SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

Influence of constructive characteristics of a room on the parameters of regulators of automated climatic systems

Vestnik MGSU 2/2015
  • Samarin Oleg Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant Professor, Department of the Heating and Ventilation, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federa- tion; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Goryunov Igor’ Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Manager, Automation of Construction Technologies Branch, Department of Information Systems, Technologies and Automation in Construction, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-97-80; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Tishchenkova Irina Ivanovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Information Systems, Technologies and Automation in Construction, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 101-109

Currently, the successful development of construction industry depends on the improved energy performance of buildings, structures and facilities, as well as on the quality assurance of the indoor climate. In view of the above, designing and operation of buildings should be aimed at the best (optimal) solution of the following objective: to ensure the set-point values of indoor climate serviced by automated climate control systems, against the minimal energy consumption. In regard of its substantive structure, this paper describes the study on the relationship between the individual parameters of indoor thermal stability and the regulatory impact of automatic control systems (ACS). We analyzed the effect of structural room characteristics on the total energy consumption of the airflow processing unit in order to ensure energy saving. The final result is illustrated by numeric simulation with the use of a developed computer program and graphic examples. The proposed method is based on the assumption that the total thermal stability of the «room-ACVS-ACS» system is defined by heat absorption index of a room and the ACS control operation. This follows directly from the back-to-back connection of units corresponding to the room and ACVS in the scheme of automatic indoor climate control. Further study allowed authors to trace the influence of structural characteristics of a room on the total energy consumption needed for air intake treatment. This can be done by applying values of the main walling area. Basing on the developed algorithm, the authors made calculations using the computer program developed in Fortran. As a result a fragments of the program are presented - calculations of the parameters’ values included in the expressions and the total specific energy consumption for heating the air intake during the heating season, under varying room geometry, as well as the graphic illustration of the obtained relationships.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.2.101-109

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Methods of reduction of power consumption for cooling residential buildings in the hotand dry climate of northern regions of Tajikistan

Vestnik MGSU 9/2013
  • Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich - Khujand Politechnic Institute of Tajik Technical University by academic M. Osimi (PITTU); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Senior Lecturer, Khujand Politechnic Institute of Tajik Technical University by academic M. Osimi (PITTU); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 226 Lenina st., Khujand, 735700, Tajikistan; applicant, Department of Architecture of Civil and Industrial Buildings; 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 79-85

Reduction of energy consumption by devices designated for cooling residential buildings in the hot and dry climate of Central Asia is a most important challenge. The author uses a large apartment building (105 series), built in the 1980ies in the city of Khujand, to study the energy consumption required to cool the building after its renovation and modernization. Basic methods of reducing energy consumption for cooling buildings in hot, dry climates were applied. According to the findings of the research performed using a model residential house, ambient solar heat gain is reduced by 65 % during the hot season lasting from April to September. To cool the building, old windows are replaced by new insulated ones having a low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC — 0.4) and external awnings are installed to protect windows looking to the West.The typical internal room temperature of +25 °C is assumed for the thermal calculations in the summer conditions. In summer, the outside temperature exceeds 40 °C in the northern regions of Tajikistan. A typical difference between the inside and outside air temperature is 15 °C. This extensive temperature difference has a negative effect on the human body. Frequently, the human body has no time to adapt to rapid temperature changes. Aged and sick people are especially sensitive to rapid temperature changes. They are more likely to experience headaches, exacerbated hypertension, atherosclerosis and other diseases. Moderate fluctuations of the air temperature are preferable, as they reduce pressure on the body's thermoregulatory mechanisms.It is noteworthy that people who remain inside buildings are not isolated from the external environment, and they must be careful to avoid sudden temperature changes. In the European regulations aimed at warm, rather than hot summer conditions, internal residential air temperature of +25 °C is considered comfortable. On the contrary, the internal temperature in residential buildings in northern Tajikistan varies from +27 °C to +28 °C. High temperatures can cause significant discomfort in the hot and dry climate like the one in Tajikistan.It is recommended to remain indoors during the day, to keep the windows open at night, and to run air conditioners in residential buildings in summer at certain time intervals.The author proposes a method of optimization of the design temperature of residential rooms using PMV and PPD indices. Optimal air circulation through open windows at night is identified to ensure comfort in modernized residential buildings.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.9.79-85

References
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  9. Fanger P.O., Crieger R.E. Thermal Comfort. Malabar, Florida, 1982.

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SOME PROBLEMS OF ENERGY SAVING IN THE COURSE OF RENOVATION OF BUILDINGS

Vestnik MGSU 5/2012
  • Samarin Oleg Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant Professor, Department of the Heating and Ventilation, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federa- tion; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 163 - 166

The implementation of energy saving actions in the course of renovation of residential houses is considered by the author in the article. The need to change the mode of operation of heat supply systems and the employment of steam-gas co-generation power plants as a source of heat is demonstrated.
Therefore, the problem of power saving in the course of renovation of residential houses comprises several constituents, and its resolution involves the implementation of a number of interrelated organizational and process-related actions. This is the only way to avoid conflicts and to reduce power consumption and losses at each stage of power generation and transmission absent of any deterioration of the internal microclimate in renovated premises. The implementation of the aforementioned actions will make it possible to convert to the automatic energy consumption reduction mode through the implementation of engineering solutions and without any immediate involvement of legal entities. This methodology may arouse the interest of both producers and consumers of thermal and electric energy.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.5.163 - 166

References
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Model of evaluating the projected payback period in energy preservation

Vestnik MGSU 12/2015
  • Gorshkov Aleksandr Sergeevich - St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, director, Educational and Scientific Center “Monitoring and Rehabilitation of Natural Systems, St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), 29 Politekhnicheskaya str., 195251, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.

Pages 136-146

Providing energy efficiency of newly designed buildings is an important state task which is considered in EPBD directive and the latest regulations on energy saving. Though reducing energy consumption of the existing building is not less important. The majority of the existing buildings had been built before the implementation of modern energy saving programs. That’s why the volume of energy consumption in the existing buildings is greater than in new buildings. In frames of the given investigation the author considers the problem of forecasting the payback period of investment into reduction of energy consumption in a building. The formula is offered for calculating the projected payback period in energy saving with account for capital costs, calculated or actual value of the achieved energy saving effect, rise in tariffs for energy sources, discounting of the future cash flows and the volume and time for return of credit funds. Basing on the offered calculation methods it is possible to compare the efficiency of different energy saving solutions.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.12.136-146

References
  1. Pukhkal V., Murgul V., Garifullin M. Reconstruction of Buildings with a Superstructure Mansard: Option to Reduce Energy Intensity of Buildings. Procedia Engineering. 2015, vol. 117, pp. 629—632. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.08.223.
  2. Pukhkal V., Vatin N., Murgul V. Central Ventilation System with Heat Recovery as One of Measures to Upgrade Energy Efficiency of Historic Buildings. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2014, vol. 633—634, pp. 1077—1081. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.633-634.1077.
  3. Vatin N., Nemova D., Ibraeva Y., Tarasevskii P. Development of Energy-Saving Measures for the Multi-Story Apartment Buildings. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2015, vol. 725—726, pp. 1408—1416. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.725-726.1408.
  4. Murgul V., Vuksanovic D., Vatin N., Pukhkal V. The Use of Decentralized Ventilation Systems with Heat Recovery in the Historical Buildings of St. Petersburg. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2014, vol. 635—637, pp. 370—376. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.635-637.370.
  5. Murgul V., Vuksanovic D., Vatin N., Pukhkal V. Decentralized Ventilation Systems with Exhaust Air Heat Recovery in the Case of Residential Buildings. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2014, vol. 680, pp. 524—528. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.680.524.
  6. Aronova E., Radovic G., Murgul V., Vatin N. Solar Power Opportunities in Northern Cities (Case Study of Saint-Petersburg). Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2014, vol. 587—589, pp. 348—354. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.587-589.348.
  7. Kovalev I.N. Ob okupaemosti i rentabel’nosti dolgosrochnykh investitsiy [On Payback and Profitability of Permanent Investments]. Energosberezhenie [Energy Saving]. 2014, no. 6, pp. 14—16. (In Russian)
  8. Kovalev I.N. Ratsional’nye resheniya pri ekonomicheskom obosnovanii teplozashchity zdaniy [Rational Solutions in Economic Justification of Thermal Protection of Buildings]. Energosberezhenie [Energy Saving]. 2014, no. 8, pp. 14—19. (In Russian)
  9. Zhukov A.D., Bessonov I.V., Sapelin A.N., Bobrova E.Yu. Teplozashchitnye kachestva sten [Thermal Insulation Properties of Walls]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 5, pp. 70—77. (In Russian)
  10. Rumyantsev B.M., Zhukov A.D., Smirnova T.V. Energeticheskaya effektivnost’ i metodologiya sozdaniya teploizolyatsionnykh materialov [Energy Efficiency and Methods of Creating Heat-Insulating Materials]. Internet-Vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya : Politematicheskaya [Internet Journal of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Multi-Topic Series]. 2014, no. 4 (35), article. 3. Available at: http://vestnik.vgasu.ru/attachments/3RumyantsevZhukovSmirnova.pdf. (In Russian)
  11. Rumyantsev B.M., Zhukov A.D. Teploizolyatsiya i sovremennye stroitel’nye sistemy [Heat Insulation and Modern Construction Systems]. Krovel’nye i izolyatsionnye materialy [Roofing and Insulation Materials]. 2013, no. 6, pp. 11—13. (In Russian)
  12. Rumyantsev B.M., Zhukov A.D., Smirnova T.V. Teploprovodnost’ vysokoporistykh materialov [Thermal Conductivity of Highly Porous Materials]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 3, pp. 108—114. (In Russian)
  13. Zhukov A.D. Sistemy ventiliruemykh fasadov [Systems of Ventilated Facades]. Stroitel’stvo: nauka i obrazovanie [Construction: Science and Education]. 2012, no. 1, article 3. Available at: http://www.nso-journal.ru/index.php/sno/pages/view/01-2012. (In Russian)
  14. Zhukov A.D., Chugunkov A.V., Zhukova E.A. Sistemy fasadnoy otdelki s utepleniem [System of Faсade Finishing with Heat Insulation]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 1—2, pp. 279—283. (In Russian)
  15. Gagarin V.G., Pastushkov P.P. Ob otsenke energeticheskoy effektivnosti energosberegayushchikh meropriyatiy [On Evaluating Energy Efficiency of Energy Saving Measures]. Inzhenernye sistemy. AVOK Severo-Zapad [Engineering Systems. AVOK North-West]. 2014, no. 2, pp. 26—29. (In Russian)
  16. Gagarin V.G., Pastushkov P.P. Kolichestvennaya otsenka energoeffektivnosti energosberegayushchikh meropriyatiy [Quantitative Assessment of Energy Efficiency of Energy Saving Measures]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013, no. 6, pp. 7—9. (In Russian)
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  19. Vasil’ev G.P., editor. Prakticheskoe posobie po povysheniyu energeticheskoy effektivnosti mnogokvartirnykh domov (MKD) pri kapital’nom remonte : v 9 tomakh [Practical Guide on Increasing Energy Efficiency of Multiflat Buildings during Major Repairs : in 9 Volumes]. Moscow, OAO «INSOLAR-INVEST» Publ., 2015, vol. 1, 89 p. (In Russian)
  20. Kurochkina K.Yu., Gorshkov A.S. Vliyanie avtoregulirovaniya na parametry energopotrebleniya zhilykh zdaniy [Influence of Autoregulation on the Parametres of Energy Consumption of Residential Buildings]. Stroitel’stvo unikal’nykh zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Construction of Unique Buildings and Structures]. 2015, no. 4 (31), pp. 220—231. (In Russian)
  21. Gubina I.A., Gorshkov A.S. Energosberezhenie v zdaniyakh pri utilizatsii tepla vytyazhnogo vozdukha [Energy Saving in Buildings in Case of Heat Recovery of the Transfer Air]. Stroitel’stvo unikal’nykh zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Construction of Unique Buildings and Structures]. 2015, no. 4 (31), pp. 209—219. (In Russian)
  22. Nemova D.V., Gorshkov A.S., Vatin N.I., Kashabin A.V., Tseytin D.N., Rymkevich P.P. Tekhniko-ekonomicheskoe obosnovanie po utepleniyu naruzhnykh sten mnogokvartirnogo zhilogo zdaniya s ustroystvom ventiliruemogo fasada [Technical and Economic Justification of Heat Insulation of External Walls of a Residential Apartment Building with Ventilated Faсade System]. Stroitel’stvo unikal’nykh zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Construction of Unique Buildings and Structures]. 2014, no. 11 (26), pp. 70—84. (In Russian)
  23. Gorshkov A.S., Rymkevich P.P., Nemova D.V., Vatin N.I. Metodika rascheta okupaemosti investitsiy po renovatsii fasadov sushchestvuyushchikh zdaniy [Methods of Calculating Payback of Facades Renovation of the Excising Buildings]. Stroitel’stvo unikal’nykh zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Construction of Unique Buildings and Structures]. 2014, no. 2 (17), pp. 82—106. (In Russian)
  24. Gabriel’ I., Ladner Kh. Rekonstruktsiya zdaniy po standartam energoeffektivnogo doma [Reconstruction of Buildings According to Standards of Energy Efficient House]. Translated from German. Saint Petersburg, BKhV-Peterburg Publ., 2011, 480 p. (Construction and Architecture) (In Russian)

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Using WUFI®plus software to simulate energy arameters of buildings

Vestnik MGSU 7/2013
  • Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich - Khujand Politechnic Institute of Tajik Technical University by academic M. Osimi (PITTU); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Senior Lecturer, Khujand Politechnic Institute of Tajik Technical University by academic M. Osimi (PITTU); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 226 Lenina st., Khujand, 735700, Tajikistan; applicant, Department of Architecture of Civil and Industrial Buildings; 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 176-180

The author explores the main principles of modeling the energy performance of residential buildings using WUFI®plus software. The author also assesses and analyzes images generated using WUFI+ software within the framework of the simulation of energy parameters of residential buildings. The article also has an experimental analysis of expensive and time-consuming factors that can be avoided thanks to the WUFI®plus software which allows for (1) easy and quick changes in the structure and its design, (2) input of different boundary conditions as well as (3) various values of parameters like material characteristics.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.7.176-180

References
  1. Fundamentals of WUFI®plus. Simultaneous Calculation of Transient Hygrothermal Conditions of Indoor Spaces and Building Envelopes. Holzkirchen, Fraunhofer-lnstitut f?r Bauphysik, 2008, 68 p.
  2. WUFI®plus: general information (October 10, 2010). Retrieved: February 19, 2011, from WUFI-Wiki.
  3. Building Energy Software Tools Directory. Available at: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov. Date of access: 15.06.13.

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