The fact of the lack of wood in the formation of muslim architecture style

Vestnik MGSU 2/2015
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-83-47; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Elmanova Elena Leonidovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Elena Leonidovnapostgraduate student, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-20

The article includes an analysis of the influence of the natural conditions of the region on the structural and stylistic features of Arab architecture. National architecture depends on the features of natural-climatic conditions of the region: geographical location (the climate, terrain, building materials), seismic activity, geological structure. The Muslim architecture was influenced by: high seismic activity; the lack of wood; dry and hot climate; high temperature drops in the daytime and at night. These are the peculiarities of Asia. The Arab countries are located in several climatic zones: in subtropical, the Northern tropical and subequatorial zones. The climate here is hot and arid. Forests grow only on some slopes. A significant part of Africa and Arabia is situated in the area of the desert. In Syria forests are found only on the Eastern slopes of the mountains. There are stunted coniferous and deciduous trees. These trees are thin, low and unsuitable for construction purposes. In Iran forests grow on the Northern slopes of the Mount Elbrus, at the altitudes of up to 2500 m, and on the coast of the Caspian Sea. The Central Iranian plateau has almost no vegetation. There is very little rainfall (100...250 mm per year). The air cools down quickly at night. There are also large diurnal and seasonal temperature changes. Rock formation is weathered therefore the sandy-clay deposits are formed. They are suitable for making bricks. The clay in the form of bricks was used as a building material. The unfired adobe was used too. It worked rather well in dry climatic conditions. The widespread use of the adobe influenced the color of the buildings - they were the color of soil. The wood as a construction material was scarce, so in large spans domes were built. Vaults and arches were built without the use of scaffolding and cradling. This influenced their shape. Wood is only used for architectural elements of palaces (rare wooden tall columns, ceilings and window grates made of wooden elements) and for construction of ceiling of traditional houses. Thin and uneven beams were unsuitable for the interior of the palaces.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.2.7-20

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