BEDDINGS AND FOUNDATIONS, SUBTERRANEAN STRUCTURES. SOIL MECHANICS

Geological background of the estimation of natural stresses in soil body

Vestnik MGSU 1/2015
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 44-53

Initial and boundary conditions are always given for solving the problem of calculating the interaction of tunnels and other underground structures with soil and rocks. The same conditions are set for calculating the surface buildings. These initial data for calculation are divided into three groups: 1) the geometrical shape of the layers of rocks (geological structure); 2) the parameters of the strength and compressibility of rocks; 3) compressive stresses in the array. These data all over the world are set with engineering surveys. In engineering surveys there are good methods of determining the source of the data 1 and 2. But there is no available methodology for determining the natural stress state. Therefore, compressive and tensile stresses are usually determined by mathematical modeling. The calculation of the compressive stresses is done on the basis of the following hypotheses: compressive stresses are created by the weight of rocks; they go down in proportion to the density of rocks; the main normal stress is has a vertical direction; normal stress in horizontal direction is smaller. The value of the horizontal stress is was calculated using Poisson’s ratio. This hypothesis of the nineteenth century was used another 50 years ago, when it was not known exactly about the movement of the continents and when compressive stresses in the earth’s crust have not yet been measured. Today a universal application of this hypothesis is not correct. Now the application of this hypothesis in many cases is not correct. In this research paper an attempt is made to specify the area, in which the above hypothesis can be used. This is done on the basis of current scientific evidence. Abroad this way of calculating tunnels and other underground structures and bases of buildings should be done taking into account the real field of natural stresses. The geological characteristics of the location of the axes of stresses in soil body are based on the study of fractures. Also the article shows the influence of the surface topography of the territory on stress in soil. In order to draw conclusions the author uses his observations of the construction in Siberia and Mongolia, as well as publications of other scientists. The author notes that in engineering surveys for construction of tunnels, high-rise dams, high rise buildings there is no good method of determining the natural stresses in rocks and soils, which is equal in accuracy to the methods of construction of geological sections and methods for determining the estimated characteristics of the soil. This gap needs to be filled. The possible direction of work is: to combine the methods of direct measurements of compressive stresses with indirect geophysical methods and computer modeling.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.1.44-53

References
  1. Suppe J. Fluid Overpressures and Strength of the Sedimentary Upper Crust. Journal of Structural Geology. December 2014, vol. 69, part B, pp. 481—492. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2014.07.009.
  2. Nesterenko G.T., Barkovskiy V.M. O vozmozhnosti otsenki napryazhennogo sostoyaniya zemnoy kory po naturnym izmereniyam napryazheniy v shakhtakh i rudnikakh [On the Possibility of Estimating the Stress State of the Crust in Situ Measurements of Stress in Mines]. Napryazhennoe sostoyanie zemnoy kory : sbornik trudov [Stress State of the Earth Crust : Collection of Works]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1973, pp. 12—20. (In Russian)
  3. Kutepov V.M. Zakonomernosti v raspredelenii estestvennykh napryazheniy v massivakh skal’nykh treshchinovatykh porod sklonov rechnykh dolin [Regularities in the Distribution of Natural Stresses in the Hard Fractured Rocks of the Slopes of River Valleys]. Napryazhennoe sostoyanie zemnoy kory : sbornik trudov [Stress State of the Earth Crust : Collection of Works]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1973, pp. 135—147. (In Russian)
  4. Kropotkin P.N. Tektonicheskie napryazheniya v zemnoy kore po dannym neposredstvennykh izmereniy [Tectonic Stresses in the Earth’s Crust According to Direct Measurements]. Napryazhennoe sostoyanie zemnoy kory : sbornik trudov [Stress State of the Earth Crust : Collection of Works]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1973, pp. 21—31. (In Russian)
  5. Pashkin E.M., Kagan A.A., Krivonogova N.F. Terminologicheskiy slovar’-spravochnik po inzhenernoy geologii [Terminological Dictionary on Engineering Geology]. Moscow, KDU Publ., 2011, 950 p. (In Russian)
  6. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Akhpatelov D.M. Napryazhennoe sostoyanie gornykh massivov v pole gravitatsii [Stress State of Mountain Ranges in the Field of Gravity]. DAN SSSR [Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences]. 1975, vol. 220, no. 2, pp. 1675—1679. (In Russian)
  7. Kalinin E.V., Panas’yan L.L., Shirokov V.N., Artamonova N.B. Modelirovanie poley napryazheniy v inzhenerno-geologicheskikh massivakh [Modeling Stress Fields in Engineering Geological Bodies]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 2003, 261 p. (In Russian)
  8. Wan Guillong. Modeling Field Tectonic Stresses the East Wing Tectonic Belt Badahan in Northern China Tektonic Era. Dixue gionyuan = Earth Sci. Front. 2012, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 194—199. Chinese. CV Eng.
  9. Xia C., Gui Y., Wang W., Du S. Numerical Method for Estimating Void Spaces of Rock Joints and the Evolution of Void Spaces under Different Contact States. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering. December 2014, vol. 11, no. 6, article number 065004. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-2132/11/6/065004.
  10. Osipov V.I., Medvedev O.P., editors. Moskva. Geologiya i gorod [Geology and a City]. Moscow, Moskovskie uchebniki i kartolitografiya Publ., 1997, 400 p. (In Russian)
  11. Chernyshev S.N. Treshchiny gornykh porod [Rock Fractures]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1983, 240 p. (In Russian)
  12. Chernyshev S.N., Dearman W.R. Rock Fractures. Butterworth-Heinemann, London, UK, 1991, 272 p.
  13. Haines S., Marone C., Saffer D. Frictional Properties of Low-Angle Normal Fault Gouges and Implications for Low-Angle Normal Fault Slip. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. December 2014, vol. 408, pp. 57—65. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.09.034.
  14. Konyarova L.P. Opyt obobshcheniya massovykh opredeleniy pokazateley vodopronitsaemosti treshchinovatykh skal’nykh porod [Statistical Summary of Mass Estimations of the Permeability of Fractured Rocks]. Inzhenerno-geologicheskie svoystva gornykh porod i metody ikh izucheniya : sbornik trudov [Engineering and Geological Properties of Rocks and Methods of Their Research : Collection of Works]. Moscow, AN SSSR Publ., 1962. (In Russian)
  15. Beloyy L.D., editor. Otsenka tochnosti opredeleniya vodopronitsaemosti gornykh porod [Estimating Determination Accuracy of Rock Permeability]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1971, 150 p. (In Russian)

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Principles of classification of soilmasses for construction purposes

Vestnik MGSU 9/2013
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 41-46

The author proposes original grounds for the classification of the full range of soil masses as a supplement to the classification of soils provided in GOST 25100—2011. The author proposes four classes of soil masses, each class having several types and sub-types of soils. The classification will improve the accuracy of engineering and geological surveys and computer models of the geological environment developed for the purpose of design of buildings and structures. The author offers a classification of soils to identify the geological environment comprising one or more types of soil which are genetically and structurally distinct. Any soil mass type differs by its origin, and, as a consequence, its internal geological structure, stress-strain state and inherent geological processes. Any genetically isolated type of soils a specific program of research, both in terms of methods and in terms of density testing in the point of sampling. The behavior of rock masses together with the engineering structure is pre-determined by the properties of the rock, its relative position (geological structure), a network of cracks and other weakening factors, and the natural state of stress. The fracture network is of paramount importance. Cracks are characterized by direction, length, width, surface roughness of walls, and a distance between parallel cracks.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.9.41-46

References
  1. Pashkin E.M., Kagan A.A., Krivonogova N.F.; Pashkina E.M., editor. Terminologicheskiy spravochnik po inzhenernoy geologii [Reference Book of Terms of Engineering Geology]. Moscow, KDU Publ., 2011, 952 p.
  2. Panyukov P.N. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. Moscow, Gosgortekhizdat Publ., 1962.
  3. Bondarik G.K. Teoriya geologicheskogo polya [Geological Field Theory]. Moscow, MIMS Publ., 2002, 129 p.
  4. Belyi L.D. Obshie principial'nye polozheniya [General Principal Provisions]. In the book: Geologiya i plotiny [Geology and Dams]. Moscow — Leningrad, Gosenergoizdat Publ., 1959, pp. 9—19.
  5. Muller L. Der Felsbau. Ferdinand Enke Verlag. Stuttgart, 1963, 453 p.
  6. Bauduin C.M. Determination of Characteristic Values. In: U. Smoltczyk, editor, Geotechnical Engineering Handbook. Berlin, Ernst Publ., 2002, vol. I, pp. 17—50.
  7. Frank R., Kovarik J.B. Comparasion des niveaux de modele pour la resistance ultime des pieux sous charges axiales. Revue Francaise de Geotechnique. 2005, 110, pp. 12—25.
  8. Belyi L.D. Osnovy teorii inzhenerno-geologicheskogo kartirovaniya [Fundamentals of the Theory of Engineering Geological Mapping]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1964.

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Engineering-geological or geoecological processes and phenomena; their development in the present-day environment

Vestnik MGSU 9/2012
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Potapov Ivan Aleksandrovich - Scientific and Research Institute of Emergency Healthcare named after N.V. Sklifosovskiy engineer, Scientific and Research Institute of Emergency Healthcare named after N.V. Sklifosovskiy, ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 191 - 196

The authors consider theoretical issues of the present-day interpretation and applicability of
the terms and concepts of the engineering geology and geoecology. The authors propose a new
approach to the formulation of definitions of the founding concepts of major categories of the engineering
geodynamics as the constituent part of the engineering geology. At the current stage of
development of the geoecology, the processes and phenomena typical for the geological environment
considered from the viewpoint of civil engineering are regarded as geoecological rather than
engineering and geological.
Examples of incorrect interpretation of these concepts of engineering geology replace the
study of the processes and phenomena of the engineering geology by the study of exogenous
processes in the upper zone of the earth crust. Negative processes underway in the geological environment
that are considered within the framework of the engineering geology should be assessed
as geoecological. The assessment of the present-day use of the term "geoecological processes and
phenomena" is based on the principle of indecomposability and unity of the geosphere. This fact
serves as the basis for the modern interpretation of concepts of engineering geology or geoecology
that relate to the geological environment and its use as the setting of construction works.
The authors demonstrate that the pollution of the atmospheric air or its transparency affect
structures. It causes changes in the hydrogeological conditions that may cause a flood or reduction
of the level of underground waters that influence the behaviour of bases of constructions.
Anthropogenic impacts that cause the temperature and chemical pollution of the subterranean hydrosphere
can lead to the dissolution of rocks, trigger karst processes, boost the speed of underground
waters, and, thus, trigger the mechanical suffosion in the sands. The concept of geoecological
processes and phenomena as the basic categories needs the assessment of the geological
environment when exposed to the anthropogenic impact.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.9.191 - 196

References
  1. Kamenskiy G.N., Korchebokov N.A., Razin K.I. Dvizhenie podzemnykh vod v neodnorodnykh plastakh [Motion of Subterranean Waters inside Heterogeneous Strata]. Moscow, Soedinennoe nauchno-tekhnicheskoe izd-vo publ., 1935.
  2. Anan’ev V.P., Potapov A.D. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola publ., 2009.
  3. Norint S.A. Bol’shoy tolkovyy slovar’ russkogo yazyka [Big Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language]. St.Petersburg, 1998.
  4. Mirkin B.M. Terminy i opredeleniya po okhrane okruzhayushchey sredy, prirodopol’zovaniyu i ekologicheskoy bezopasnosti [Terms and Defi nitions Relating to Environmental Protection, Use of Natural Resources and Environmental Safety]. St.Petersburg, SPbGU Publ., 2001.
  5. Savchenko V.N., Smagin V.P. Nachala sovremennogo estestvoznaniya [Basics of Contemporary Natural Science]. Rostov-on-Don, Tezaurus Publ., 2006.
  6. Slovar’ terminov chrezvychaynykh situatsiy [Dictionary of Emergency Terms]. Moscow, Ministry of Emergencies Management Publ., 2010.
  7. Potapov A.D. Ekologiya [Ecology] Moscow, Vysshaya shkola Publ., 2005.
  8. Korolev V.A. Ochistka gruntov ot zagryazneniy [Decontamination of Soil]. Moscow, MAIK Nauka/Interperiodika Publ., 2001.
  9. Potapov I.A., Shimenkova A.A., Potapov A.D. Zavisimost’ suffozionnoy ustoychivosti peschanykh gruntov razlichnogo genezisa ot tipa fil’trata [Dependence of Suffosion Stability of Sandy Soils of Various Geneses on the Type of Filtrate]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 5, pp. 79—86.

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ANTIKARST AND ANTISUFFOSION PROTECTION IN RUSSIA: HISTORY AND PRESENT SITUATION

Vestnik MGSU 4/2018 Volume 13
  • Khomenko Victor Petrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Senior Researcher, Professor, Department of Engineering Surveys and Geoecology; ORCID 0000-0001-9198-4401, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 482-489

Subject: karst and suffosion are related to exogenous geological processes, the development of which is caused by destruction of rocks by groundwater. These are the processes dangerous for construction, and the main problem in studying these processes lies in their inaccessibility for direct visual observation. Research objectives: achievement of mutual understanding between prospectors and designers when solving the problems arising from construction-related development of territories where a negative impact of karst and (or) suffosion on buildings and structures is expected. Materials and methods: the method of historical analysis of efficiency of engineering solutions. Results: Russia has a long and rich experience in the application of antikarst and antisuffosion protective measures, which is analyzed in the present article from historical positions. In the author’s opinion, successful implementation of these measures is possible only with the close cooperation of prospectors-geologists and geotechnical designers. Systematized representation of the evolution of methods and techniques that ensure accident-free operation of objects of various types of construction in the presence of karst and (or) suffosion hazard is given. Conclusions: currently, our country has a rich and well-proven arsenal of means of protecting buildings and structures from karst and suffosion, including constructive, geotechnical and other measures.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.4.482-489

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