ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

The fact of the lack of wood in the formation of muslim architecture style

Vestnik MGSU 2/2015
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-83-47; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Elmanova Elena Leonidovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Elena Leonidovnapostgraduate student, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-20

The article includes an analysis of the influence of the natural conditions of the region on the structural and stylistic features of Arab architecture. National architecture depends on the features of natural-climatic conditions of the region: geographical location (the climate, terrain, building materials), seismic activity, geological structure. The Muslim architecture was influenced by: high seismic activity; the lack of wood; dry and hot climate; high temperature drops in the daytime and at night. These are the peculiarities of Asia. The Arab countries are located in several climatic zones: in subtropical, the Northern tropical and subequatorial zones. The climate here is hot and arid. Forests grow only on some slopes. A significant part of Africa and Arabia is situated in the area of the desert. In Syria forests are found only on the Eastern slopes of the mountains. There are stunted coniferous and deciduous trees. These trees are thin, low and unsuitable for construction purposes. In Iran forests grow on the Northern slopes of the Mount Elbrus, at the altitudes of up to 2500 m, and on the coast of the Caspian Sea. The Central Iranian plateau has almost no vegetation. There is very little rainfall (100...250 mm per year). The air cools down quickly at night. There are also large diurnal and seasonal temperature changes. Rock formation is weathered therefore the sandy-clay deposits are formed. They are suitable for making bricks. The clay in the form of bricks was used as a building material. The unfired adobe was used too. It worked rather well in dry climatic conditions. The widespread use of the adobe influenced the color of the buildings - they were the color of soil. The wood as a construction material was scarce, so in large spans domes were built. Vaults and arches were built without the use of scaffolding and cradling. This influenced their shape. Wood is only used for architectural elements of palaces (rare wooden tall columns, ceilings and window grates made of wooden elements) and for construction of ceiling of traditional houses. Thin and uneven beams were unsuitable for the interior of the palaces.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.2.7-20

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SEISMICITY FACTOR IN THE FORMATION OF MUSLIM ARCHITECTURE STYLE

Vestnik MGSU 7/2016
  • Elmanova Elena Leonidovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Elena Leonidovnapostgraduate student, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 8-17

The proportions of buildings, design and building materials in traditional Muslim architecture depended on geoecological factors of different regions of Islamic countries. One of those factors is a high seismicity site. It had the greatest influence on the appearance of monuments in the selected region. The influence of seismicity on the architecture of the buildings is considered in the article on the example of the architectural monuments of the Republic of Uzbekistan - madrasah of Ulugbek of the 15th century in Samarkand, the Kalyan mosque in Bukhara and the Syrian Umayyad mosque (708 buildings) in Damascus. The seismicity of the region is high. In order to determine the seismic resistance of architectural monuments the requirements SP 14.13330.2014 (the Current set of rules “Construction in seismic regions” (Seismic Building Design Code), revised edition of SNiP II-7-81*) and the Eurocode EN 1998-1 were used. On the basis of calculations tables comparing performance were made. The structural characteristics of monuments were compared with the characteristics required by the standards. The point value of seismicity of the territory which ensured the stability of the buildings was determined. Comparing the proportions of the monuments with Russian and European regulations on earthquake-resistant construction, we demonstrated the compliance of their architectural forms with the seismic activity of the area. Traditional architecture evolved from random search under the influence of the centuries of experience protecting the buildings from adverse natural influences. The design and shape of these ancient Muslim buildings, limited by the requirements of seismic resistance, has been subsequently reiterated in other structures, determining the style of Muslim architecture. The analysis allows us to see how the architects used the general principles of earthquake-resistant construction on different buildings. The destructions during earthquakes occurred only after structural deterioration of the materials, and were local in nature. Most of the buildings have symmetrical structure, the corresponding proportions in plan and in height, with using materials of sufficient “strength and elasticity”. The whole appearance of the buildings and the architectural style is not accidental. The proportions of the buildings - the height, width of span load-bearing structures, walls and openings, the symmetry of the buildings, domes, arches, windows, all structural dimensions were dictated by the requirements of seismic resistance.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.7.8-17

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DEPENDENCE OF SUFFOSION STABILITY OF SANDY SOILS OF VARIOUS GENESES ON THE TYPE OF FILTRATE

Vestnik MGSU 5/2012
  • Potapov Ivan Aleksandrovich - Scientific and Research Institute of Emergency Healthcare named after N.V. Sklifosovskiy engineer, Scientific and Research Institute of Emergency Healthcare named after N.V. Sklifosovskiy, ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) engineer, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 79 - 86

Results of calculations and experimental researches of suffosion stability of sandy soils are provided in the article. The authors have assessed the prospects for the application of standard methodologies to demonstrate the need to take account of the filtrate properties in the course of projecting potential suffusion process development patterns typical for sandy soils. The principal attention must be driven to the value of the kinematic viscosity of filtered liquids. Any assessment of filtration-related interaction of the flow of liquid with sandy soils must be backed by the gradation analysis of soils and the analysis of their homogeneity, as well as the mineralogical and morphological analysis. The morphological study of sands of various geneses, performed hereunder, is based on the methodology that takes account of both the shape of sand particles and the structure of their surface.
The proposed methodology makes it possible to assess extensive sand specimen rather than separate sand particles to assure the representative sampling to assure the accuracy of the morphological analysis. The authors provide the data that cover the research of sands of various geneses demonstrating varied granulometric and mineral composition, as well as various morphological peculiarities of correlation with the filtrates that have different values of kinematic viscosity. The methodological research completed by the authors has indicated an urgent need to perform laboratory and field researches of suffosion instability of sandy soils in varied geoecological environments typical for urban lands exposed to anthropogenic pollutions.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.5.79 - 86

References
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ASEISMIC CONSTRUCTION AS THE GEO-ECOLOGICAL FACTOR

Vestnik MGSU 8/2012
  • Galay Boris Fedorovich - North Caucasian Federal University Professor, Doctor of Geological and Mineralogy Sciences, North Caucasian Federal University, 2 prospekt Kulakova, Stavropol, 355029, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Chernov Yuriy Konstantinovich - Research and Production Centre of Engineering Geology Professor, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical; Sciences, Research and Production Centre of Engineering Geology, 185 Dzerzhinskogo st., Stavropol, 355003, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Chernov Andrey Yurevich - North Caucasian Federal University Assistant Lecturer, Department of Construction, North Caucasian Federal University, 2 prospekt Kulakova, Stavropol, 355029, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 154 - 168

Seismicity of any territory produces a significant impact on human beings, micro-organisms,
animals and plants, i.e. the biota. In seismically active areas, earthquake-resistant construction is
an important geo-ecological factor and one of principal methods of protection against the threat of
earthquakes. The efficiency of earthquake-resistant construction is largely determined by the accuracy
of predictions, potential seismic effects of earthquakes, and additional seismic loads on buildings
and structures. Therefore, valid and reliable assessment of the seismic hazard and seismic
risks can become an integral part of geo-ecological monitoring undertakings and risk assessments.
Application of advanced probabilistic technologies in the design and maintenance of structures may
increase the accuracy of projections of dangerous seismic loads to optimize the losses caused by
the negative impact of earthquakes in compliance with the pre-set dependence between safety,
economic efficiency and practicability patterns.
Probabilistic technologies, including passive constituents of the general method of geo-ecological
protection, have been tested in Central Ciscaucasia. The results of assessments of seismic
hazards and risks in various engineering and seismological conditions of Stavropol, Krasnodar,
Pyatigorsk, Kavkazskaya completed for structures of various degrees of responsibility are represented
in the article.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.8.154 - 168

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  15. SNiP II 7—81* Stroitel’nye normy i pravila. Chast’ II. Glava 7. Stroitel’stvo v seysmicheskikh rayonakh [Construction Norms and Rules. Part II. Chapter 7. Construction in Seismic Areas]. Moscow, Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation, 2002, 48 p.

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Engineering-geological or geoecological processes and phenomena; their development in the present-day environment

Vestnik MGSU 9/2012
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Potapov Ivan Aleksandrovich - Scientific and Research Institute of Emergency Healthcare named after N.V. Sklifosovskiy engineer, Scientific and Research Institute of Emergency Healthcare named after N.V. Sklifosovskiy, ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 191 - 196

The authors consider theoretical issues of the present-day interpretation and applicability of
the terms and concepts of the engineering geology and geoecology. The authors propose a new
approach to the formulation of definitions of the founding concepts of major categories of the engineering
geodynamics as the constituent part of the engineering geology. At the current stage of
development of the geoecology, the processes and phenomena typical for the geological environment
considered from the viewpoint of civil engineering are regarded as geoecological rather than
engineering and geological.
Examples of incorrect interpretation of these concepts of engineering geology replace the
study of the processes and phenomena of the engineering geology by the study of exogenous
processes in the upper zone of the earth crust. Negative processes underway in the geological environment
that are considered within the framework of the engineering geology should be assessed
as geoecological. The assessment of the present-day use of the term "geoecological processes and
phenomena" is based on the principle of indecomposability and unity of the geosphere. This fact
serves as the basis for the modern interpretation of concepts of engineering geology or geoecology
that relate to the geological environment and its use as the setting of construction works.
The authors demonstrate that the pollution of the atmospheric air or its transparency affect
structures. It causes changes in the hydrogeological conditions that may cause a flood or reduction
of the level of underground waters that influence the behaviour of bases of constructions.
Anthropogenic impacts that cause the temperature and chemical pollution of the subterranean hydrosphere
can lead to the dissolution of rocks, trigger karst processes, boost the speed of underground
waters, and, thus, trigger the mechanical suffosion in the sands. The concept of geoecological
processes and phenomena as the basic categories needs the assessment of the geological
environment when exposed to the anthropogenic impact.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.9.191 - 196

References
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  2. Anan’ev V.P., Potapov A.D. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola publ., 2009.
  3. Norint S.A. Bol’shoy tolkovyy slovar’ russkogo yazyka [Big Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language]. St.Petersburg, 1998.
  4. Mirkin B.M. Terminy i opredeleniya po okhrane okruzhayushchey sredy, prirodopol’zovaniyu i ekologicheskoy bezopasnosti [Terms and Defi nitions Relating to Environmental Protection, Use of Natural Resources and Environmental Safety]. St.Petersburg, SPbGU Publ., 2001.
  5. Savchenko V.N., Smagin V.P. Nachala sovremennogo estestvoznaniya [Basics of Contemporary Natural Science]. Rostov-on-Don, Tezaurus Publ., 2006.
  6. Slovar’ terminov chrezvychaynykh situatsiy [Dictionary of Emergency Terms]. Moscow, Ministry of Emergencies Management Publ., 2010.
  7. Potapov A.D. Ekologiya [Ecology] Moscow, Vysshaya shkola Publ., 2005.
  8. Korolev V.A. Ochistka gruntov ot zagryazneniy [Decontamination of Soil]. Moscow, MAIK Nauka/Interperiodika Publ., 2001.
  9. Potapov I.A., Shimenkova A.A., Potapov A.D. Zavisimost’ suffozionnoy ustoychivosti peschanykh gruntov razlichnogo genezisa ot tipa fil’trata [Dependence of Suffosion Stability of Sandy Soils of Various Geneses on the Type of Filtrate]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 5, pp. 79—86.

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