ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

The fact of the lack of wood in the formation of muslim architecture style

Vestnik MGSU 2/2015
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-83-47; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Elmanova Elena Leonidovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Elena Leonidovnapostgraduate student, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-20

The article includes an analysis of the influence of the natural conditions of the region on the structural and stylistic features of Arab architecture. National architecture depends on the features of natural-climatic conditions of the region: geographical location (the climate, terrain, building materials), seismic activity, geological structure. The Muslim architecture was influenced by: high seismic activity; the lack of wood; dry and hot climate; high temperature drops in the daytime and at night. These are the peculiarities of Asia. The Arab countries are located in several climatic zones: in subtropical, the Northern tropical and subequatorial zones. The climate here is hot and arid. Forests grow only on some slopes. A significant part of Africa and Arabia is situated in the area of the desert. In Syria forests are found only on the Eastern slopes of the mountains. There are stunted coniferous and deciduous trees. These trees are thin, low and unsuitable for construction purposes. In Iran forests grow on the Northern slopes of the Mount Elbrus, at the altitudes of up to 2500 m, and on the coast of the Caspian Sea. The Central Iranian plateau has almost no vegetation. There is very little rainfall (100...250 mm per year). The air cools down quickly at night. There are also large diurnal and seasonal temperature changes. Rock formation is weathered therefore the sandy-clay deposits are formed. They are suitable for making bricks. The clay in the form of bricks was used as a building material. The unfired adobe was used too. It worked rather well in dry climatic conditions. The widespread use of the adobe influenced the color of the buildings - they were the color of soil. The wood as a construction material was scarce, so in large spans domes were built. Vaults and arches were built without the use of scaffolding and cradling. This influenced their shape. Wood is only used for architectural elements of palaces (rare wooden tall columns, ceilings and window grates made of wooden elements) and for construction of ceiling of traditional houses. Thin and uneven beams were unsuitable for the interior of the palaces.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.2.7-20

References
  1. Jawondo I.A. Architectural History of Ilorin Mosques in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Social Dynamics: A Journal of African Studies. Department of History and International Studies, University of Ilorin, Nigeria, 1 June 2012, vol. 38, issue 2, pp. 303—313. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02533952.2012.719394.
  2. Guggenheim M. The Laws of Foreign Buildings: Flat Roofs and Minarets. Social and Legal Studies. Department of Anthropology, University of Zürich, Switzerland, December 2010, vol. 19, issue 4, pp. 441—460.
  3. Amar N.Z.M., Ismail Z., Salleh H. Guidelines for Internal Arrangement of Islamic House. BEIAC 2012 — 2012 IEEE Business, Engineering and Industrial Applications Collquium. 2012, art. no. 6226049, pp. 189—194. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/BEIAC.2012.6226049.
  4. Karimi Z.R. Spaces of Worship in Islam in the West. Interiors: Design, Architecture, Culture. Architecture Department, Southern Polytechnic State University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2010, vol. 1, issue 3, pp. 265—279. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2752/204191210X12875837764174.
  5. Al-Lahham A. Traditionalism or Traditionalieism: Authentication or Fabrication? Archnet-IJAR. College of Design, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. 2014, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 64—73.
  6. Alhazim M., Littlewood J., Canavan K., Carey P. Design Philosophy of the Traditional Kuwaiti House. AEI 2013: Building Solutions for Architectural Engineering — Proceedings of the 2013 Architectural Engineering National Conference. State College, PA; United States; Code 100669, 2013, pp. 1018—1029. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/9780784412909.099.
  7. Tariq S.H., Jinia M.A. The Contextual Issues in the Islamic Architecture of Bengal Mosques. Global Journal Al-Thaqafah. 2013, vol. 3, issue 1, pp. 41—48. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7187/GJAT322013.03.01.
  8. Imz E., Uinton K., Bell B. Ispaniya. Okno v mir [Spain. Window to the World]. Translated from English, 2nd edition. Moscow, Ekom-Press, 1998, 396 p. (In Russian)
  9. Bilets'kiy V.S., editor. Mala girnichna entsiklopediya [Small Mining Encyclopedia]. In 3 volumes. Donets'k, Donbas Publ., 2004, vol. 1, 640 p. (in Ukranian)
  10. Haghshenas A. The Importance of Water Bodies and Structures in the Persian Garden Architecture. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 4, pp. 29—36.
  11. Embi M.R., Abdullahi Y. Evolution of Islamic Geometrical Patterns. Global Journal Al-Thaqafah. 2012, vol. 2, issue 2, pp. 27—39.
  12. Glancey J. Architecture: World’s Greatest Buildings, Styles and History, Architects (Eyewitness Companions). 2006, DK ADULT, 512 p.
  13. Khaled Kh.A. Obespechenie seysmostoykosti arkhitekturnykh pamyatnikov arabskogo zodchestva na territorii Sirii : dissertatsiya … kandidata tekhnicheskikh nauk [Earthquake Protection of Architectural Monuments of Arabic Architecture in Syria. Dissertation of the Candidate of Technological Sciences]. Saint Petersburg, 2003, 159 p. (In Russian)
  14. Lloyd S. Ruined Cities of Iraq. London, Oxford University Press, 1942, 111 p.
  15. Brockhaus F.A., Efron I.A. Entsiklopedicheskiy slovar’ [Encyclopedic Dictionary]. Vol. 39. Reprinted edition. 1890, Moscow, Terra Publ., 1992, 516 p. (In Russian)
  16. Voronina V.L. Srednevekovyy gorod arabskikh stran [Medieval City of the Arab Countries]. Moscow, VNIITAG Goskomarkhitektury Publ., 1991, 103 p. (In Russian)
  17. Gritsak E.N. Kordova i Granada. Pamyatniki vsemirnogo naslediya [Cordoba and Granada. World Heritage Sites]. Moscow, Veche Publ., 2006, 224 p. (In Russian)
  18. Nikityuk O.D. Kordova. Granada. Sevil'ya. Drevnie tsentry Andalusii [Cordoba. Granada. Seville. Ancient Centers of Andalusia]. Goroda i muzei mira [Cities and Museums of the World]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1972, 192 p. (In Russian)
  19. Prina F. Arkhitektura: elementy, formy, materialy : Entsiklopediya iskusstva [Architecture: Elements, Forms, Materials : Encyclopedia of Art]. Translated from Italian. Moscow, Omega Publ., 2010, 384 p. (In Russian)
  20. Sidorova N.A., Starodub T.Kh. Goroda Sirii. Goroda i muzei mira [The Cities of Syria. Ciries and Museums of the World]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1972, 231 p. (In Russian)
  21. Khodzhash S.I. Kair. Goroda i muzei mira [Cairo. Cities and Museums of the World]. 2nd edition. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1975, 184 p. (In Russian)
  22. Favvaz al’-Dakhir. Kul’tovaya arkhitektura arabskikh stran Blizhnego Vostoka i Tsentral’noy Azii (genezis, evolyutsiya, istoriko-arkhitekturnye sopostavleniya) : avtoreferat dissertatsii. …. kandidata arkhitaktury [The Iconic Architecture of the Arab Countries of the Middle East and Central Asia (Genesis, Evolution, Historical and Architectural Mapping) : Abstract of the Dissertation of the Candidate of Architecture]. Bishkek, 2001, 23 p. (In Russian)
  23. Kartsev V.N. Zodchestvo Afganistana [Architecture of Afghanistan]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1986, 248 p. (In Russian)
  24. Richer X. Syrie. Paris, Delroisse, 1975, 192 p.
  25. Shuazi O. Istoriya arkhitektury : v 2-kh tomakh [History of Architecture in two Volumes]. Translated from French. Moscow, Vsesoyuznaya akademiya arkhitektury Publ., 1937, vol. 1, 298 p. (In Russian)
  26. Ivyanskaya I.S. Mir zhilishcha: Arkhitektura. Dizayn. Stroitel’stvo. Istoriya. Traditsii. Tendentsii [World of the Home: Architecture. Design. Construction. History. Tradition. Trends]. Moscow, Dograf Publ., 2000, 304 p. (In Russian)

Download

Results 1 - 1 of 1