ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

The architectural sketch

Vestnik MGSU 3/2013
  • Kozhevnikov Aleksandr Mikhaylovich - Firma GIPROKON L-D Limited Liability Company member, Moscow Architects' Union, lecturer, Department of Rural Architecture, Firma GIPROKON L-D Limited Liability Company, 7 Gilyarovskogo St., Moscow, 129090, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 16-25

The contribution of architectural sketching skills into the classical architectural education is unusually valuable, as this is the way future architects articulate and communicate their ideas to others.The author discusses the features of architectural sketching. He also analyzes methods of finding architectural forms, their crystallization and formation. Basic methods of contemporary architectural sketching include graphics, model-based and virtual techniques.Graphics is simple and widely used; it has numerous strengths and weaknesses. This method employs the whole range of graphic and pictorial techniques. This article contains a classification of graphic methods of sketching. The classification is built around the sketching instrument (a slate pencil, a brush, etc.).Model sketching provides a sense of touch and generates certain textures. Therefore, model sketching is a highly intuitive and convenient tool employed at initial stages of design.A virtual method integrates the notions of “lines” and “volumes” into shapes having real physical properties.Each sketching method is self-contained. Skillful application of all the above methods of architectural sketching is the keystone to further successful design.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.3.16-25

References
  1. Barkhin B.G. Metodika arkhitekturnogo proektirovaniya [Methodology of Architectural Design]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1982, p. 35.
  2. Yung K.G. Arkhetip i simvol [ Archetype and Symbol]. Moscow, Renessans Publ., 1991, p. 173.
  3. Dutsev M. Avtorskie metody v arkhitekture. Ot eskiza k proizvedeniyu [Personal Methods in Architecture. From the Sketch to the Work of Art]. Available at: http://www.archiludi.ru/?p=1161. Date of access: 12.01.13.
  4. Maksimov O.G. Risunok v professii arkhitektora [A Drawing in the Profession of an Architect]. Moscow, Stroyizdat publ., 1999, p. 389.
  5. Zaytsev K.G. Grafika i arkhitekturnoe tvorchestvo [Graphics and Art of Architecture]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1979, p. 21.
  6. Revyakin P.P. Tekhnika akvarel’noy zhivopisi [Watercolour Painting Techniques]. Moscow, Gos. Izd-vo literatury po str., arkhit. i stroit. materialam publ., 1959, p. 67.
  7. Stepanov A.V. Ob”emno-prostranstvennaya kompozitsiya [Three-dimensional Composition]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1993, p. 217.
  8. Stasyuk N.G., Kiseleva T.Yu., Orlova I.G. Osnovy arkhitekturnoy kompozitsii [Fundamentals of Architectural Composition]. Moscow, Dograf Publ., 2001, p. 6.
  9. Peter Zellner. Hybrid New Forms in Digital Architecture Space. Thames & Hudson, 1999, p. 72.
  10. Altunyan A.O. Arkhitekturnyy nabrosok v postdigital’nuyu epokhu [An Architectural Sketch in the Post-digital Era]. Arkhitektura i sovremennye informatsionnye tekhnologii (AMIT) [Architecture and Advanced Information Technologies (AMIT)]. 2011, no. 1(14). Available at: http://marhi.ru/AMIT/2011/1kvart11/altunian/abstract.php/ Date of access: 12.01.13.

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PROBLEMS OF INDIRECT ILLUMINATION IN THE AUTOCAD ENVIRONMENT

Vestnik MGSU 6/2012
  • Lebedeva Irina Mikhaylovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Associate Professor, Department of Descriptive Geometry and Graphics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU); This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 126 - 129

The author tackles the problem of realistic rendering associated with the share of scattered light in the overall illumination. Methods of reflected light rendering, implemented in AutoCAD, are described in the article. Methods of suppression of visualization defects are also provided. A brief description of the algorithm of photon tracing, influence of parameters and settings of the photon tracing on the quality and reliability of lighting are provided. The author also describes alternative methods of simulating lighting patterns in the AutoCAD environment.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.6.126 - 129

References
  1. Bayakovskiy Yu.M., Galaktionov V.A. Sovremennye problemy komp’yuternoy (mashinnoy) grafiki [Contemporary Problems of Computer (Machine) Graphics]. Available at http://spkurdyumov.narod.ru/ GalaktionovVladimir.htm. Date of access: 02.05.2012.
  2. Kelly L. Murdock. 3ds Max 8 Bibliya pol’zovatelya [3ds Max 8 User Bible]. Moscow, Dialektika Publ., 2008.
  3. Klimacheva T.N. 3D-modelirovanie v AutoCAD 2007—2010 [3D-Modeling within AutoCAD 2007-2010]. Moscow, DMK Press Publ., 2011.
  4. Lebedeva I.M. Realisticheskaya vizualizatsiya trekhmernykh modeley v srede AutoCAD [Realistic Visualization of Three-dimensional Models in the Environment of AutoCAD]. MSUCE, Moscow, 2011.
  5. Matias Pedersen. Tekhnologiya i metody osveshcheniya [Lighting Techniques and Technology] Available at: http://b3d.mezon.ru/index.php. Date of access: 02.05.2012.
  6. Sivakov I. Kak komp’yuter rasschityvaet izobrazheniya. Tekhnologii programmnogo renderinga. 2004. [How Does the Computer Analyze Images? Software Rendering Technologies. 2004]. Available at: http://www.fcenter.ru/online.shtml?articles/hardware/videos/8749#1. Date of access: 02.05.2012.
  7. Sinenko S.A. Lebedeva I.M. Problemy realisticheskoy vizualizatsii organizatsionno-tekhnologicheskikh resheniy v srede AutoCAD [Problems of Realistic Visualization of Organizational and Technological Solutions in the AutoCAD Environment]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 8, pp. 451—458.
  8. Shikin E.V., Boreskov A.V. Komp’yuternaya grafika. Dinamika, realisticheskie izobrazheniya [Computer Graphics. Dynamic, Realistic Images]. Moscow, Dialog-MIFI Publ., 1995.

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Using AutoCAD to improve the visibility of the organizational technological design

Vestnik MGSU 1/2014
  • Lebedeva Irina Mikhailovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Assistant Professor, Department of Descriptive Geometry and Graphics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 202-208

The article describes the issue of increasing the visibility of technological solutions in organizational-technological design. The ability to visualize the main stages of building process technology contributes to organic integration of all the requirements. A special role for the harmonious perception is played by correct display of the lighting facilities, shadowing. Realistic shadows help to analyze the rooms’ insolation of the designed fa- cility and the surrounding areas. We give a justification for the use of AutoCAD in order to automate the process of visualizing the results of organizational-technological design. The author describes the methods of obtaining realistic natural lighting in AutoCAD without significantly increasing the complexity of the process. Engineering companies in 46 % of cases use the software AutoCAD in order to create construction plans. AutoCAD has a variety of possibilities and is constantly evolving. Continuation is one of the benefits of this program. AutoCAD is unique in terms of customization, because, apart from instruction languages, it has two built-in programming languages: AutoLISP and VisualBasic. Because of these specific features AutoCAD allows to create any applications related to graphics implementation. Constant monitoring of lightning changes allows finding the appropriate in terms of aesthetics, ergonomics and insolation decisions on planning and associating a building or structure to the environment. Solar lighting is simulated by a combination of several directional lightning point sources. The author offers a brief description of the program algorithm, which allows automatically managing lighting settings and creating a file with a realistic visualization of the design solutions.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.1.202-208

References
  1. Lapidus A.A., Telichenko V.I. Informatsionnoe modelirovanie tekhnologiy i biznesprotsessov v stroitel'stve: monografiya [Information Modeling of Technology and Business Processes in Construction. Monograph]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2008.
  2. Kolesnikova E.B., Sinenko S.A. Tekhnologiya virtual'noy real'nosti v otobrazhenii stroitel'nogo general'nogo plana pri vozvedenii ob"ekta [Technology of Virtual Reality in Presentation of General Lay-out in the Process of Building an Object]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 11, pp. 44—46.
  3. Lebedeva I.M., Sinenko S.A. Problemy realisticheskoy vizualizatsii organizatsionnotekhnologicheskikh resheniy v srede AutoCAD [The Problems of Realistic Visualization of the Organizational and Technological Solutions in AutoCAD]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 8, vol. 2, pp. 451—458.
  4. Lebedeva I.M., Sinenko S.A. Algoritm programmy vizualizatsii proektnykh resheniy v srede AUTOCAD [Algorithm of Visualization Software of Design Decisions in AUTOCAD]. Tekhnologiya i organizatsiya stroitel'nogo proizvodstva [Technology and Organization of Construction Industry]. 2012, no. 1(1), pp. 43—46.
  5. Poleshchuk N.N. AutoCAD Razrabotka prilozheniy, nastroyka i adaptatsiya [AutoCAD: Application Development, Customization and Adaptation]. Saint Petersburg, BKhV-Peterburg Publ., 2006.
  6. Klimacheva T.N. Trekhmernaya komp'yuternaya grafika i avtomatizatsiya proektirovaniya na VBA v AutoCAD [3D Computer Graphics and Computer-aided Design on VBA in AutoCAD]. Moscow, Press, 2008, 464 p.
  7. Zatsepin P.M. Avtomatizirovannaya sistema proektirovaniya kontrolya ob"ektov stroitel'stva [Automated System of Control of Construction Projects Designing]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 6, pp. 60.
  8. Pedersen Mathias. Tekhnologiya i metody osveshcheniya [Technology and Lighting Techniques]. Available at: http://b3d.mezon.ru/index.php/Chapter_11.1:_Lighting_Discussion. Date of access: 03.04.2012.
  9. Rogers D., Adams J. Matematicheskie osnovy mashinnoy grafiki [Mathematical Background of Computer Graphics]. 2nd ed. Moscow, Mir Publ., 2001.

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FEATURES OF COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION OF CONSTRUCTING PLANAR DESARGUES CONFIGURATION

Vestnik MGSU 9/2015
  • Ivashchenko Andrey Viktorovich - Union of Designers of Moscow Candidate of Technical Sciences, designer, Union of Designers of Moscow, 90/17 Shosseynaya str., SFGA, room 206, 109383, Moscow, Russian Federation.
  • Znamenskaya Elena Pavlovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor , Department of Descriptive Geometry and Graphics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 168-177

The authors present the main properties of the planar configuration of Desargues, which open the possibility of its widespread use in architectural design and the design of complex volumes, consisting of a series of simple overlapping forms. However, the computer implementation of Desargues configuration construction is associated with certain difficulties caused by the fact that the monitor can only discretely represent the graphical information. In this article we identified and analyzed the properties of Desargues configuration, the use of which allows overcoming these difficulties and solving the problem of the limited capacity of monitors in the development of complex architectural forms with the help of computer graphics. Along with this, the use of the allocated properties allows predicting complex effects of the perception of architectural forms, for example, the difference of perception of architectural objects near and afar with account for perspective distortion, and they are also the basis for the development of the algorithm of construction sequence during design.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.9.168-177

References
  1. Isaeva M.A., Martynyuk A.N., Matveev O.A., Ptitsyna I.V. Vvedenie v deystvitel’nuyu proektivnuyu geometriyu [Introduction to the Real Projective Geometry]. Moscow, MGOU Publ., 2010, 138 p. (In Russian)
  2. Vol’berg O.A. Osnovnye idei proektivnoy geometrii [Basic Ideas of Projective Geometry]. 4th edition. Moscow, URSS Publ., 2009, 192 p. (Nauku vsem! — Shedevry nauchno-populyarnoy literatury [Science to Everyone! — Masterpieces of Popular Scientific Literature]) (In Russian)
  3. Martynyuk A.N., Matveev O.A., Ptitsyna I.V. Elementy proektivnoy geometrii [Elements of projective geometry]. Moscow, MGOU Publ., 2010, 134 p. (In Russian)
  4. Zacharias M. Vvedenie v proektivnuyu geometriyu [Introduction into Projective Geometry]. Transl. from German. Moscow, URSS Publ., 2010, 90 p. (Fiziko-matematicheskoe nasledie: matematika (geometriya) [Physical and Mathematical Heritage: Mathematics (Geometry)]) (In Russian)
  5. Smirnov S.A. Proektivnaya geometriya [Projective Geometry]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1976, 176 p. (In Russian)
  6. Chetverukhin N.F. Proektivnaya geometriya [Projective Geometry]. 8th edition. Moscow, Prosveshchenie Publ., 1969, 368 p. (In Russian)
  7. Glagolev N.A. Proektivnaya geometriya [Projective Geometry]. 2nd edition, revised. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1963, 343 p. (In Russian)
  8. Gorshkova L.S., Pan’zhenskiy V.N., Marina E.V. Proektivnaya geometriya [Projective Geometry]. Moscow, URSS Publ., 2007, 168 p. (In Russian)
  9. Hartshorne R. Foundations of Projective Geometry. Ishi Press, 2009, 190 p.
  10. Busemann H., Kelly P.J. Projective Geometry and Projective Metrics. 2005, Dover Publications, 352 p.
  11. Baer R. Linear Algebra and Projective Geometry. 2005, Dover Publications, 336 p.
  12. Berger M. Geometriya : v 2-kh tomakh [Geometry : in 2 Volumes]. Transl. from French. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1984, vol. 1, 560 s. ; T. 2. 368 s. (In Russian)
  13. Hilbert D., Cohn-Vossen S. Anschauliche Geometrie. Springer; Auflage: 2. Aufl. 1996, 364 p.
  14. Young. J.W., Oswald V. Projective geometry. Boston Ginn, 1918, 370 p.
  15. Skiena S. Algoritmy. The Algorithm Design Manual. Springer; 2nd ed. 2008 edition, 730 p.
  16. Faux I.D., Pratt M.J. Computational Geometry for Design and Manufacture. Chichester, West Sussex, John Willey & sons, 1979, 331 p.
  17. Preparata F.P., Shamos M. Computational Geometry. An Introduction. 1985, Springer-Verlag New York, 398 p. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/978-1-4612-1098-6.
  18. Ivashchenko A.V., Znamenskaya E.P. Konfiguratsiya Dezarga v arkhitekturnom i dizayn-proektirovanii [Configuration of Desargue in Architectural and Design Engineering]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 9, pp. 154—160. (In Russian)
  19. Gamayunov V.N. Proektivografiya. Geometricheskie osnovy khudozhestvennogo konstruirovaniya dlya aspirantov slushateley FPK i studentov khuzhozhestvenno-graficheskogo fakul’teta [Projectography. Geometric Foundations of Artistic Design for Postgraduate Students of FPK and Students of Artistic-Graphical Department]. Moscow, MGPI im. V.I. Lenina, 1976, 25 p. (In Russian)
  20. Ivashchenko A.V., Kondrat’eva T.M. Proektivograficheskiy analiz mnogogrannikov Dzhonsona [Analysis of Johnson’s Polyhedra Using Projective Geometry Techniques]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 5, pp. 226—229. (In Russian)
  21. Ivashchenko A.V., Kondrat’eva T.M. Avtomatizatsiya polucheniya proektivograficheskikh chertezhey tel Dzhonsona [Automatic Receipt of Projective Geometry Drawings of Johnson Bodies]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 6, pp. 179—183. (In Russian)

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SEQUENCE VARIANTS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE CONFIGURATION OF DESARGUES

Vestnik MGSU 9/2016
  • Ivashchenko Andrey Viktorovich - Union of Moscow Architects 90/17 Shosseynaya str., Moscow, 109383, Russian Federation; ivashchenkoa@inbox.ru, Union of Moscow Architects, 7 Granatnyy per., Moscow, 123001, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Znamenskaya Elena Pavlovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Descriptive Geometry and Graphics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 130-139

The article presents the results of the analysis to assess the multi-variant approaches to constructing the Desargues configuration which is the fundamental to projective geometry and projective graphics. From the practical point it is the basis for the theory of perspective and is widely used to solve various tasks, such as constructing shadows in perspective, a direct, incidentally out of the rich within the drawing of the vanishing point, etc. The authors present the algorithm of the possible variants of construction of the Desargues configuration using computer technologies. The computer implementation of theoretical provisions of separate aspects of projective geometry and graphics has previously been considered as applied to Johnson polyhedrons. As any other figure the configuration of Desargues may be constructed by different methods. The authors consider the choice of points and directs included into the configuration and different interpretations of the relations of the point. The considered algorithm of the possible variants of the Desargues configuration construction will allow widely using the configuration in design of complex architectural and design volumes, consisting of a series of simple overlapping forms, by means of modern computer technology.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.9.130-139

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USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN TEACHING COMPUTER GRAPHICS

Vestnik MGSU 6/2012
  • Tel'noy Viktor Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Candidate of Military Sciences, Associated Professor, Department of Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics, +7 (499) 183-24-83, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Tsareva Marina Vladimirovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Associate Professor, Department of Descriptive Geometry and Graphics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 161 - 165

Peculiarities of teaching computer graphics as part of the course of engineering graphics aimed at the mastering of AutoCAD graphic editor are considered by the authors. The objective of the course is to develop the competencies of future professionals, inlcuding their structural design skills.
The authors recommend incorporation of mini-lectures and computer workshops into the training process. Computer quizzes are to be held at the beginning of each class to consolidate the material, to ensure preparedness for mastering new information and to stimulate the process of learning.
Department of descriptive geometry and engineering graphics developed a special methodology to ensure efficient presentation of theoretical material that incorporates special computer techniques and an original structure and succession of computer slides to improve the information intensity of the computer graphics course that enjoys a small number of lecturing hours allocated within training programmes offered by the University.
Well-balanced tests to be performed by students in the course of their computer workshops facilitate their mastering computer graphics techniques that help them make high-quality error-free working drawings.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.6.161 - 165

References
  1. Monakhov B.E., Tel’noy V.I. Izuchenie inzhenernoy grafiki s ispol’zovaniem distantsionnykh informatsionnykh tekhnologiy [The study of Engineering Graphics through the Use of Distance Learning Information Technologies]. Proceedings of the VI International Scientific and Practical Conference «Modern Information Technologies and IT education». Moscow, Moscow State University, 2011, vol. 1, pp. 354 — 357.
  2. Monakhov B.E., Tel’noy V.I. Obuchenie i kontrol’ znaniy po nachertatel’noy geometrii s ispol’zovaniem distantsionnykh obrazovatel’nykh tekhnologiy [Training and Assessment of Academic Performance in Descriptive Geometry through the Employment of Distance Learning Technologies]. Collection of selected works of the VI International Scientific and Practical Conference «Modern Information Technologies and IT education». Moscow, INTUIT.RU Publ., 2011, pp. 389—395.
  3. Glotova V.V., Lebedeva I.M., Borisova A.Yu., Tsareva M.V. Uchebnoe posobie «AutoCAD 2010» dlya studentov spetsial’nostey dnevnogo, vechernego i zaochnogo otdeleniy. [Textbook on AutoCAD 2010 for Full-time, Part-time and Correspondence Students]. Moscow, MSUCE, 2011, 138 ð.

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