ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

URBAN PLANNING IN THE SPATIOTEMPORAL DOMAIN (PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECT)

Vestnik MGSU 1/2013
  • Skvortsova Lyudmila Mikhaylovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe Shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 59-65

The author proposes a historical and philosophical approach to the problem of correlation between the life activity and the urban environment. Urban planning and development demonstrate different features in different historical epochs. Intensive growth of cities and their population cause us to use philosophical terms, such as motion, time and space. These are the basic terms of the town planning practice.In the ancient world, urban planning absorbed philosophical ideas and ideas of the nascent science. Aristotle defines motion as transition from possibility to reality. Architectural and engineering solutions integrate the notion of space into the town planning and demonstrate aspiration into the future and its desired perfection.Architecture is most philosophical constituent of the town planning practice. Architecture implements the ideas of town planning through the principles of steadiness, statics, tectonics, representation of structures in artistic figures, and constituent elements of motion as a conception of time.Motion and duration of events and phenomena are the measure of time. Mathematics concretizes the essence of space, defines spatial notions of point, line, segment, plane, and volume.The end of the 20th century brought abrupt changes in town planning. It depended on intensive advancements in science and technology, spontaneous expansion of cities and emergence of new spatial forms for the humankind. In modern architecture, there is a need for new methods of town building. Spiritual values became relevant. Now the urban environment is to embody new values. There is a need for special qualities of the urban building: the urban environment should take account of psychosocial, visual and behavioral aspects of perception of spatial objects. The most important factor is the human one. These ideas constitute the spirit of time; they must have some aesthetic content, so that people could be proud of their houses, localities and towns. The works ofEuropean architect James Frazer serve as the example of this point of view.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.1.59-65

References
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  2. Nizhnikov S.A. Istoriya fi losofi i [History of Philosophy]. Moscow, INFRA-Ì Publ., 2012, 336 p.
  3. Markov V.V. Zabota o sebe v antichnoy fi losofi i. Filosofskaya antropologiya [Self-regard in Ancient Philosophy. Philosophical Anthropology]. St.Petersburg, Piter Publ., 2008, 352 p.
  4. Aristotel’. Politika. Metafi zika. Analitika [Politics. Metaphysics. Analytics]. Moscow, Eksmo Publ., St.Petersburg, Midgrad Publ., 2008, 960 p.
  5. Popov N.A. Sushchnost’ vremeni i otnositel’nost’ [The Essence of Time and Relativity]. Moscow, Knizhnyy Dom Publ., Librokom Publ., 2009, 316 p.
  6. Leon-Battista Al’berti. Desyat’ knig o zodchestve [Ten Books on Architecture]. Moscow, Vsesoyuznaya Akademiya Arkhitektury [All-Soviet Academy of Architecture]. 1935, 391 p.
  7. Azarenkova Z.V. Transportnaya sostavlyayushchaya sotsial’nykh standartov kachestva zhizni v gradostroitel’stve [Transport Constituent of Social Standards of the Quality of Life in Urban Development]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Residential Housing Construction]. 2011, no. 8, pp. 49—50.
  8. Karabushchenko P.L. Ideya lichnosti v razvitii cheloveka [The Idea of Personality in Development of Man]. Vestnik Rossiyskogo filosofskogo obshchestva [Bulletin of the Russian Philosophical Society]. 2012, no. 2(62), pp. 60—66.
  9. Il’ichev V.A., Karimov A.M., Kolgunov V.I., Aleksashina V.V., Bakaeva N.V., Kobeleva S.A. Prilozhenie k proektu doktriny gradostroitel’stva i rasseleniya [Annex to Draft Doctrine of Urban Development and Settlement]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Residential Housing Construction]. 2012, no. 1, pp. 2—10.
  10. Volynkov V.E. Evolyutsiya kak strategiya proektirovaniya i dizayna v nelineynoy arkhitekture [Evolution as a Strategy of Planning and Design in the Nonlinear Architecture]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Residential Housing Construction]. 2011, no. 10, pp. 2—6.

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Integration problems of the old and the new in urban space development

Vestnik MGSU 6/2014
  • Azatyan Karen Rubenovich - National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA) Candidate of Architecture, Associate Professor, Department of Architectural Drafting and Architectural Environment Design, National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA), 105 Teryan str., Yerevan, 0009, Armenia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Engoyan Anna Robertovna - National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA) Candidate of Architecture, Associate Professor, Department of Architectural Drafting and Architectural Environment Design, National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA), 105 Teryan str.,Yerevan, 0009, Armenia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-16

The article discusses some problems of combination of old and new elements of urban space development, positive interaction of which significantly contributes to the unity and originality of architectural and artistic image of a city. The сonstantly evolving complex structure of the city exists not only in space but also in time. With the time the spatial structure of the city changes, as well as the ideas about aesthetic values and the problems of combination of nonsimultaneous formation elements arise. In the article the problems are considered from several points of view: interaction of the old and the new, formation of the historical monuments, their estimation, protection and integration to the new system. Research and analysis of some integration problems of old and new in the development of urban space lead to the following main conclusions. In a complex system of a city the coexistence process of structures is important, created in different times - the integration of old and new, which forms the unity of the urban environment. Integration of old and new, where the old acquires new qualities and the new is in harmony with the old, forms the historical layers, which give the ability to perceive the city in time. The time factor, saturating these layers, gives the city a personality and creates a link between the past, the present and the future via physical structures. In the integration of old and new artistic image formation based on contrasting expressiveness is essential, which is also advisable in case of ensuring the compositional and artistic communication between new buildings and historic zones. In the structure of the city not only unique monuments are valuable, but also their later additions and ordinary building complexes, which are the elements that form the environment and conditions of its perception, express the characteristic features of a certain period and complement the multi-layered artistic image. The combination of old and new is more effective coexisting in the interconnected system of urban processes of layers, created in different times, where a rethought historic building changes the relationship with the environment, gets a new meaning, becomes viable, expands the artistic potential of the new ensemble and associates with the area and its history. Process of the protection of historical environment and facilities in the city should always be considered in a unified approach with the tasks of reconstruction and the formation of new complexes. Protection and reconstruction process should include a wide range of approaches. Task of protecting an individual object, its parts or the building complex, individually defined for each case, contributes to the saturation of the image, where the introduction of the elements of different periods illuminates the process of changes within long time period. In the case of the introduction of the new in the old, modern architectural form should be converted into a part of the formed structure, must not violate the general while showing individuality, but saturate its historical diversity and preserve the opportunity for further development, the formation of flexible composition systems capable to transformation, is an ongoing task in present.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.6.7-16

References
  1. Dutsev M.V. Sovremennyy gorod kak prostranstvo dialoga [Modern City as a Space of Dialogue]. Sovremennaya arkhitektura mira [Modern Architecture of the World]. Issue 2, Мoscow, Nestor-Istoriya Publ., 2012, pp. 221—244.
  2. Rashidyan G.H. Glavnaya ploshchad’ Erevana vo vremeni i prostranstve [Main Square of Yerevan in Time and Space]. Yerevan, EGUAS Publ., 2007, 155 p.
  3. Zeidler E.N. Mnogofunktsional’naya arkhitektura [Multi-use Architecture]. Мoscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1988, 151 p.
  4. Gutnov A.E. Mir arkhitektury [World of Architecture]. Мoscow, Molodaya gvardiya Publ., 1985, 352 p.
  5. Ikonnikov A.V. Arkhitektura goroda [The City's Architecture]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1972, 215 p.
  6. Ikonnikov A.V. Prostranstvo i forma v arkhitekture i gradostroitel’stve [Space and Form in Architecture and Urban Planning]. Мoscow, KomKniga Publ., 2006, 352 p.
  7. Gel’fond A.L. Arkhitecturnaya tipologiya v aspekte zhiznennogo tsikla zdaniya [Architectural Typology in Terms of the Life Cycle of the Building]. ACADEMIA. 2011, no. 2, pp. 40—47.
  8. Schroeder U. Variabel nutzbare Hauser und Wohnungen. Bauverlag GmbH. Weisbaden und Berlin. 1980.
  9. Samoylov Yu.G. Besedy o professii arkhitektora [Talks on the Profession of an Architect]. N. Novgorod, N. Novgorod State University Publ., 1991, 96 p.
  10. Timokhov G.F. Modernizatsiya zhilykh zdaniy [Modernization of Residential Buildings]. Мoscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1986, 190 p.
  11. Linch K. The Image of the City. The MIT Press, 1ST edition, 1960.
  12. Frampton K. Modern Architecture: a Critical History. Thames & Hudson; Fourth Edition, 2007, 424 p.
  13. Azatyan K.R. Opyt modernizatsii zhiloy zastroyki pervykh desyatiletiy XX veka [The Experience of Modernization of Residential Development in the First Decades of XX Century]. Izvestiya soyuza stroiteley Armenii (sbornik nauchnykh trudov) [Bulletin of Builders’ Union of Armenia (Proceedings)]. Yerevan, 2013, no. 1—2 (185—186), pp. 53—63.
  14. Zumthor P. Thinking Architecture. Second, expanded edition / Published by Birkhauser. Basel — Boston — Berlin, 2006. P. 65.
  15. Rashidyan G.H. Tsentr Erevana — kakim emu byt’ v budushchem [The Center of Yerevan — How it Will Look Like in the Future]. Byulleten’ stroiteley Armenii [Bulletin the Builders of Armenia]. Yerevan, 1999, no. 3 (32), pp. 13—15.
  16. Dutsev M.V. Integral’naya kontseptsiya arkhitekturnoy sredy na primere gorodov Gollangii i Germanii [Integral Concept of Architectural Environment on the example of the Netherlands and Germany]. ACADEMIA. 2012, no. 4, pp. 12—20.

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RESIDENTIAL ARCHITECTURE OF YEREVAN IN THE 20TH CENTURY. MAIN STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROCESS OF YARD PUBLIC SPACE ORGANIZATION

Vestnik MGSU 3/2018 Volume 13
  • Azatyan Karen Rubenovich - National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA) Candidate of Architecture, Associate Professor, Department of Architectural Drafting and Architectural Environment Design, National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA), 105 Teryan str., Yerevan, 0009, Armenia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 301-308

Subject: for many centuries the yard was the social centre of residential development. However, the problems of its spatial organization often do not receive appropriate attention in modern cities. The city of Yerevan, in this sense, is also not an exception, where the new socio-economic conditions that emerged in the early 1990s led to radical changes in the residential development organization. Under this impact, a serious transformation has also been made to the yard space, which is the subject of this study. Research objectives: identification of the main stages of the yard space evolution in the residential building development of Yerevan in the 20th century and the revelation of its characteristic features. Materials and methods: the work is carried out on the basis of observations and published sources by the method of theoretical research, analysis and generalization of the material. Results: the work is composed of the following thematic subdivisions: the yard in the structure of traditional housing (in residential buildings of the 19th and early 20th centuries); development of the yard space in the new format of perimeter-quarter development (in the system of perimeter development of streets in the 1920-1950s); problems of yard organization in open compositions of building development (in the new forms of free building development by standardized elements in 1960s); attempts of yard restoration in the systematized compositions of building development (in the process of formation of large complexes of building development in 1970-1980s); loss of the yard space in contemporary conditions (in the residential building development formed since 1990s in the new socio-economic conditions). Conclusions: based on the results of the analysis, classification of the main stages of the yard space organization evolution during the last century is presented. This classification must be included in the process of the general study of development of residential architecture of Yerevan in the 20th century.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.3.301-308

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FORMULA OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE IS DYNAMICS OF SPACE

Vestnik MGSU 1/2012
  • Lapshina Elena Gennadyevna - Penza State University of Architecture and Construction Candidate of Architecture, Professor, applicant for academic degree of Doctor in NNGASU, Holder of the Chair of Architectural design base +7 (841) 2-49-59-29; fax: +7(841) 249-72-77, Penza State University of Architecture and Construction, 28, G. Titov str., Penza, 440028, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 17 - 21

The offered paper is to brief the critical analyze of space conceptions, which were constructed by some well-known architects during XX century in Russia and abroad.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.1.17 - 21

References
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  2. Gabrichevsky A.G. Teorija i istorija arhitektury [Theory and History of Architecture]. Izbr. Soch. T. 2. [Mane Works, T. 2]. Kiev, Samvatas, 1993, 302 p.
  3. Nekrasov A.I. Teorija arhitektury [The Theory of Architecture]. Moscow, Stroisdat, 1994, 478 p.
  4. Wright F.L. Novye principy v arhitekture [New principals of Architecture]. http://www.archi.com.ua/ru/biograf/wright/.
  5. Brinckmann A.E. Plastika i prostranstvo kak osnovnye formy hudozhestvennogo vyrazhenija [Plastic and Space as base forms of art gestalt]. Moscow, Isd. Vsesous. Academy of architecture, 1935, 175 p.
  6. Giedion S. Prostranstvo, vremja, arhitektura [Space, Time, Architecture] Moscow, Stroisdat, 1984, 455 p.
  7. Norberg-Schulz, Chr. Existence, Space and Architecture, NY, 1971, 120 p.
  8. Azizjan I.A., Dobricina I.A., Lebedeva G.S. Teorija kompozicii kak pojetika arhitektury [The Theory of composition as poetic of architecture]. Moscow, Progress – Tradition, 2002, 568 p.
  9. Jencks Charles. Aphorisms on Power. Architectural Design, no 1. London, 1995, Pp. 21—23.
  10. Eisenman Peter. En Terror: In Trails of Grotextes. Architectural Design, no 8. London, 1989, Pp. 40—43.
  11. Bokov A.V. Geometricheskie osnovanija arhitektury v kartine mira [Geometry Principles of Architecture in World Picture]. Moscow, 1995, 44 p.
  12. Dobricina I.A. Ot postmodernizma — k nelinejnoj arhitekture. Arhitektura v kon-tekste sovremennoj filosofii i nauki [From Postmodern to the Nonlinear Architecture. Architecture at Context of Contemporary Philosophy and Since]. Moscow, 2007.

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