ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

URBAN PLANNING IN THE SPATIOTEMPORAL DOMAIN (PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECT)

Vestnik MGSU 1/2013
  • Skvortsova Lyudmila Mikhaylovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe Shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 59-65

The author proposes a historical and philosophical approach to the problem of correlation between the life activity and the urban environment. Urban planning and development demonstrate different features in different historical epochs. Intensive growth of cities and their population cause us to use philosophical terms, such as motion, time and space. These are the basic terms of the town planning practice.In the ancient world, urban planning absorbed philosophical ideas and ideas of the nascent science. Aristotle defines motion as transition from possibility to reality. Architectural and engineering solutions integrate the notion of space into the town planning and demonstrate aspiration into the future and its desired perfection.Architecture is most philosophical constituent of the town planning practice. Architecture implements the ideas of town planning through the principles of steadiness, statics, tectonics, representation of structures in artistic figures, and constituent elements of motion as a conception of time.Motion and duration of events and phenomena are the measure of time. Mathematics concretizes the essence of space, defines spatial notions of point, line, segment, plane, and volume.The end of the 20th century brought abrupt changes in town planning. It depended on intensive advancements in science and technology, spontaneous expansion of cities and emergence of new spatial forms for the humankind. In modern architecture, there is a need for new methods of town building. Spiritual values became relevant. Now the urban environment is to embody new values. There is a need for special qualities of the urban building: the urban environment should take account of psychosocial, visual and behavioral aspects of perception of spatial objects. The most important factor is the human one. These ideas constitute the spirit of time; they must have some aesthetic content, so that people could be proud of their houses, localities and towns. The works ofEuropean architect James Frazer serve as the example of this point of view.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.1.59-65

References
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  2. Nizhnikov S.A. Istoriya fi losofi i [History of Philosophy]. Moscow, INFRA-Ì Publ., 2012, 336 p.
  3. Markov V.V. Zabota o sebe v antichnoy fi losofi i. Filosofskaya antropologiya [Self-regard in Ancient Philosophy. Philosophical Anthropology]. St.Petersburg, Piter Publ., 2008, 352 p.
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  6. Leon-Battista Al’berti. Desyat’ knig o zodchestve [Ten Books on Architecture]. Moscow, Vsesoyuznaya Akademiya Arkhitektury [All-Soviet Academy of Architecture]. 1935, 391 p.
  7. Azarenkova Z.V. Transportnaya sostavlyayushchaya sotsial’nykh standartov kachestva zhizni v gradostroitel’stve [Transport Constituent of Social Standards of the Quality of Life in Urban Development]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Residential Housing Construction]. 2011, no. 8, pp. 49—50.
  8. Karabushchenko P.L. Ideya lichnosti v razvitii cheloveka [The Idea of Personality in Development of Man]. Vestnik Rossiyskogo filosofskogo obshchestva [Bulletin of the Russian Philosophical Society]. 2012, no. 2(62), pp. 60—66.
  9. Il’ichev V.A., Karimov A.M., Kolgunov V.I., Aleksashina V.V., Bakaeva N.V., Kobeleva S.A. Prilozhenie k proektu doktriny gradostroitel’stva i rasseleniya [Annex to Draft Doctrine of Urban Development and Settlement]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Residential Housing Construction]. 2012, no. 1, pp. 2—10.
  10. Volynkov V.E. Evolyutsiya kak strategiya proektirovaniya i dizayna v nelineynoy arkhitekture [Evolution as a Strategy of Planning and Design in the Nonlinear Architecture]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Residential Housing Construction]. 2011, no. 10, pp. 2—6.

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Integration problems of the old and the new in urban space development

Vestnik MGSU 6/2014
  • Azatyan Karen Rubenovich - National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA) Candidate of Architecture, Associate Professor, Department of Architectural Drafting and Architectural Environment Design, National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA), 105 Teryan str., Yerevan, 0009, Armenia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Engoyan Anna Robertovna - National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA) Candidate of Architecture, Associate Professor, Department of Architectural Drafting and Architectural Environment Design, National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA), 105 Teryan str.,Yerevan, 0009, Armenia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-16

The article discusses some problems of combination of old and new elements of urban space development, positive interaction of which significantly contributes to the unity and originality of architectural and artistic image of a city. The сonstantly evolving complex structure of the city exists not only in space but also in time. With the time the spatial structure of the city changes, as well as the ideas about aesthetic values and the problems of combination of nonsimultaneous formation elements arise. In the article the problems are considered from several points of view: interaction of the old and the new, formation of the historical monuments, their estimation, protection and integration to the new system. Research and analysis of some integration problems of old and new in the development of urban space lead to the following main conclusions. In a complex system of a city the coexistence process of structures is important, created in different times - the integration of old and new, which forms the unity of the urban environment. Integration of old and new, where the old acquires new qualities and the new is in harmony with the old, forms the historical layers, which give the ability to perceive the city in time. The time factor, saturating these layers, gives the city a personality and creates a link between the past, the present and the future via physical structures. In the integration of old and new artistic image formation based on contrasting expressiveness is essential, which is also advisable in case of ensuring the compositional and artistic communication between new buildings and historic zones. In the structure of the city not only unique monuments are valuable, but also their later additions and ordinary building complexes, which are the elements that form the environment and conditions of its perception, express the characteristic features of a certain period and complement the multi-layered artistic image. The combination of old and new is more effective coexisting in the interconnected system of urban processes of layers, created in different times, where a rethought historic building changes the relationship with the environment, gets a new meaning, becomes viable, expands the artistic potential of the new ensemble and associates with the area and its history. Process of the protection of historical environment and facilities in the city should always be considered in a unified approach with the tasks of reconstruction and the formation of new complexes. Protection and reconstruction process should include a wide range of approaches. Task of protecting an individual object, its parts or the building complex, individually defined for each case, contributes to the saturation of the image, where the introduction of the elements of different periods illuminates the process of changes within long time period. In the case of the introduction of the new in the old, modern architectural form should be converted into a part of the formed structure, must not violate the general while showing individuality, but saturate its historical diversity and preserve the opportunity for further development, the formation of flexible composition systems capable to transformation, is an ongoing task in present.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.6.7-16

References
  1. Dutsev M.V. Sovremennyy gorod kak prostranstvo dialoga [Modern City as a Space of Dialogue]. Sovremennaya arkhitektura mira [Modern Architecture of the World]. Issue 2, Мoscow, Nestor-Istoriya Publ., 2012, pp. 221—244.
  2. Rashidyan G.H. Glavnaya ploshchad’ Erevana vo vremeni i prostranstve [Main Square of Yerevan in Time and Space]. Yerevan, EGUAS Publ., 2007, 155 p.
  3. Zeidler E.N. Mnogofunktsional’naya arkhitektura [Multi-use Architecture]. Мoscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1988, 151 p.
  4. Gutnov A.E. Mir arkhitektury [World of Architecture]. Мoscow, Molodaya gvardiya Publ., 1985, 352 p.
  5. Ikonnikov A.V. Arkhitektura goroda [The City's Architecture]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1972, 215 p.
  6. Ikonnikov A.V. Prostranstvo i forma v arkhitekture i gradostroitel’stve [Space and Form in Architecture and Urban Planning]. Мoscow, KomKniga Publ., 2006, 352 p.
  7. Gel’fond A.L. Arkhitecturnaya tipologiya v aspekte zhiznennogo tsikla zdaniya [Architectural Typology in Terms of the Life Cycle of the Building]. ACADEMIA. 2011, no. 2, pp. 40—47.
  8. Schroeder U. Variabel nutzbare Hauser und Wohnungen. Bauverlag GmbH. Weisbaden und Berlin. 1980.
  9. Samoylov Yu.G. Besedy o professii arkhitektora [Talks on the Profession of an Architect]. N. Novgorod, N. Novgorod State University Publ., 1991, 96 p.
  10. Timokhov G.F. Modernizatsiya zhilykh zdaniy [Modernization of Residential Buildings]. Мoscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1986, 190 p.
  11. Linch K. The Image of the City. The MIT Press, 1ST edition, 1960.
  12. Frampton K. Modern Architecture: a Critical History. Thames & Hudson; Fourth Edition, 2007, 424 p.
  13. Azatyan K.R. Opyt modernizatsii zhiloy zastroyki pervykh desyatiletiy XX veka [The Experience of Modernization of Residential Development in the First Decades of XX Century]. Izvestiya soyuza stroiteley Armenii (sbornik nauchnykh trudov) [Bulletin of Builders’ Union of Armenia (Proceedings)]. Yerevan, 2013, no. 1—2 (185—186), pp. 53—63.
  14. Zumthor P. Thinking Architecture. Second, expanded edition / Published by Birkhauser. Basel — Boston — Berlin, 2006. P. 65.
  15. Rashidyan G.H. Tsentr Erevana — kakim emu byt’ v budushchem [The Center of Yerevan — How it Will Look Like in the Future]. Byulleten’ stroiteley Armenii [Bulletin the Builders of Armenia]. Yerevan, 1999, no. 3 (32), pp. 13—15.
  16. Dutsev M.V. Integral’naya kontseptsiya arkhitekturnoy sredy na primere gorodov Gollangii i Germanii [Integral Concept of Architectural Environment on the example of the Netherlands and Germany]. ACADEMIA. 2012, no. 4, pp. 12—20.

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THEORETICAL PRECONDITIONS FOR THE MONITORING OF ACTIVE AND REACTIVE INTENSITY OF LOW-FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

Vestnik MGSU 5/2013
  • Grafkina Marina Vladimirovna - Moscow Polytechnic University (Polytech) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of Department of Ecological Safety of Technical Systems, Moscow Polytechnic University (Polytech), 38 Bolshaya Semenovskaya str., Moscow, Russian Federation, 107023.
  • Nyunin Boris Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Machine Building (MAMI) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Environmental Safety of Motor Transport; +7 (495) 223-05-23, ext.13-13., Moscow State University of Machine Building (MAMI), 38 Bolshaya Semenovskaya St., Moscow, 107023, Russian Federation.
  • Sviridova Evgeniya Yur’evna - Moscow State University of Machine Building (MAMI) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Safety of Motor Transport; +7 (495) 223-05-23, ext. 13-13., Moscow State University of Machine Building (MAMI), 38 Bolshaya Semenovskaya St., Moscow, 107023, Russian Federation.

Pages 112-117

Electromagnetic fields have intensified in residential areas due to higher electricity consumption rates. The adverse effect of low-frequency electromagnetic fields produced on the human environment is well-known.The main sources of low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the urban environment include power lines, transformer boxes, electricity distribution hubs, electricity grids, traffic flows, etc.Presently, low-frequency electromagnetic fields are monitored by taking measurements of peak values of electric and magnetic fields at different distances from sources of radiation. The energy parameters and the nature of low-frequency electromagnetic fields are poorly covered in the academic literature.The authors find it useful to develop new approaches to the environmental monitoring of electromagnetic fields and to study patterns of distribution of low-frequency electromagnetic fields.The authors demonstrate the relationship between the magnitude and direction of active and reactive intensity of an electromagnetic field based on the polarization of electromagnetic waves and the distance to the source.The need to identify the active and reactive intensity of electromagnetic fields in residential areas and to select the most effective means and methods of protection are evident. The authors make an attempt to identify the energy parameters of the EMF, to develop new theoretical propositions, methodologies, techniques and tools for the monitoring of electromagnetic safety of residential areas, which may cause revision of the effective regulatory framework.Approaches proposed by the authors help identify the characteristics of electromagnetic fields and sources that make a maximum contribution to excessive electromagnetic pollution, and develop the most effective tips and techniques aimed at reduction of negative effects of electromagnetic fields.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.5.112-117

References
  1. Balodis V. Electric and Magnetic Fields. Environmental Issues. 2008, no. 5, 81 p.
  2. Blanc M. Biological Effects of Environmental Electromagnetic Fields. Washington, DC, 2005, 376 p.
  3. Feychting K. EMF. Boston, 2003, 301 p.
  4. Peter A. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) and Health. The 2th International Conference on Electromagnetic Safety, 2001, 125 p.
  5. Grafkina M.V., Nyunin B.N., Sviridova E.Yu., Teryaeva E.P. Razvitie sistemy ekologicheskogo monitoringa elektromagnitnykh i infrazvukovykh nizkochastotnykh poley na zastroennykh territoriyakh [Development of the System of Monitoring of Electromagnetic and Infrasound Low-frequency Fields in Built-up Areas]. Stroitel’stvo unikal’nykh zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Construction of Unique Buildings and Structures]. 2012, no. 4. Available at: www.unistroy.spb.ru. Date of access: 20.02.13.
  6. Grafkina M.V., Sviridova E.Y. Ekologicheskiy monitoring i povyshenie elektromagnitnoy bezopasnosti stroitel’nykh ob”ektov vblizi liniy elektroperedachi [Environmental Monitoring and Improvement of Electromagnetic Safety of Buildings near Electricity Lines]. Otraslevye aspekty tekhnicheskikh nauk [Industry-specific Aspects of Engineering Sciences]. 2011, no. 11, pp. 3—6.
  7. Grafkina M.V., Nyunin B.N. K voprosu issledovaniya tonkoy struktury infrazvukovogo i elektromagnitnogo poley avtomobilya [On the Study of the Fine Structure of Infrasound and Electromagnetic Fields of Cars]. Izvestiya MGTU «MAMI» [Proceedings of MSTU MAMI]. 2012, no. 1(13), pp.180—184.
  8. Bessonov L.A. Teoreticheskie osnovy elektrotekhniki: elektromagnitnoe pole [Theoretical Fundamentals of Power-driven Machinery: Electromagnetic Field]. Moscow, Vyssh. Shk. Publ. 1978, 231 p.
  9. Pimenov V.Yu., Vol’man V.I., Muravtsov A.D. Tekhnicheskaya elektrodinamika [Engineering Electrodynamics]. Moscow, Radio i Svyaz’ Publ., 2000, 536 p.
  10. Nyunin B.N., Ivannikov A.N. Sposob opredeleniya koeffitsienta otrazheniya zvuka [Method of Identification of Sound Reflection Ratio]. Authorship Certificate no. 1260690 issued on 01.06.1986.

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CHANGE IN THE LABOR COSTSAT INTEGRATION OF SPECIAL DESIGN NPP

Vestnik MGSU 1/2012
  • Pergamenshchik Boris Klimentjevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) the candidate of tecnics sciences, the associate professor of Construction of Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants +7-(499)-183-25-83, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26, Jaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia.
  • Temishev Ruslan Ramzanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) the candidate of economic sciences, the associate professor of Management and Innovation +7-(964)-795-19-15, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26, Jaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 138 - 143

The question of changes in labor costs for consolidation of special armometal construction accident. An example is given for assessing the reduction of terms of raising the selected part of the reactor compartment.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.1.138 - 143

References
  1. Berndt A. Opredelenie racional'noj blochnosti konstrukcij reaktornogo otdelenija AJeS s reaktorami VVJeR-1000 [Definition of a rational blocking structures of atomic power stations with PWR-1000 reactors]. Moscow, 1982.
  2. Tolkachev L.A., Koltun O.V., Pavlov A.S., Shishkin, V.V. Analiz metodov sooruzhenija reaktornyh otdelenij AJeS s reaktorami VVJeR-1000 [Analysis methods construction of atomic power stations with PWR-1000]. Jenergeticheskoe stroitel'stvo [Power Construction], no 2, 1989.
  3. Pergamenshchik B.K., Temishev R.R. Metod rascheta trudozatrat pri montazhe konstrukcij AJeS [The method of calculating labor costs for installation design nuclear power plants]. Jenergeticheskoe stroitel'stvo [Power Engineering Construction], no 7, 1989.
  4. Pergamenshchik B.K., Temishev R.R. Ob ocenke jeffektivnosti sooruzhenija reaktornyh otdelenij AJeS VVJeR-1000 [An assessment of the construction of atomic power stations PWR-1000] // Power Construction, ¹ 8, 1989.
  5. Pergamenschik B.K., etc. Zakonomernosti pereraspredelenija trudozatrat pri izmenenii montazhnoj blochnosti AJeS [Regularities of redistribution of labor when the mounting block structure of nuclear power plants]. Organizacionno-jekonomicheskie rezervy intensifikacii stroitel'nogo proizvodstva : mezhvuz. sb. nauch. tr. [Organizational and economic resources for the intensification of construction industry. Interuniversity collection of scientific papers], Moscow, IISS, 1989.
  6. Pergamenshchik B.K., Temishev R.R. Prognozirovanie trudozatrat pri montazhe konstrukcij biologicheskih zawit AJeS [Prediction of labor for installation of structures of biological protection NPP]. Izvestija vuzov. Serija Stroitel'stvo i arhitektura [Proceedings of the college. A series of construction and architecture], no 4, 1990.

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