. Biryulev V.V. Proektirovanie metallicheskikh konstruktsiy [Design of Metal Structures]. Leningrad, Stroyizdat Publ., 1990, 432 p. (In Russian).
  11. Lakhtin Yu.M. Metallovedenie i termicheskaya obrabotka metallov [Metallurgy and Heat Treatment of Metals]. 3rd edition. Moscow, Metallurgiya Publ., 1983, 360 p. (In Russian).
  12. Krutikova I.A., Panfilova L.M., Smirnov L.A. Issledovanie sklonnosti k zamedlennomu razrusheniyu vysokoprochnykh boltovykh staley, mikrolegirovannykh vanadiem i azotom [Investigation of Susceptibility to Delayed Fracture of High-strength Bolting Steels Microalloyed with Vanadium and Nitrogen]. Metallurg [Steel Worker]. 2010, no. 1, pp. 59—64. (In Russian).
  13. Chertov V.M. Tsinkovanie — odna iz prichin vodorodnoy khrupkosti vysokoprochnoy stali [Galvanizing — One of the Reasons of Hydrogen Embrittlement of High Strength Steel]. Tekhnologiya mashinostroeniya [Engineering Technology]. 2006, no. 2, pp. 11—14. (In Russian).
  14. Filippov G.A. Zakonomernosti yavleniya zamedlennogo razrusheniya vysokoprochnykh staley i sposoby povysheniya treshchinostoykosti stal'nykh izdeliy [Regularities of the Phenomenon of Delayed Fracture of High Strength Steels and Ways to Improve the Fracture Toughness of Steel Products]. Thesis of the Doctor of Technical Sciences. Moscow, TsNIIChM im. I.P. Bardina Publ., 1989, 43 p. (In Russian).
  15. Mishin V.M. Strukturno-mekhanicheskie osnovy lokal'nogo razrusheniya konstruktsionnykh staley : monografiya [Structural and Mechanical Bases of Local Fracture of Structural Steels: Monograph]. Pyatigorsk, Spetspechat' Publ., 2006, 226 p.
  16. Mishin V.M., Filippov G.A. Kriteriy i fiziko-mekhanicheskaya kharakteristika soprotivleniya stali zamedlennomu razrusheniyu [Criterion and Physical Mechanical Characteristics of Steel Resistance to Delayed Fracture]. Deformatsiya i razrushenie materialov [Deformation and Fracture of Materials]. 2007, no. 3, pp. 37—42. (In Russian).
  17. Mishin V.M., Filippov G.A. Kineticheskaya model' zamedlennogo razrusheniya zakalennoy stali [Kinetic Model of Delayed Fracture of Hardened Steel]. Problemy chernoy metallurgii i materialovedeniya [Problems Ferrous Metallurgy and Materials Science]. 2008, no. 3, pp. 28—33. (In Russian).
  18. Shikhovtsov A.A., Mishin V.M. Kinetika i mikromekhanika zamedlennogo razrusheniya stali [Kinetics and Micromechanics of Delayed Steel Fracture]. Fundamental'nye issledovaniya [Fundamental Research]. 2013, no. 4 (4), pp. 858—861. Available at: www.rae.ru/fs/?section=content&op=show_article&article_id=10000497. Date of access: 11.10.2014. (In Russian).
  19. Geoffrey L. Kulak, John W. Fisher, John H. A. Struik. Guide to Design Criteria for Bolted and Riveted Joints. Chicago, American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc, 2001, 333 p.
  20. Eliaz N., Shachar A., Tal B., Eliezer D. Characteristics of Hydrogen Embrittlement, Stress Corrosion Cracking and Tempered Martensite Embrittlement in High-strength Steels. Engineering Failure Analysis. 2002, no. 9, pp. 167—184. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1350-6307(01)00009-7.
  21. Dayal R.K., Parvathavarthini N. Hydrogen Embrittlement in Power Plant Steels. Sadhana. June/August 2003, vol. 28, no. 3—4, pp. 431—–451. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02706442.

Download

Prevention of brittle fracture of steel structures by controlling the local stress and strain fields

Vestnik MGSU 2/2015
  • Moyseychik Evgeniy Alekseevich - Novosibirsk State Universityof Architecture and Civil Engineering (NSUACE (Sibstrin)) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Doctoral Student, Department of Metal and Wooden Structures, Novosibirsk State Universityof Architecture and Civil Engineering (NSUACE (Sibstrin)), 113 Leningradskaya str., Novosibirsk, 630008, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 45-59

In the article the author offers a classification of the methods to increase the cold resistance of steel structural shapes with a focus on the regulation of local fields of internal stresses and strains to prevent brittle fracture of steel structures. The need of a computer thermography is highlighted not only for visualization of temperature fields on the surface, but also to control the fields of residual stresses and strains in a controlled element.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.2.45-59

References
  1. SP 16.13330.2011. Stal’nye konstruktsii. Aktualizirovannaya redaktsiya SNiP II-23—81* [Requirements SP 16.13330.2011. Steel Structures. The Updated Edition of SNiP II-23—81*]. Moscow, OAO «TsPP» Publ., 2011, 171 p. (In Russian)
  2. SP 70.13330.2012. Nesushchie i ograzhdayushchie konstruktsii. Aktualizirovannaya redaktsiya SNiP 3.03.01—87 [Requirements SP 70.13330.2012. Carrying and Protecting Structures. The Updated Edition of SNiP 3.03.01—87]. Moscow, MRR RF Publ., 2012, 280 p. (In Russian)
  3. Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures — Part 1—10: Material Toughness and Through-Thickness Properties. EN 1993-1-10: 2005/AC. 2005. 16 p.
  4. Biryulev V.V., Koshin I.I., Krylov I.I., Sil’vestrov A.V. Proektirovanie me-tallicheskikh konstruktsiy [Design of steel structures]. Leningrad, Stroyizdat Publ., 1990, 430 p. (In Russian)
  5. Saal H., Steidl G., Volz M. Sprödbruchsicherheit im Stahlbau. Stahlbau. Sept. 2001, vol. 70, no. 9, pp. 685—697. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stab.200102320.
  6. Mel’nikov N.P., Vinkler O.N., Makhu-tov N.A. Usloviya i prichiny khrupkikh razrusheniy stroitel’nykh stal’nykh konstruktsiy [Conditions and Causes of Brittle Fractures of Building Steel Structures]. Materialy po metallicheskim konstruktsiyam [Proceedings of Metal Structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1972, no. 16, pp. 14—27. (In Russian)
  7. Larionov V.P., Kuz’min V.R., Sleptsov O.I. Khladostoykost’ materialov i elementov konstruktsiy: rezul’taty i perspektivy [Cold Resistance of Materials and Structures: Results and Prospects]. Novosibirsk, Nauka Publ., 2005, 290 p. (In Russian)
  8. Makhutov N.A., Lyglaev A.V., Bol’sha-kov A.M. Khladostoykost’ (metod inzhenernoy otsenki) [Cold Resistance (Method of Engineering Evaluation)]. SO RAN Publ., 2011, 192 p. (In Russian)
  9. Eremeev P.G. Predotvrashchenie lavinoobraznogo (progressiruyushchego) obrusheniya nesushchikh konstruktsiy unikal’nykh bol’sheproletnykh sooruzheniy pri avariynykh vozdeystviyakh [Prevention of Avalanche (Progressive) Collapse of Bearing Structures of Unique Span Structures under Emergency Influences]. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Construction Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 2006, no. 2, pp. 65—72. (In Russian)
  10. Lepikhin A.M., Moskvichev V.V., Doronin S.V. Nadezhnost’, zhivuchest’ i bezopasnost’ slozhnykh tekhnicheskikh sistem [Reliability, Survivability and Safety of Complex Technical Systems]. Vychislitel’nye tekhnologii [Computational Technologies]. 2009, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 58—70. (In Russian)
  11. Okerblom N.O. Konstruktivno-tekhnologicheskoe proektirovanie svarnykh konstruktsiy [Constructive and Technological Design of Welded Structures]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1964, 420 p. (In Russian)
  12. Sagalevich V.M. Metody ustraneniya svarochnykh deformatsiy i napryazheniy [Residual stresses and methods of regulation]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1974, 248 p. (In Russian)
  13. Podzey A.V., Sulima A.M., Evstigneev M.I., Serebrennikov G.Z. Tekhnologicheskie ostatochnye napryazheniya [Technological Residual Stresses]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1973, 216 p. (In Russian)
  14. Kozlov S.V. Upravlenie ostatochnymi napryazheniyami v stal'nykh konstruktsiyakh s ispol'zovaniem plazmennoy svarki [Control of Residual Stresses in Steel Structures Using Plasma Welding]. Зbirnik naukovikh prats' Ukraїns'kogo naukovo-doslidnogo ta proektnogo institutu stalevikh konstruktsiy imeni V.M. Shimanovs'kogo [Collection of Scientific Works of the Ukrainian Scientific-Research and Design Institute of Steel Construction named after V.N Shimanovsky]. Kiev, Stal' Publ., 2008, vol. 2, pp. 13—17. (In Russian)
  15. Abovskiy N.P., Endzhievskiy L.V., Savchenkov V.I., Deruga A.P., Gitts N.M. Regulirovanie. Sintez. Optimizatsiya. Izbrannye zadachi po stroitel’noy mekhanike i teorii uprugosti [Regulation. Synthesis. Optimization. Selected Problems of Structural Mechanics and Theory of Elasticity]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1978, 189 p. (In Russian)
  16. Hall U.J., Kichara H., Zut V., Wells A.A. Khrupkie razrusheniya svarnykh konstruktsiy [Brittle Fracture of Welded Structures]. Russian translation. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1974, 320 p. (In Russian)
  17. Kopel’man L.A. Vliyanie ostatochnykh napryazheniy na sklonnost’ svarnykh elementov k khrupkim razrusheniyam [Influence of Residual Stresses on the Tendency of Welded Elements to Brittle Fracture]. Svarochnoe proizvodstvo [Welding Production]. 1963, no. 4, pp. 9—18. (In Russian)
  18. Kudryavtsev P.I. Ostatochnye svarochnye napryazheniya i prochnost’ soedineniy [Residual Welding Stresses and Strength of Joints]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1964, 96 p. (In Russian)
  19. Trochun I.P. Vnutrennie usiliya i deformatsii pri svarke [Internal Forces And Deformations At Welding]. Moscow, Mashgiz Publ., 1964, 248 p. (In Russian)
  20. Vasylev V.N., Dozorenko Yu.I. Izgotovlenie konstruktsii perforirovannykh balok s garantirovannoy epyuroy vnutrennikh napryazheniy v usloviyakh zavodov metallokonstruktsiy [Design of Perforated Beams with Guaranteed Diagrams of Internal Stresses in Metal Plants]. Metallicheskie konstruktsii [Metal Structures]. 2013, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 49—58. (In Russian)
  21. Golodnov A.I. Regulirovanie ostatochnykh napryazheniy v svarnykh dvutavrovykh kolonnakh i balkakh [Regulation of Residual Stresses in Welded I-beam Columns and Beams]. Kiev, Stal’ Publ., 2008, 150 p. (In Russian)
  22. Alpsten G.A., Tall D.L. Residual Stresses in Heavy Welded Shapes. Geometry of Plates and Shapes is an Important Variable Affecting Residual Stress Magnitude and Distribution, and Initial Residual Stresses Due to Rolling Can be a Higher Magnitude Than Those Due to Welding. Welding Research Supplement. March, 1970, pp. 93—105.
  23. Siddique M., Abid M., Junejo H.F., Mufti R.A. 3-D Finite Element Simulation of Welding Residual Stresses in Pipe-Flange Joints: Effect of Welding Parameters. Materials Science Forum. 2005, vol. 490—491, pp. 79—84. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.490-491.79.
  24. Wilson W.M., Chao Chien Hao. Residual Stresses in Welded Structures. University of Illinois Bulletin. February 2. 1946, vol. 43, no. 40, 80 p.
  25. DeLong D.T., Bowman M.D. Fatigue Strength of Steel Bridge Members with Intersecting Welds. Final Report FHWA/IN/JTRP-2009/19. Design 7/10 JTRP-2009/19 INDOT Division of Research West Lafayette, IN 47906 // Indianapolis, July 2010, 204 p.
  26. Rykovskiy B.P., Smirnov V.A., Shcheti-nin G.M. Mestnoe uprochnenie detaley poverkhnostnym naklepom [Local Hardening Of Details By Surface Hardening]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1985, 152 p. (In Russian)
  27. Vinokurov V.A. Otpusk svarnykh konstruktsii dlya snizheniya napryazheniy [Draw of Welded Structures to Reduce Stresses]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1973, 215 p. (In Russian)
  28. Alyavdin P.V. Predel’nyy analiz konstruktsiy pri povtornykh nagruzheniyakh [Limit Analysis of Structures under Repeated Loading]. Minsk, UP «Tekhnoprint» Publ., 2005, 284 p. (In Russian)
  29. Ivanov A.M., Lukin E.S., Larionov V.N. K issledovaniyu kinetiki uprugoplasticheskogo deformirovaniya i razrusheniya elementov konstruktsiy s kontsentratorami napryazheniy po teplovomu izlucheniyu [On the Kinetics Study of Elastic-Plastic Deformation and Fracture of Structural Elements with Stress Concentrators on Thermal Radiation]. Doklady Akademii nauk [Reports of the Russian Academy of Sciences]. 2004, vol. 395, no. 5, pp. 609—613. (In Russian)
  30. Yakushev A.I., Mustaev R.Kh., Mavlyu-tov R.R. Povyshenie prochnosti i nadezhnosti rez’bovykh soedineniy [Increasing the Strength and Reliability of Threaded Connections]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1979, 215 p. (In Russian)
  31. Ivanov A.M., Lukin E.S. Kombinirovanie metodov obrabotki — effektivnyy sposob upravleniya udarnoy vyazkost’yu staley [Combining the Treatment Methods — An Effective Way to Control the Toughness of Steel]. Izvestiya Samarskogo nauchnogo tsentra RAN [Proceedings of the Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences]. 2012, vol. 14, no. 4 (5), pp. 1239—1242. (In Russian)

Download

Usingsteel beams with corrugated web in hydraulic structures

Vestnik MGSU 11/2013
  • Bal'zannikov Mikhail Ivanovich - Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SGASU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Environmental Protection and Hydraulic Engineering Structures, Rector, Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SGASU), 194 Molodogvardeyskaya St., Samara, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kholopov Igor’ Serafimovich - Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SGASU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Steel and Timber Structures; +7(846)332-09-36, Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SGASU), 194 Molodogvardeyskaya St., Samara, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Solov'ev Aleksey Vital'evich - Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SGASU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant Professor, Department of Steel and Timber Structures, Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SGASU), 194 Molodogvardeyskaya St., Samara, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Lukin Aleksey Olegovich - Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SSUACE) assistant lecturer, Department of Metal and Timber Structures; +7 (846) 332-14-65, Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SSUACE), 194 Molodogvardeyskaya st., Samara, 443001, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 34-41

The article is devoted to exploring the use of beams with corrugated web in the construction of hydraulic structures. Two groups of metal structures of hydraulic structures are considered, depending on their operating conditions:structures not related to water retention;construction designed for water retention.Operating conditions of the first group of structures are similar with the structures of industrial buildings. Hence, it is possible to use the beams with a corrugated web but with a larger web thickness. In the constructions of the second group the operating conditions significantly differ from the first group. These structures are constantly in water or in humid state and therefore additional measures are required to ensure reliability.Two positive factors contribute to the introduction of corrugated web beams in the construction of flat gates:the lack of concentrated loads which strongly affects the bearing capacity of beams;general stability of the beams is ensured by the continuous supported compression flange.At the first stage of the study the girder of the flat gate was designed of beams with corrugated web. Design of beams with corrugated web was carried by the Eurocode 3. The mass comparison of beams with corrugated web with the previously found crosssection with a flat solid web showed the savings of up to 5.2 %. By varying the parameters of the corrugations savings can increase to 8—10 %.The studies showed that the introduction of corrugated web beams in the construction of hydraulic structures is appropriate. Some tasks require additional research.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.34-41

References
  1. Pasternak H., Kubieniec G. Plate Girders with Corrugated Webs. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management. 2010, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 166—171.
  2. Kholopov I.S., Bal'zannikov M.I., Alpatov V.Ju. Primenenie reshetchatykh prostranstvennykh metallicheskikh konstruktsiy v pokrytiyakh mashinnykh zalov GES [The Use of Spatial Grid Metal Structures in the Roofs of HPP Turbine Rooms]. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroite?nogo universiteta. Seriya: Stroite?stvo i arkhitektura [Bulletin of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Series: Civil Engineering and Architecture]. 2012, no. 28 (47), pp. 225—232.
  3. Stal'nye konstruktsii v gidrotekhnicheskom stroitel'stve [Steel Structures in Hydraulic Engineering]. Morskoy biznes Severo-Zapada [Marine Business of the North-West]. 2005, no. 2. Available at: http://www.mbsz.ru/02/47726.php. Date of access: 28.07.2013.
  4. Kozinets G.L. Otsenka prochnosti i dolgovechnosti korrozionno-iznoshennykh metallokonstruktsiy gidrotekhnicheskikh zatvorov [Estimation of the Strength and Durability of Corrosion-worn Metal Structures of Hydraulic Gates]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel'stvo [Hydraulic engineering]. 2007, no. 1, pp. 35—39.
  5. Azhermachev S.G., Semenov P.S. O primenenii balok s gofrirovannymi stenkami v palubnykh konstruktsiyakh morskikh platform [On the Application of Beams with Corrugated Web in the Deck Construction of Offshore Platforms]. Stroitel'stvo i tekhnogennaya bezopasnost' [Construction and Technogenic Safety]. 2005, no. 10, pp. 13—16.
  6. Fedorishchev Yu.V. Antikorrozionnaya zashchita gidrotekhnicheskikh sooruzheniy: kompleksnye resheniya ot kompanii «Amvit» [Corrosion Protection of Hydraulic Structures: Integrated Solutions from the Company "Amvit"]. Gidrotekhnika [Hydrotechnics]. 2010, no. 1, pp. 80—81.
  7. Jotun — mirovoy lider v proizvodstve zashchitnykh pokrytiy [Jotun — the World Leader in the Production of Protective Coatings]. Gidrotekhnika [Hydrotechnics]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 80—81.
  8. Abbas H.H., Sause R., Driver R.G. Behavior of Corrugated Web I-Girders under In-Plane Loads. Journal of Engineering Mechanics. 2006, vol. 132, no. 8, pp. 806—814.
  9. Zubkov V.A., Lukin A.O. Eksperimental’nye issledovaniya vliyaniya tekhnologicheskikh i konstruktsionnykh parametrov na nesushchuyu sposobnost’ metallicheskikh balok s gofrirovannoy stenkoy [Experimental Research into the Influence Produced by Process-related and Structural Parameters on the Bearing Capacity of Metal Beams with Corrugated Webs]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 2, pp. 37—46.
  10. K?vesdi B., Dunai L. Determination of the patch loading resistance of girders with corrugated webs using nonlinear finite element analysis. Computers and Structures. 2011, vol. 89, no. 21—22, pp. 2010—2019.

Download

Problem statement for optimal design of steel structures

Vestnik MGSU 6/2014
  • Ginzburg Aleksandr Vital'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Professor of Department of Information Systems, Technologies and Automation in Civil Engineering, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Vasil'kin Andrey Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Steel Construction, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337; + 7 (499) 183-37-65; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 52-62

The presented article considers the following complex of tasks. The main stages of the life cycle of a building construction with the indication of process entrance and process exit are described. Requirements imposed on steel constructions are considered. The optimum range of application for steel designs is specified, as well as merits and demerits of a design material. The nomenclature of metal designs is listed - the block diagram is constructed. Possible optimality criteria of steel designs, offered by various authors for various types of constructions are considered. It is established that most often the criterion of a minimum of design mass is accepted as criterion of optimality; more rarely - a minimum of the given expenses, a minimum of a design cost in business. In the present article special attention is paid to a type of objective function of optimization problem. It is also established that depending on the accepted optimality criterion, the use of different types of functions is possible. This complexity of objective function depends on completeness of optimality criterion application. In the work the authors consider the following objective functions: the mass of the main element of a design; objective function by criterion of factory cost; objective function by criterion of cost in business. According to these examples it can be seen that objective functions by the criteria of labor expenses for production of designs are generally non-linear, which complicates solving the optimization problem. Another important factor influencing the problem of optimal design solution for steel designs, which is analyzed, is account for operating restrictions. In the article 8 groups of restrictions are analyzed. Attempts to completely account for the parameters of objective function optimized by particular optimality criteria, taking into account all the operating restrictions, considerably complicates the problem of designing. For solving this task it can be offered to use informational technologies and opportunities of automated systems. For this purpose it is necessary to develop the automated system of steel designs, allowing to consider some criteria of optimality and a wide range of the restrictions for steel structural designs. This will allow to accelerate projection process, to reduce labor input of a designer and essentially increase the quality of design solutions for steel designs.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.6.52-62

References
  1. Parlashkevich V.S., Vasil'kin A.A., Bulatov O.E. Proektirovanie i raschet metallicheskikh konstruktsiy [Design and Calculation of Metal Structures]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2013, 152 p.
  2. Klyuev S.V., Klyuev A.V., Lesovik R.V. Optimal'noe proektirovanie stal'noy prostranstvennoy fermy [Optimal Design of Steel Space Truss]. Vestnik TGASU [Proceedings of Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building]. 2008, no. 1, pp. 74—78.
  3. Vostrov V.K., Vasil'kin A.A. Optimizatsiya vysot poyasov stenki rezervuara [Optimization of the Height of Tank Shell Ring]. Montazhnye i spetsial'nye raboty v stroitel'stve [Erecting and Special Works in Construction]. 2005, no. 11, pp. 37—40.
  4. Peleshko І.D., Yurchenko V.V. Optimal'ne proektuvannya metalevikh konstruktsіy na suchasnomu etapі (oglyad prats') [Optimal Design of Metal Structures on Modern Stage: Overview of Works]. Metallicheskie konstruktsii [Metal Structures]. 2009, no. 1, vol. 15, pp. 13—21.
  5. Baranovskaya L.V. Ispol'zovanie metoda proektsiy gradienta pri optimal'nom proektirovanii metallokonstruktsiy tyazhelykh kozlovykh kranov [Application of Gradient Projection Method in Case of Optimal Design of the Metal Structures of Heavy Portal Crane]. Vestnik SGTU [Proceedings of Saratov State Technical University]. 2010, no. 1 (44), pp. 24—27.
  6. Ricardo Coelho Silva, Luiza A.P. Cantao, Akebo Yamakami. Application of an Iterative Method and an Evolutionary Algorithm in Fuzzy Optimization. Pesquisa Operacional. 2012, no. 32 (2), pp. 315—329. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-74382012005000018.
  7. Vasil'kin A.A., Rakhmonov E.K. Sistemotekhnika optimal'nogo proektirovaniya elementov stroitel'nykh konstruktsiy [System Techniqueof Optimal Design of Construction Elements Design]. Inzhenernyy vestnik Dona [Engineering Proceedings of Don]. 2013, no. 4. Available at: http://www.ivdon.ru/magazine/archive/n4y2013/2203. Date of access: 17.03.2014.
  8. Likhtarnikov Ya.M. Variantnoe proektirovanie i optimizatsiya stal'nykh konstruktsiy [Trial Design and Optimization of Steel Structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1979, 319 p.
  9. Denisova A.P., Rasshchepkina S.A. Metody optimal'nogo proektirovaniya stroitel'nykh konstruktsiy [Methods of Optimal Design of Engineering Structures]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2012, 216 p.
  10. Sergeev N.D., Bogatyrev A.I. Problemy optimal'nogo proektirovaniya konstruktsiy [Problems of Optimal Design of Structures]. Leningrad, Stroyizdat Publ., 1971, 241 p.
  11. Rakovskiy A.E. Razrabotka metodiki optimal'nogo proektirovaniya konstruktsiy korpusa transportnykh sudov. Avtoreferat dissertatsii kandidata tekhnicheskikh nauk [Methods Development for optimal Structures Design of Transport Ship Hulls. Abstract of Dissertation of Candidate of Technical Sciences]. 05.08.02, Leningrad, 1986, 19 p.
  12. Sorokin E.S., Fayn A.M. Vybor osnovnykh parametrov proektirovaniya machty stroitel'nogo pod"emnika [Choosing the Main Design Parameters for Construction Hoist Pillar]. Stroitel'nye i dorozhnye mashiny [Construction and Road Machines]. 1989, no. 10, pp. 18—19.
  13. Valuyskikh V.P. Raschet i optimal'noe proektirovanie konstruktsiy iz tsel'noy i kleenoy drevesiny [Calculation and Optimal Design of Structures Made of Whole and Glued Wood]. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Construction Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 1990, no. 3, pp. 52—57.
  14. Rayzer V.D., Dolzhikov V.N., Dolzhikova E.N. Opredelenie optimal'nykh parametrov sostavnykh plastin metodom nelineynogo programmirovaniya [Determination of Optimal Parameters of Composite Slabs by the Method of Nonlinear Programming]. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Construction Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 1987, no. 1, pp. 21—23.
  15. Manevich A.I. Optimizatsiya szhatoy prodol'no podkreplennoy tsilindricheskoy obolochki na osnove lineynoy i nelineynoy teoriy ustoychivosti [Optimization of Compressed Longitudinally-stiffened Cylindrical Shell Basing on Linear and Non-linear Stability Theory]. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Construction Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 1990, no. 3, pp. 57—62.
  16. Kholopov I.S. Algoritm dvukhkriterial'noy optimizatsii pri podbore secheniy metallicheskikh konstruktsiy [Algorithm of Two Criteria Optimization in Case of Selecting Crosssections of Metal Structures]. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Construction Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 1990, no. 2, pp. 66—70.
  17. Zevin A.A., Klebanov B.M. Optimal'noe proektirovanie metallicheskikh opor liniy elektroperedachi [Optimal Design of Steel Supports of Power Lines]. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Construction Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 1987, no. 5, pp. 13—16.
  18. Lozbinev F.Yu. Optimizatsiya nesushchikh konstruktsiy kuzovov vagonov [Optimization of Load-bearing Structures of Wagon bodies]. Bryansk, TsNTI Publ., 1997, 135 p.
  19. Baccari A., Trad A. On the Classical Necessary Second-Order Optimality Conditions in The Presence of Equality and Inequality Constraints. SIAM. Journal of Optimization. 2004, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 394—408. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/S105262340342122X. Date of access: 21.03.2014.
  20. Ben-Tal A., Zowe J. A Unified Theory of First and Second Order Conditions for Extremum Problems in Topological Vector Spaces. Mathematical Programming Study. 1982, vol. 19, pp. 39—76. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BFb0120982. Date of access: 21.03.2014.

Download

Development of the methodology of the design decision searching in the process of structural metalwork design

Vestnik MGSU 9/2014
  • Volkov Andrey Anatol'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Information Systems, Technologies and Automation in Civil Engineering, Rector, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Vasil'kin Andrey Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Steel Construction, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337; + 7 (499) 183-37-65; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 123-137

The design decision is usually a synthesis of various requirements to the construction object. The main difficulty is to approve the solution results of all the subtasks, because these various requirements often contradict each other. In the article the existing approaches to design solutions searching for steel structural designs are considered, features of standard and individual design are specified. The associative method of choosing the design decision is offered. The process of search is directed in order to receive favorable coincidence of design situations, current and implemented earlier and to apply the approved decisions. In order to consider the greatest possible quantity of combinations of design solution for structural designs in the article it is offered to create a tree of enumeration of possibilities for decisions, in case of which the possible values of decision parameters vary. The algorithm of searching the design decision is shown by a method of a tree of search creation. Three levels of solution for a problem of steel structural designs are thus described. Also the question is raised of the effectiveness of padding expenses for creating the complete tree of search of options, their analysis and assessment.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.9.123-137

References
  1. Naginskaya V.S. Avtomatizatsiya arkhitekturno-stroitel'nogo proektirovaniya [Automation of Architectural and Construction Design]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1979, 175 p.
  2. Ignatov V.P., Ignatova E.V. Evristiki dannykh v stroitel'nom proektirovanii [Data Heuristics in Construction Design]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 2, pp. 226—229.
  3. Kilina A.A., Parinov M.V., Chizhov M.I. Arkhitektura sistemy podderzhki prinyatiya i kontrolya proektnykh resheniy [Architecture of Support System for Design Decision Making and Control]. Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta [Proceedings of Voronezh State Technical University]. 2011, vol. 7, no. 12-2, pp. 41—44.
  4. Agafonkina N.V., Karpov Yu.A., Stegantsev D.N. Model' odnokriterial'nogo prinyatiya resheniy v usloviyakh neopredelennosti [Model of One-Criteria Decision Making in the Conditions of Uncertainty]. Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta [Proceedings of Voronezh State Technical University]. 2009, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 36—37.
  5. Veera P. Darji, Ravipudi V. Rao. Application of AHP/EVAMIX Method for Decision Making in the Industrial Environment. American Journal of Operations Research. 2013, no. 3, pp. 542—569. Available at: http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=39747#.VA18gPnV9cQ. Date of access: 03.06.2014. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajor.2013.36053.
  6. Dixon J.R. Design Engineering: Inventiveness, Analysis, and Decision Making. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1966, 354 p.
  7. Hill P. Nauka i iskusstvo proektirovaniya. Metody proektirovaniya, nauchnoe obosnovanie resheniy [Design Science and Art. Design Methods, Scientific Rationale of Solutions]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1973, 262 p.
  8. Botvinnik M.M. O reshenii netochnykh perebornykh zadach [On Solving Unprecise Brute Tasks]. Moscow, Sovetskoe radio Publ., 1979, 152 p.
  9. Novikova A.N. Opyt optimizatsii proektnogo protsessa na primere real'nogo ob"ekta v g. Kazani [Experience of Optimizing Design Process on the Example of Real Object in Kazan]. Izvestiya KGASU [Proceedings of Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering]. 2011, no. 4 (18), pp. 100—106.
  10. Khanina A.B., Alekhin V.N. Vnedrenie ekspertnykh sistem v protsesse proektirovaniya stroitel'nykh konstruktsiy [Expert Systems Implementation in the Process of Building Structures Design]. Akademicheskiy vestnik UralNIIproekt RAASN [Academic Proceedings of UralNIIproject of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences]. 2011, no. 2, pp. 82—85.
  11. Koch C., Buhl H. "Integrated Design Process" a Concept for Green Energy Engineering. Engineering. 2013, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 292—298. Available at: http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=28771#.VA2GHvnV9cQ. Date of access: 03.06.2014. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/eng.2013.53039.
  12. Ginzburg A.V., Vasil'kin A.A. Postanovka zadachi optimal'nogo proektirovaniya stal'nykh konstruktsiy [Problem Statement for Optimal Design of Steel Structures]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 6, pp. 52—62.
  13. Zhavnerov P.B., Ginzburg A.V. Povyshenie organizatsionno-tekhnologicheskoy nadezhnosti stroitel'stva za schet strukturnykh meropriyatiy [Using Structural Actions to Improve Organizational and Technological Reliability of Construction Activities]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 3, pp. 196—200.

Download

Basic definitions and terminology problems in metal construction

Vestnik MGSU 8/2014
  • Moyseychik Evgeniy Alekseevich - Novosibirsk State Universityof Architecture and Civil Engineering (NSUACE (Sibstrin)) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Doctoral Student, Department of Metal and Wooden Structures, Novosibirsk State Universityof Architecture and Civil Engineering (NSUACE (Sibstrin)), 113 Leningradskaya str., Novosibirsk, 630008, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-19

The complex program of harmonization of Russian and European systems of technical rate setting in construction presupposes the translation of Eurocode texts to Russian language, their adaptation for use on the Russian territory and creation of terminological dictionaries, which includes dictionaries on metal construction. In the article the author gives examples of inappropriate Russian terms introduced in the process of translation from foreign languages. For the concepts denoted by the proposed terms, there already exist established normative documents, which have passed all the terminological procedure and are introduced in State Standards and regulations. The author demonstrates contradictions and formulates the basic terms, showing the ground state of modern science and engineering practice of cold-resistant steel structures. The basic requirements for the development of quality in construction terminology are stated. Scientific, research, methodic, organizational work on construction databases creation should be executed on minimum two languages: English and Russian before developing terminological standards in the construction sphere. Normative terminological dictionaries, collections of scientific-normative and technical-normative terminology, dictionaries and reference works are the sources for construction databases. Scientific technical translation should undergo qualified scientific editing.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.8.7-19

References
  1. Dobrovidov A.H. Kholodnolomkost' stali [Cold Shortness of Steel]. Izvestiya TPU [Bulletin of Tomsk Polytechnic University]. 2003, vol. 306, no. 7, pp. 139—164.
  2. Shevandin E.M., Razov I.D. Khladnolomkost' i predel'naya plastichnost' metallov v sudostroenii [Cold Shortness and Limit Plasticity of Metals in Ship Building]. Leningrad, Sudostroenie Publ., 1965, 336 p.
  3. Vinokurov V.A., Larionov V.P. Osnovnye napravleniya i perspektivy issledovaniy po obespecheniyu khladostoykosti svarnykh soedineniy [Main Directions and Prospects of Investigations on Providing Cold Resistance of Weld Seams]. Rabotosposobnost' mashin i konstruktsiy v usloviyakh nizkikh temperatur. Khladostoykost' materialov: sbornik dokladov Vsesoyuznoy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy konferentsii. Chast '. 2: Prochnost' metallov i svarnykh konstruktsiy [Workability of Machines and Structures in Low Temperature Conditions. Cold Resistance of Materials: Collection of Papers of All-Union Scientific and Technical Conference. Part 2: Durability of Materials and Welded Constructions]. Yakutsk, YaF SO AN SSSR Publ., 1974, pp. 3—18.
  4. Larionov V.P., Kuz'min V.R., Sleptsov O.I., Lepov V.V. Khladostoykost' materialov i elementov konstruktsiy: rezul'taty i perspektivy [Cold Resistance of Materials and Construction Elements: Results and Prospects]. IFTPS SO RAN, Novosibirsk, Nauka Publ., 2005, 290 p.
  5. Odesskiy P.D. O razvitii metodiki otsenki khladostoykosti konstruktsiy s uchetom konstruktivno-tekhnologicheskikh faktorov i usloviy ekspluatatsii [On the Development of Evaluation Methods for Construction Cold Resistance with Account for Constructive and Technological Factors and Operation Conditions]. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics and Structural Analysis]. 1992, no. 3, pp. 76—83.
  6. Gorpinchenko V.M., Starikov V.A. Otsenka khladostoykosti elementov boltovykh soedineniy iz malouglerodistykh staley [Evaluation of Cold Resistant Elements of Bolted Connections Made of Mild Steel]. Novye formy i prochnost' metallicheskikh konstruktsiy: trudy TsNIISK im. V.A. Kucherenko [New Forms and Durability of Metal Structures: Works of Central Scientific and Research Institute of Building Constructions Named after V.A. Kucherenko]. Moscow, TsNIISK Publ., 1989, pp. 244—254.
  7. Sil'vestrov A.V. Povyshenie nadezhnosti stal'nykh konstruktsiy, podverzhennykh vozdeystviyu nizkikh estestvennykh temperatur : dissertatsiya doktora tekhnicheskikh nauk [Raising Durability of Steel Structures Subject to Low Natural Temperatures’ Affect: Doctor of Technical Sciences Thesis]. Novosibirsk, NISI Publ., 1974, 432 p.
  8. Shafray S.D. Khladostoykost' stal'nykh konstruktsiy i deformatsionnye kriterii ee otsenki : avtoreferat dissertatsii doktora tekhnicheskikh nauk [Cold Resistance of Steel Structures and Deformational Criteria of its Evaluation: Author’s Abstract of Doctor of Technical Sciences Thesis]. Moscow, TsNIISK im. V.A. Kucherenko Publ., 1999, 46 p.
  9. Streletskiy N.S., Baldin V.A. Uchet sklonnosti k khrupkomu razrusheniyu stali v raschetakh konstruktsiy [Account for Steel Tendency for Brittle Failure in Structure Analisis]. Vtoraya vsesoyuznaya konferentsiya po khladostoykosti svarnykh konstruktsiy : tezisy dokladov [Second All-Union Conference Cold Resistance of Welded Constructions: Report Theses]. Kiev, IES im. E.O. Patona Publ., 1965, pp. 27—30.
  10. Shevernitskiy V.V., Zhemchuzhnikov G.V. K voprosu o khrupkom razrushenii svarnykh metallokonstruktsiy [To the Oroblem of Brittle Failure of Welded Metal Structures]. Avtomaticheskaya svarka [Automatic Welding]. 1955, no. 6, pp. 19—29.
  11. Sakhnovskiy M.M., Titov A.M. Uroki avariy stal'nykh konstruktsiy [Lessons of Steel Structures’ Accidents]. Kiev, Budivel'nik Publ., 1969, 200 p.
  12. Odesskiy P.D., Vedyakov I.I., Gorpinchenko V.M. Predotvrashchenie khrupkikh razrusheniy metallicheskikh stroitel'nykh konstruktsiy [Prevention of Massive Distructions of Metal Building Constructions]. Moscow, SP «Intermet inzhiniring» Publ., 1998, 219 p.
  13. Shafray S.D. Povyshenie khrupkoy prochnosti stal'nykh konstruktsiy pri nizkikh temperaturakh [Raising Brittle Fracture of Steel Structures in Low Temperatures]. Novosibirsk, NISI Publ., 1989, 88 p.
  14. Biryulev V.V., Koshin I.I., Krylov I.I., Sil'vestrov A.V. Proektirovanie metallicheskikh konstruktsiy [Metal Structures Design]. Leningrad, Stroyizdat Publ., 1990, 432 p.
  15. Belyaev B.I., Kornienko V.S. Prichiny avariy stal'nykh konstruktsiy i sposoby ikh ustraneniya [Reasons for Accidents of Metal Structures and Ways of their Elimination]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1968, 206 p.
  16. Lashchenko M.N. Avarii metallicheskikh konstruktsiy zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Accidents of Metal Constructions of Buildings and Structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1969, 183 p.
  17. Kishkin B.P. Konstruktsionnaya prochnost' materialov [Constructive Strength of Materials]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1967, 184 p.
  18. Moskvichev V.V. Osnovy konstruktsionnoy prochnosti tekhnicheskikh sistem i inzhenernykh sooruzheniy [Fundamentals of Constructive Strength of Technical Systems and Engineering Structures]. Novosibirsk, Nauka Publ., 2002, 106 p.
  19. Chuvikovskiy V.S. Konstruktivno-tekhnologicheskaya prochnost' i obespechenie nadezhnosti korpusnykh konstruktsiy [Constructive and Technological Strength and Reliability of Hull Structures]. Sudostroenie [Ship Building]. 1978, no. 8, pp. 3—5.
  20. Kudishin Yu.I., Belenya E.I., Ignat'eva V.S. Metallicheskie konstruktsii [Metal Structures]. 11th edition, Moscow, ITs «Akademiya» Publ., 2008, 688 p.
  21. Shevernitskiy V.V., Novikov V.I., Zhemchuzhnikov G.V., Trufyakov V.I. Staticheskaya prochnost' svarnykh soedineniy iz malouglerodistoy stali [Static Strength of Welded Seams Made of Wild Steel]. Kiev, AN USSR Publ., 1951, 87 p.
  22. Kratkoe metodicheskoe posobie po razrabotke i uporyadocheniyu nauchno-tekhnicheskoy terminologii [Short Manual on Development and Improvement of Scientific Technical Terminology]. AN SSSR, KNTT, Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1979, 127 p.
  23. Terminologicheskiy slovar' dlya natsional'nykh normativnykh dokumentov realizuyushchikh Evrokody [Terminological Dictionary for National Normative Documents Implementing Eurocodes]. Moscow, TsNIIPSK im.Mel'nikova Publ., 2014, 208 p.
  24. MGSN 53-01—2013. Stal'nye konstruktsii i izdeliya. Mezhgosudarstvennye stroitel'nye normy (proekt) [MGSN 53-01—2013.Steel Structures and Products. Interstate Construction Norms (Project)]. Available at: http://www.certif.org/MNTKS/index2.html. Date of access: 23.06.2014.
  25. ISO 704: 2009. Terminology Work — Principles and Methods. 3rd ed. Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Terminology and Other Language and Content Resources, Subcommittee SC 1, Principles and Methods. Geneva, ISO, 2009, 74 p.
  26. GOST R ISO 704—2010. Terminologicheskaya rabota. Printsipy i metody [State Standard GOST R ISO 704—2010. Terminological Work. Principles and Methods]. Moscow, Standartinform Publ., 2012, 581 p.
  27. Moyseychik E.A., Avdenya A.V., Vovna E.E., Zavadskiy V.Yu. Belorusskoyazychnaya nauchno-tekhnicheskaya terminologiya v stroitel'stve [Belorussian Language Scientific and Technical Terminology in Construction]. Vestnik BNTU [Proceedings of Belarusian National Technical University]. 2010, no. 2, pp. 94—101.
  28. Goritskiy V.M. Diagnostika metallov [Diagnostics of Metals]. Moscow, Metallurgizdat Publ., 2004, 408 p.
  29. Stroitel'naya mekhanika: sbornik rekomenduemykh terminov [Construction Mechanics: Collection of Recommended Terms]. Issue 82. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1969, 48 p.
  30. Volkova I.N., Danilenko L.P. Standartizatsiya terminologii v SSSR i mezhdunarodnykh organizatsiyakh [Terminology Stardantization in the USSR and International Organizations]. Moscow, VNIIKI Publ., 1978, 49 p.

Download

Results 1 - 6 of 6