SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

GEO-ECOLOGY OF THE SUBTERRANEAN SPACE WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Vestnik MGSU 1/2013
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikoloaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geo-ecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federa- tion; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 159-168

The authors provide several philosophical views and an advanced theoretical approach to the positioning of branches of geo-ecology in the general network of ecologyrelated sciences. The present-day system of views in respect of the subject matter of geo-ecology is challenged by new developments and areas of research.Rock destabilization caused by construction works and further settling of adjacent areas inflicts the ecological damage. Lithosphere is responsible for the filtering and purification of the water; biogens and microelements are also added into the water within the lithosphere. Lithosphere accommodates subterranean structures, and it also serves as the living environment for microorganisms. These living organisms produce their influence onto lithogenesis; they can also modify conditions of construction and operation of subterranean structures accommodated as deep as several kilometers below the Earth surface. The subterranean space, taken as a constituent of the biosphere, produces a substantial impact on the quality of the environment on the Earth surface. Geo-ecological prerequisites of construction of subterranean structures are complex and understudied if compared to those that are considered before any construction works on the surface of the Earth. Problematic accessibility to deep massifs serves as the reason for their insufficient study. Geo-ecology of the subterranean space serves as one of the most important scientific branch that enjoys an independent subject matter and areas of research.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.1.159-168

References
  1. Potapov A.D. Nauchno-metodologicheskie osnovy geoekologicheskoy bezopasnosti stroitel'stva [Scientific and Methodological Basics of Geo-ecological Safety of Construction Works]. Moscow, 2002, 280 p.
  2. Potapov A.D. Ekologiya [Ecology]. Vyssh. shk. publ., 2004, 250 p.
  3. Anan'ev V.P., Potapov A.D. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geo-ecology]. Moscow, Vyssh. shk. publ., 2008, 360 p.
  4. Potapov A.D., Revelis I.L. Zemletryaseniya: prichiny i posledstviya. [Earthquakes: Reasons and Consequences]. Moscow, Vyssh. shk. publ., 2008, 180 p.
  5. Chernyshev S.N., Potapov A.D. Geosfery i ikh ekologicheskoe znachenie [Geospheres and Their Ecological Value]. Denisovskie chteniya I: sb. [Denisov Readings, Collection, Book 1]. Moscow, 2000, pp. 223—229.
  6. Bolotina I.N., Sergeev E.M., editor. Fiziko-khimicheskie yavleniya s uchastiem biokhimicheskogo komponenta [Physicochemical Phenomena That Have a Biochemical Constituent]. Teoreticheskie osnovy inzhenernoy geologii. Fiziko-khimicheskie osnovy: sb. [Theoretical Fundamentals of Engineering Geology. Physicochemical Fundamentals. Collection of Works]. Moscow, 1985, pp. 65—70.
  7. Knyazeva V.P., Zhuk P.M. Ekologicheskie aspekty zashchity stroitel'nykh materialov ot biokhimicheskoy korrozii [Ecological Aspects of Protection of Construction Materials from Biochemical Corrosion]. Stroitel'stvo-formirovanie sredy zhiznedeyatel'nosti: Materialy IV NPK molodykh uchenykh [Construction as Formation of the Human Habitat. Proceedings of the 4th Scientific and Practical Conference of Young Researchers]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2001, pp. 76—84.
  8. Zubakov V.A. Istoriko-ekologicheskaya model' evolyutsii i stsenarii budushchego v svete nauchnogo naslediya V.I. Vernadskogo [Historical and Ecological Model of Evolution and Scenarios for the Future within the Framework of the Research Heritage of V.I. Vernadskiy]. Problema ustoychivogo razvitiya Rossii v svete nauchnogo naslediya V.I. Vernadskogo [Problem of Sustainable Development of Russia within the Framework of the Research Heritage of V.I. Vernadskiy]. International Seminar. Moscow, 1997, pp. 23—27.
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CREATIVE PSYCHOLOGY IN ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN

Vestnik MGSU 5/2013
  • Tkachev Valentin Nikitovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Architecture, Professor, Department of Design of Buildings and Town Planning, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 239-248

The author analyzes creative processes underway in architecture, particularly, at the stage of design. The author considers the psychology of choice of a source of artistic images, their transformation in the course of design, development of an architectural concept based on comparison of options, and use of metaphors.The role of such psychological features of a creative personality as associative thinking, imagination, ability to get inspired and critical assessment is demonstrated and analyzed in the article. General issues of transformation of the habitat of cities, psychological aspects of a conflict between old and new buildings are considered.The present-day design practice is a less creative process that the practice of the past, as the employment of information technologies accelerates drafting of documents and limits the involvement of creativity. The seeming simplicity of information technologies reduces architecture to the craft available to any “user”. As a result, the urban environment is filled with computer design, or ambitious and fake buildings.The psychology of creativity relies on associative thinking, imagination and esthetic sensitivity. The purpose of any creative process is achieved through attainment of the following sequence of objectives:arrangement of preconditions for development of an artistic image; search for sources of inspiration; availability of the input material possessing esthetic potential;use of mechanisms of associative thinking, intensification of figurativeness of the primary source using metaphors, so that the metamorphoses separated the new image from its original source;professional completion of work.The author proves that any creative process is based on comparisons, and associations serving as the basis for operations that consolidate into a creative process represent a psychological tool used by creative personalities.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.5.239-248

References
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  3. Raygorodskiy A. Ni odin khaker ne razrushit ves’ Internet [Not a Single Hacker Can Destroy the Whole Internet]. Kampus [Campus]. 2012, 10(60), X1, p. 58.
  4. Sarkisov S.K. Osnovy arkhitekturnoy evristiki [Fundamentals of Architectural Heuristics]. Moscow, Arkhitektura-S Publ., 2004, 352 p.
  5. Nel’ke M. Tekhnika kreativnosti [Technology of Creativity]. Moscow, OMEGA-L Publ., 2009, 144 p.
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  7. Orlov V.I. Traktat o vdokhnoven’e, rozhdayushchem velikie izobreteniya [Treatise about Inspiration Generating Great Inventions]. Moscow, Znanie Publ., 1964, 350 p.
  8. Mark Vitruviy Pollion. Ob arkhitekture [About Architecture]. Leningrad, OGIZ Publ., 1936, 343 p.
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  11. Bychkov V.V. Estetika [Aesthetics]. Moscow, Gardariki Publ., 2006, 572 p.
  12. Lyubart T., Mushiru K. Tvorcheskiy protsess [Creative Process]. Psikhologiya. Zhurnal Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki [Psychology. Journal of Higher School of Economics]. 2005, vol. II, no. 4, pp. 74—80.
  13. Lubart T.I. Models of the Creative Process: Past, Present and Future. Creativity Research Journal. 2000—2001, 13(3—4), pp. 295—308.

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PRINCIPLES OF HABITAT FORMATION IN THE ARCTIC REGION

Vestnik MGSU 2/2018 Volume 13
  • Sarvut Tatyana Olegovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Senior Lecturer, Department of Architecture, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 130-140

The human habitat in the Arctic is formed under the influence of many factors. They determine the pattern of built-up areas, the shape of buildings, the principles of life support, the internal structure and content of objects. The current stage of development of the Russian Arctic is complicated by the impact of global warming. A steady increase in the overall temperature background leads to the results that inevitably change the strategies for development of the region. The main positive economic effect from the increase in the average annual temperature levels is manifested by the increase of duration of navigation in the Northern Sea Route and the increase of freight traffic. Other effects have, rather, a negative sign. First of all, warming leads to thawing of permafrost and, as a result, to a sudden reduction of soil stability and destruction of buildings and structures. The second global effect causes the advancing of the ocean and the flooding of vast areas, apparent degradation of the shoreline with its regular collapse and immersion. The complex impact of natural and climatic types leads to complication of the approach in formation of the habitat in extreme conditions. Comparison of different types of Arctic and Antarctic settlement bases makes it possible to identify general principles for formation of such objects. The implemented projects allow us to reveal features and shortcomings both in designing of buildings and in organization of the habitat. Subject: models and methods of organization of the habitat of extreme Arctic and Antarctic zones. Research objectives: identification of the principles of formation of the environment of special objects in the extreme conditions. Materials and methods: method of comparison of experience of designing special objects in the extreme conditions. Results: the discovered patterns allow us to define the principles of formation of the environment of objects in the extreme conditions. Conclusions: application of the principles of habitat formation in the extreme conditions to the design of the human habitat in the Russian Arctic is possible.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.2.130-140

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