SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

GEO-ECOLOGY OF THE SUBTERRANEAN SPACE WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Vestnik MGSU 1/2013
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikoloaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geo-ecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federa- tion; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 159-168

The authors provide several philosophical views and an advanced theoretical approach to the positioning of branches of geo-ecology in the general network of ecologyrelated sciences. The present-day system of views in respect of the subject matter of geo-ecology is challenged by new developments and areas of research.Rock destabilization caused by construction works and further settling of adjacent areas inflicts the ecological damage. Lithosphere is responsible for the filtering and purification of the water; biogens and microelements are also added into the water within the lithosphere. Lithosphere accommodates subterranean structures, and it also serves as the living environment for microorganisms. These living organisms produce their influence onto lithogenesis; they can also modify conditions of construction and operation of subterranean structures accommodated as deep as several kilometers below the Earth surface. The subterranean space, taken as a constituent of the biosphere, produces a substantial impact on the quality of the environment on the Earth surface. Geo-ecological prerequisites of construction of subterranean structures are complex and understudied if compared to those that are considered before any construction works on the surface of the Earth. Problematic accessibility to deep massifs serves as the reason for their insufficient study. Geo-ecology of the subterranean space serves as one of the most important scientific branch that enjoys an independent subject matter and areas of research.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.1.159-168

References
  1. Potapov A.D. Nauchno-metodologicheskie osnovy geoekologicheskoy bezopasnosti stroitel'stva [Scientific and Methodological Basics of Geo-ecological Safety of Construction Works]. Moscow, 2002, 280 p.
  2. Potapov A.D. Ekologiya [Ecology]. Vyssh. shk. publ., 2004, 250 p.
  3. Anan'ev V.P., Potapov A.D. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geo-ecology]. Moscow, Vyssh. shk. publ., 2008, 360 p.
  4. Potapov A.D., Revelis I.L. Zemletryaseniya: prichiny i posledstviya. [Earthquakes: Reasons and Consequences]. Moscow, Vyssh. shk. publ., 2008, 180 p.
  5. Chernyshev S.N., Potapov A.D. Geosfery i ikh ekologicheskoe znachenie [Geospheres and Their Ecological Value]. Denisovskie chteniya I: sb. [Denisov Readings, Collection, Book 1]. Moscow, 2000, pp. 223—229.
  6. Bolotina I.N., Sergeev E.M., editor. Fiziko-khimicheskie yavleniya s uchastiem biokhimicheskogo komponenta [Physicochemical Phenomena That Have a Biochemical Constituent]. Teoreticheskie osnovy inzhenernoy geologii. Fiziko-khimicheskie osnovy: sb. [Theoretical Fundamentals of Engineering Geology. Physicochemical Fundamentals. Collection of Works]. Moscow, 1985, pp. 65—70.
  7. Knyazeva V.P., Zhuk P.M. Ekologicheskie aspekty zashchity stroitel'nykh materialov ot biokhimicheskoy korrozii [Ecological Aspects of Protection of Construction Materials from Biochemical Corrosion]. Stroitel'stvo-formirovanie sredy zhiznedeyatel'nosti: Materialy IV NPK molodykh uchenykh [Construction as Formation of the Human Habitat. Proceedings of the 4th Scientific and Practical Conference of Young Researchers]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2001, pp. 76—84.
  8. Zubakov V.A. Istoriko-ekologicheskaya model' evolyutsii i stsenarii budushchego v svete nauchnogo naslediya V.I. Vernadskogo [Historical and Ecological Model of Evolution and Scenarios for the Future within the Framework of the Research Heritage of V.I. Vernadskiy]. Problema ustoychivogo razvitiya Rossii v svete nauchnogo naslediya V.I. Vernadskogo [Problem of Sustainable Development of Russia within the Framework of the Research Heritage of V.I. Vernadskiy]. International Seminar. Moscow, 1997, pp. 23—27.
  9. Kerns-Smit A.Dzh. Pervymi organizmami mogli byt' kristally gliny [Crystals of Clay Could Be the First Organisms]. Moscow, 1953, 28 p. Available at: http://travel.kotomsk.ru/gro/si/si.html. Date of access: 22.09.2012.
  10. Legget R.F. Cities and Geology. New York, McGr.-Hill Book Company, 1973, 226 p.
  11. Zhigalin A.D., Shvetsov P.F., Sergeev E.M., editor. Teploobmen i temperaturnoe pole v litosfere [Heat Exchange and Temperature Field in the Lithosphere]. Teoreticheskie osnovy inzhenernoy geologii. Fiziko-khimicheskie osnovy: sb. [Theoretical Fundamentals of Engineering Geology. Physicochemical Fundamentals. Collection of Works]. Moscow, 1985, pp. 196—211.
  12. Lelekov V.I. K voprosu o radioekologicheskoy obstanovke v g. Moskve [On the Issue of Radio-ecological Situation in Moscow]. Izvestiya akademii promyshlennoy ekologii [News of Academy of Industrial Ecology]. 1998, no. 3, pp. 5—7.

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GEO-ECOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION WITH OIL PRODUCTS EMITTED BY RAILROAD FACILITIES

Vestnik MGSU 5/2012
  • Senyushchenkova Irina Mikhaylovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Associated Professor, Professor, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Novikova Ol'ga Olegovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) postgraduate student, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 156 - 162

Linear railroad facilities have been producing an adverse impact on the environment by polluting it with oil products for an extensive period of time. The authors of the article consider several mechanisms of contamination and the pattern of its spread into soils.
Currently, areas that used to be unsuitable for development as urban lands for geological or environmental reasons are now being intensively developed. The study is exemplified by a city outstretched onto the complex terrain. Complex topography contemplates geological, tectonics-related, hydrological conditions, exogenous processes and anthropogenic factors. In this connection, the main purpose of the study is to analyze the geo-ecological factors that impact urban lands in complex geo-morphological conditions with a view to their functional use against minimal environmental risks to assure the most favorable conditions for humans.
Towards this end, the authors have applied the following theoretical and practical methods of research, including a pilot study, namely (1) the geomorphological analysis of urban lands, (2) the monitoring and analysis of the anthropogenic impact produced onto various constituents of the environment, and (3) development of methods of functional use of urban lands in complex geomorphological conditions.
The authors have monitored contaminated lands to develop their recommendations for their development in complex geomorphological conditions, namely:
1. Urban development planning should be performed with consideration for the geomorphological elements taken as a whole, as they are closely connected to one another.
2. Selection of methods of rehabilitation of urban lands must be preceded by the zoning of the territory based on its geological and environmental properties.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.5.156 - 162

References
  1. Bochever F.M., Lapshin N.N., Oradovskaya A.E. Zashchita podzemnykh vod ot zagryazneniya [Protection of the Groundwater from Contamination]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1979, 122 p.
  2. Gol’dberg V.M., Gazda S.V. Gidrogeologicheskie osnovy okhrany podzemnykh vod ot zagryazneniya [Hydrogeological Basics of Protection of the Groundwater from Contamination]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1984, 262 p.
  3. Gol’dberg V.M., Yazvin L.S. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po otsenke ekspluatatsionnykh zapasov termal’nykh vod [Workbook on Assessment of Thermal Water Resources]. Moscow, VSEGINGEO Publ., 1966, 114 p.
  4. Gol’dberg V.M., Zverev V.P., Arbuzov A.I., Kazennov S.M., Kovalevskiy Yu.V., Putilina V.S. Tehnogennoe zagryaznenie prirodnykh vod uglevodorodami i ego ekologicheskie posledstviya [Anthropogenic Pollution of Natural Waters with Hydrocarbons and Its Ecological Consequences]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 2001, 125 p.

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Problem of use of disturbed urban areas

Vestnik MGSU 9/2012
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Senyushchenkova Irina Mikhaylovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Associated Professor, Professor, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Novikova Olga Olegovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Gudkova Ekaterina Anatolevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 197 - 202

The present stage of development of urban areas is characterized by the intense development
of areas previously unsuitable for geological and environmental engineering purposes. The study
was approved by the city authorities and conducted in the complex terrain. The complex topography
under consideration was formed under the impact of geological, tectonic, hydrological, exogenous
and anthropogenic factors. Towards this end, the main objective of the research was the analysis
of the geo-ecological factors that produced impact on the urban areas exposed to complex geomorphological
conditions with a view to their functional use at minimal environmental risks and most
favorable conditions for human beings.
The authors employed theoretical and practical research methods, including: (1) geo-morphological
analysis of urban areas, (2) monitoring and analysis of the human impact produced on the
environmental components, (3) development of approaches to the functional use and development
of urban areas in a complex geomorphologic setting.
The geomorphologic analysis was held in the cities of Volgograd, Bryansk, and Nizhny
Novgorod. It has proven that the geological structure (the presence of loess loam, karst rocks with
inter-bedded clays and sands) contribute to hazardous geological processes (gully erosion, landslides,
suffusion and subsidence).
Nevertheless, these urbanized areas are lucrative for development. On the basis of the results
of the pilot study, physical, climatic and ecological models have been generated. The authors
have also performed the monitoring of contaminated lands and compiled recommendations for their
development, including (1) the planning of urban development actions with account for the geomorphic
elements, (2) micro-zoning based engineering, geological and environmental information to be
considered before deciding on the type of use of recovered urban areas.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.9.197 - 202

References
  1. Bocharov Yu.P., Krogius V.R. Problemy planirovki gorodov v usloviyakh slozhnogo rel’efa [Problems of Urban Planning in the Complex Terrain]. Arkhitektura SSSR [The Architecture of the USSR]. 1976, no. 7, pp. 29—34.
  2. Vladimirov V.V. Gorod i landshaft [City and Landscape]. Moscow, Mysl’ Publ., 1986, 238 p.
  3. Mikrin V.I., Gorodkov A.V., Senyushchenkova I.M. Landshaftno-ekologicheskie issledovaniya i problemy ekorekonstruktsii istoricheskogo goroda (na primere g. Bryanska). Proekt i realizatsiya — garanty bezopasnosti zhiznedeyatel’nosti [Landscape and Ecological Research, and Problems of Ecological Recovery of a Historic Town (exemplifi ed by Bryansk). Project and Its Implementation as the Guarantors of Life Safety]. Proceedings of the General Meeting of the Russian Academy of Architectural and Construction Sciences]. 2006, St.Petersburg, St.Petersburg University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, vol. 1, pp. 93—98.
  4. Olen’kov V.D. Gradostroitel’noe planirovanie na narushennykh territoriyakh [Urban Planning in Disturbed Areas]. Moscow, LKI Publ., 2007, 192 p.
  5. Rastorguev O.S. Inzhenernaya podgotovka i blagoustroystvo naselennykh mest [Land Development and Improvement of Residential Areas]. Moscow, MARKhI Publ., 1981, 116 p.
  6. Bochever F.M., Lapshin N.N., Oradovskaya A.E. Zashchita podzemnykh vod ot zagryazneniya [Ðrotection of the Groundwater against Pollution]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1979, 122 p.
  7. Gol’dberg V.M, Gazda S.V. Gidrogeologicheskie osnovy okhrany podzemnykh vod ot zagryazneniya [Hydrogeological Fundamentals of Protection of the Groundwater against Pollution]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1984, 262 p.
  8. Gol’dberg V.M., Yazvin L.S. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po otsenke ekspluatatsionnykh zapasov termal’nykh vod [Guide for Assessment of Operational Reserves of Thermal Waters]. Moscow, VSEGINGEO Publ., 1966, 114 p.
  9. Gol’dberg V.M., Zverev V.P., Arbuzov A.I., Kazennov S.M. Tekhnogennoe zagryaznenie prirodnykh vod uglevodorodami i ego ekologicheskie posledstviya [Anthropogenic Pollution of Natural Waters by Hydrocarbons and Its Ecological Consequences]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 2001, 125 p.

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