ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

The fact of the lack of wood in the formation of muslim architecture style

Vestnik MGSU 2/2015
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-83-47; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Elmanova Elena Leonidovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Elena Leonidovnapostgraduate student, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-20

The article includes an analysis of the influence of the natural conditions of the region on the structural and stylistic features of Arab architecture. National architecture depends on the features of natural-climatic conditions of the region: geographical location (the climate, terrain, building materials), seismic activity, geological structure. The Muslim architecture was influenced by: high seismic activity; the lack of wood; dry and hot climate; high temperature drops in the daytime and at night. These are the peculiarities of Asia. The Arab countries are located in several climatic zones: in subtropical, the Northern tropical and subequatorial zones. The climate here is hot and arid. Forests grow only on some slopes. A significant part of Africa and Arabia is situated in the area of the desert. In Syria forests are found only on the Eastern slopes of the mountains. There are stunted coniferous and deciduous trees. These trees are thin, low and unsuitable for construction purposes. In Iran forests grow on the Northern slopes of the Mount Elbrus, at the altitudes of up to 2500 m, and on the coast of the Caspian Sea. The Central Iranian plateau has almost no vegetation. There is very little rainfall (100...250 mm per year). The air cools down quickly at night. There are also large diurnal and seasonal temperature changes. Rock formation is weathered therefore the sandy-clay deposits are formed. They are suitable for making bricks. The clay in the form of bricks was used as a building material. The unfired adobe was used too. It worked rather well in dry climatic conditions. The widespread use of the adobe influenced the color of the buildings - they were the color of soil. The wood as a construction material was scarce, so in large spans domes were built. Vaults and arches were built without the use of scaffolding and cradling. This influenced their shape. Wood is only used for architectural elements of palaces (rare wooden tall columns, ceilings and window grates made of wooden elements) and for construction of ceiling of traditional houses. Thin and uneven beams were unsuitable for the interior of the palaces.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.2.7-20

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Wood in the modern architectureof small forms

Vestnik MGSU 5/2015
  • Samol’kina Elena Grigor’evna - Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU) postgraduate student, Depart- ment of Architectural Design, Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU), 65 Il’inskaya str., Nizhniy Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-18

The modern world dictates severe conditions, involving people in a continuous process of changes in the environment. Active building and construction work, urban densification are rapidly transforming environment, creating a new architectural space with intense impact on people. In this regard, there is much tension around the issue of provision of urban amenities, forming comfortable environment for a full human life. The comfort of the urban environment is determined by a set of visual perception of the constituent elements of this environment: architecture, design, landscape and their harmonious unity with nature. A remarkable component of visual perception, making urban space aesthetically appealing, is small architecture.Small architecture in Russia has always played a special role. Being perceived in the context of space, creating at the same time a certain mood and emotions, small forms diversified architectural environment, making it aesthetically appealing. The question about the direction of urban policy in the field of provision of urban amenities was made in 1921, when the first Congress on improvement of populated areas took place. With this legislation originated overall urban development approach as inseparable system layout of the city, its architectural appearance and landscaping. Architectural workshops developed model projects of small forms with recommendations for improvement, which helped to inexpensively create individual features in urban development. At present, the provision of urban amenities have moved to a new level, becoming more grandscale, capital-intensive.The main requirements for small architectural forms are to create a harmonious space, the fusion of architecture with the natural elements. The most harmonious perception of small architectural forms in the environment is achieved through the use of natural building materials. The use of natural materials in urban environment represents nature, creates a comfortable environment psychologically close to a person. Wood, among other natural materials, has an undoubted advantage. Absolute compatibility, unique design quality, expressive possibilities of the material and its ability to form a comfortable living environment, harmoniously combined with other materials, provide greater demand for wood in modern architecture.In the architecture of small forms wood is used everywhere: on the territories of residential quarters, parks and recreation areas, areas of office and commercial development, road environment, etc. A leading role in shaping the public space belongs to small structures for various functional purposes, such as benches, gazebos, sheds, sports facilities, children’s playgrounds.In the modern wooden architecture of small forms two directions are clearly traced. In the first one there is the desire to escape from the boring similar forms, transforming small architectural forms in art objects representing not only material, but also artistic value. The second direction is based on the centuries-old practice of folk art. Having been formed for centuries folk culture and national traditions fully meet the artistic tastes of the modern society. Summing up, it should be noted that the use of wood in architecture of small forms is a universal solution to shape the ecological framework of the urban environment, which is especially important in solving the problems of the modern city.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.5.7-18

References
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Wooden facade decor in the aspect of energy saving

Vestnik MGSU 8/2014
  • Samol'kina Elena Grigor'evna - Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU) postgraduate student, Department of Architectural Design, Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU), 65 Ilyinskaya str., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 20-27

In the world of today, issues of the relationship between society and nature are becoming more relevant. A process of continuous development of industrial and social activities and the negative interference in the environment cause damage to the unique biosphere. The dynamics of destructive processes necessitates conducting activities in accordance with the fundamental laws of nature. One way of solving these problems is to create a harmonious architectural environment that has minimal impact on the environment of the surrounding countryside. An important factor in the process of "sustainable architecture" formation is the use of the building materials, which are safe for humans and the environment. Special role in this aspect is played by wood possessing unquestionable priority in "sustainable architecture". Wood is a renewable natural material with unique properties. Wastelessness, low thermal conductivity, strength, unique texture, ease of processing and other quality wood help to create cozy and comfortable environment. From the perspective of ecological and energy problems the use of wood in architecture has a special role as the most optimal solution to these issues. In Russia construction of energy efficient buildings is at an early stage of development. To date, the power consumption of the existing residential and public buildings in Russia is on average about three times higher than in technically advanced countries of Scandinavia with similar climatic conditions. At the same time the tendency to steady growth of non-renewable energy resources leads to the need to improve the thermal protection of buildings. The problem of thermal protection of buildings in architecture led to widespread use of ventilated facades. Constructive solution is to install the layer of insulation on the exterior walls and to fasten cladding materials to the frame to form an air gap for air circulation. Finishing materials perform architectural function. The most common facing materials of natural origin include wooden facades. Demand for such kind of structures in contemporary architecture is explained by wide possibilities of architectural and artistic facades. Facade decor made of wood is various, it tends to be unusual, with exclusive forms, eliminating unnecessary luxury. Valuable wood panels, board with logs imitation, block house, facade boards (planken), the wood tile (shingle), etc. can be used in decoration. A large number of wooden facing materials allow to create wooden facades of different styles, and the texture and wood shades form a harmonious environment. Among the various methods of using wooden decor the most common technique is outplaying of wood texture. Wood is treated with special impregnation to give effect of the natural aging, wood is also tinted, creating a color contrast of house planes, and then is coloured, imitating the texture of precious wood. Wooden facade decor fully solves not only the problem of architectural expressiveness of structures, but also the problem of energy saving, which is especially important in the context of the global crisis. The unique capabilities of the tree, its ability to be in harmony with other materials form a comfortable environment, providing a favorable psychological impact.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.8.20-27

References
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  4. Lawson B. Embodied Energy of Building Materials. The Environmental Design Guide, Pro 2, Royal Australian Institute of Architects, Canberra, 1998, pp. 4—5.
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  9. Semenova E.E., Ovsyannikova M.A. Sovremennye resheniya teplozashchity naruzhnykh ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiy [Modern Solutions for the Heat Insulation of External Enclosing Structures]. Nauchnyy vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturnostroitel'nogo universiteta. Ser. Vysokie tekhnologii. Ekologiya [Scientific Bulletin of the Voronezh State University of Architecture and Engineering. Series: High Technologies. Ecology]. 2011, no. 1, pp. 154—157.
  10. Wooden Facades. Riko Haus. Available at: http://www.riko-hise.si/en/products-andsolutions/wooden-facades. Date of access: 06.07.2014.
  11. Oreshko A.N. Primenenie dereva v arkhitekture kak sposob gumanizatsii gorodskoy sredy [The Use of Wood in Architecture as a Way of Humanization the Urban Environment]. Arkhitekton: Izvestiya vuzov [Architecton: Proceedings of Higher Education]. 2009, no 26 (Appendix). Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2009_22/5. Date of access: 06.07.2014.
  12. Malinin N., Gonsales E., Shovskaya T. Novoe derevyannoe 1999—2009 [New Wooden 1999—2009]. Ekaterinburg, TATLIN Publ., 2010, 312 p.
  13. ARKhIWOOD : Katalog premii 2013 [ARCHIWOOD : Product Award 2013]. Ekaterinburg, TATLIN Publ., 2013, 128 p.
  14. Detskiy klub [Children Club]. Byuro Praktika [Practice Bureau]. Available at: http://bureau-praktika.ru/projects/Perovo-kids-club. Date of access: 03.05.2014.
  15. Dom v Yaroslavskoy oblasti [House in Yaroslavl Region]. Arkhitekturnoe byuro DK [Architectural Bureau DK]. Available at: http://www.dainov-dk.ru/ru/projects/18. Date of access: 06.07.2014.

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Raising the biostability of wood by modifying its surface by boron-nitrogen compounds

Vestnik MGSU 11/2013
  • Stepina Irina Vasil'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of General Chemistry, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kotlyarova Irina Aleksandrovna - Bryansk State Technical University (BGTU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Bryansk State Technical University (BGTU), 7, Bul'var 50-letiya Oktyabrya, Bryansk, 241035, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sidorov Vyacheslav Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor, Professor, Department of General Chemistry, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Myasoedov Evgeniy Mikhaylovich - Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (MAMI); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of General and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (MAMI); Professor, Department of General Chemistry, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (MAMI); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 38 Bol’shaya Semenovskaya str., Moscow, 107023, Russian Federation; 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 149-154

The author studies the biological stability of pine wood samples modified by immersion for 3 hours in 10 %, 30 % and 50 % aqueous solutions of monoand diethanolamine (N → B) threehydrousborat (composition 1 and 2, respectively). After drying to constant weight, the surface of the samples according to the all-Union State Standard 9.048 was infested with a suspention with a concentration of 1—2 million / ml of fungic spores. The samples were placed into an open petri dish in a desiccator and maintained under conditions optimal for the growth of mycelium.During the experiment, the following results were obtained. Unmodified wood samples were covered with mushrooms at the 80—85 % of the surface. A rapid development of all kinds of test cultures and sporulation of the fungus was observed. The samples of wood, modified by the 10 % aqueous solutions of compounds 1 and 2, revealed heavy mycelium growth of mold and wood-destroying fungi. The development stage of fungi according to the All-Union State Standard 9.048—89 corresponds to 3 points. Wood samples, modified by 30 % aqueous solutions, are more fungus-resistant, their score is2 points. The modification by 50 % aqueous solutions of compounds 1 and 2 provides the wood with 100 % biological stability in regard to the mold and wood-destroying fungi.Climatic tests were carried out in the heat and moisture chamber G-4 according to All-Union State Standard 9.308—85 (Method 6) and 9.054—75 (method 1). Test results showed that due to such properties as weather resistance and fungal resistance, the protective action durability of the developed compositions makes up 5 years for 10 % solutions of compounds 1 and 2, up to 10 years for the 30 % solutions and for 50 % solutions — not less than 20 years. Thus, 50 % aqueous solutions of compositions 1 and 2 (Ksilostat and Ksilostat +) are the most effective for wood modification, which could provide the modified sample with 100 % biological stability for at least 20 years as a result of surface treatment.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.149-154

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FIRE- BIO-RETARDING COMPOSITION FOR WOOD WITH EFFECTIVE SMOKE-QUENCHING COMPONENTS

Vestnik MGSU 10/2015
  • Pokrovskaya Elena Nikolaevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of General Chemistry, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Portnov Fedor Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) postgraduate student, Assistant Lecturer, Department of Integrated Safety in Construction, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 106-114

Wood is a combustible building material. In case of fire in buildings constructed with the use of wood and wood-based materials, there is a risk of rapid fire spread and increases the risk of death from the integrated impact of such hazards as a high ambient temperature, smoke and toxicity of combustion products. The influence of surface treatment of wood by the compositions based on alkyl ethers phosphorous acids on fire hazard of wood was studied. In the work the following methods were used for determining fire properties of modified wood: method for determining the fire-resistance rating, the method for determining the class of low flammability substances and materials, the method of experimental determination of flame spread index, the method of experimental determination of the smoke ability of solid substances and materials. As a result of tests concluded that compositions based on dimethylphosphite and diethylphosphite have high fire retardant efficiency. Bio protection of modified wood was determined according to State Standards GOST 9.048-89. In accordance with this GOST, wood surface was modified with tested compounds, brought up to constant weight in the desiccator, and then infected by spores of Aspergillusniger van Tieghem, Aspergillusserreus Thom, Aureobasidiumpullulans (de Вагу) Amaud, Paecilomycesvaioti Bainier, Penicilliumfuniculosum Thom, Penicilliumochrochloron Biourge, Scopuiahopsisbrevicaulis Bainier, Trichodermaviride Pers Ex Fr. As a result of testing of the original wood samples in tropical climates within 28 days the wood surface was grown with mushrooms at 80...85 % of the surface. Based on the results it can be concluded that the most effective protective compounds for wood are esters of phosphorous acid, in particular, diethyl phosphite, which is an effective smoke suppressor.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.10.106-114

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