DESIGNING AND DETAILING OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. MECHANICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

RESEARCH OF RELIABILITY OF A LONG-SPAN STRUCTURE EXPOSED TO RANDOM SEISMIC IMPACTS

Vestnik MGSU 5/2012
  • Mondrus Vladimir L'vovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of Department of Structural Mechanics 8 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 3141, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Jaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Mkrtychev Oleg Vartanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Strength of Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Mkrtychev Artur Eduardovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) postgraduate student, Department of Structural Mechanics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337; Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 56 - 61

The article covers the problem of assessment of structural reliability in the course of random seismic impacts. The authors apply the Monte Carlo method and the method of canonical decomposition to generate accelerograms, and explicit time integration methods, by taking account of physical, geometrical and structural nonlinearities. The research results were subjected to statistical post-processing, and the analysis revealed that the structure demonstrated its high reliability. Therefore, the authors believe that the proposed approaches can be used to solve reliability problems that constitute variable processes.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.5.56 - 61

References
  1. Bolotin V.V. K raschetu stroitel’nykh kotstruktsiy na seysmicheskie vozdeystviya [Calculation of Building Structures Exposed to Seismic Impacts]. Stroitel’naya mehanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics and Structural Analysis]. Moscow, 1980, no. 1, pp. 9—14.
  2. Bolotin V.V. Nelineynye modeli v raschetakh sooruzheniy na seysmostoykost’ [Nonlinear Models in Seismic Analysis of Structures]. Vestnik RAASN [Proceedings of Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences]. Moscow, 1999, pp. 88—92.
  3. Rzhanitsyn A.R. Teoriya rascheta stroitel’nykh konstruktsiy na nadezhnost’ [Theory of Reliability Analysis of Structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1978, 239 p.
  4. Rayzer V.D. Teoriya nadezhnosti sooruzheniy [Theory of Reliability of Structures]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010, 384 p.
  5. Mkrtychev O.V., Mkrtychev A.E. Raschet bol’sheproletnykh i vysotnykh sooruzheniy na ustoychivost’ k progressiruyushchemu obrusheniyu pri seysmicheskikh i avariynykh vozdeystviyakh v nelineynoy dinamicheskoy postanovke [Analysis of Reliability of High-rise and Long-span Structures Exposed to Seismic and Emergency Impacts based on Nonlinear Dynamic Approach]. Stroitel’naya mehanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics and Structural Analysis]. Moscow, 2009, no. 4, pp. 43—49.
  6. Mkrtychev O.V. Bezopasnost’ zdaniy i sooruzheniy pri seysmicheskikh i avariynykh vozdeystviyakh [Safety of Buildings and Structures Exposed to Seismic and Emergency Impacts]. Moscow, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, 2010, 152 p.
  7. Mondrus V.L., Mkrtychev O.V., Mkrtychev A.E. Veroyatnostnyy raschet bol’sheproletnogo sooruzheniya na ekspluatatsionnye nagruzki [Probabilistic Analysis of a Long-span Structure Exposed to Operation Loads]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Civil and Industrial Construction]. 2009, no. 3, pp. 21—22.

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COMPARISON OF RELIABILITY LEVELS PROVIDED BY THE EUROCODES AND STANDARDSOF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

Vestnik MGSU 2/2013
  • Nadol’skiy Vitaliy Valer’evich - Belarusian National Technical University (BNTU) master of sciences, assistant lecturer, Department of Metal and Timber Structures; +375 259 997 991, Belarusian National Technical University (BNTU), 65 prospekt Nezavisimosti, Minsk, 220013, Republic of Belarus; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Holický Milan - Klokner Institute, Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU) Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Deputy Director, Klokner Institute, Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU), Solinova 7, 166 08, Prague 6, Czech Republic; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sýkora Miroslav - Klokner Institute, Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU) Doctor of Philosophy, researcher; +420 2 2435 3850, Klokner Institute, Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU), Solinova 7, 166 08, Prague 6, Czech Republic; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-21

Comparison of reliability levels of steel structures designed according to the Eurocodes and to the standards of the Republic of Belarus is provided . The main differences between the basic principles of both standards (such as load combinations, the system of partial factors) with a particular focus on design of steel structures are demonstrated. The main parameters characterizing load effects and resistances are compared on the general level. Probabilistic models of basic variables are adjusted to relevant conditions of the Republic of Belarus. In the numerical example, reliability of steel elements is analysed for different combinations of permanent and variable actions . It appears that the standards of the Republic of Belarus assure a lower reliability level than the Eurocodes (reliability indices ranging between 2.0 and 3.5). The main reason for this difference is attributed to the specification of design values of permanent and variable loads. As for both systems of standards under consideration, the reliability of structures exposed to the snow load is significantly lower than the reliability of structures exposed to other types of the load; therefore, further harmonization is required. Further studies concerning more complicated structural elements made of various steel grades are needed.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.2.7-21

References
  1. TKP EN 1993-1-1:2009. Evrokod 3. Proektirovanie stal’nykh konstruktsiy. Chast’ 1-1. Obshchie pravila i pravila dlya zdaniy. [EN 1993-1-1 Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures. Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings] Minsk, STROYTECHNORM Publ., 2009.
  2. SNiP II-23-81. Stal’nye konstruktsii [Construction Norms and Rules II-23—81. Steel Structures]. Moscow, Gosstroy Publ., 1991.
  3. SNiP 2.01.07-85. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya [Construction Norms and Rules 2.01.07-85. Loads and Actions]. Moscow, Gosstroy Publ., 1999.
  4. TKP EN 1990:2011. Evrokod. Osnovy proektirovaniya konstruktsiy [EN 1990 Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design]. Minsk, STROYTECHNORM Publ., 2011.
  5. GOST 27772—88. Prokat dlya stroitel’nykh stal’nykh konstruktsiy. Obshchie tekhnicheskie usloviya [State Standards 27772—88. Rolled Products for Steel Structures. General Specifications].
  6. Posobie po proektirovaniyu stal’nykh konstruktsiy (k SNiP II-23—81* «Stal’nye konstruktsii») [Handbook of Design of Steel Concrete Structures (based on Construction Norms and Rules II-23—81*. Steel Structures)]. Moscow, TsNIISK im. Kucherenko Publ., 1989, 148 p.
  7. Turkstra C.J. Theory of Structural Design Decisions. SM Studies Series no. 2. Ontario, Canada. Solid Mechanics Division, University of Waterloo, 1970.
  8. Holick? M. and Retief J.V. Reliability Assessment of Alternative Eurocode and South African Load Combination Schemes for Structural Design. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering, vol. 47, no. 1, 2005, pp. 15—20.
  9. Gulvanessian H. and Holicky M. Eurocodes: Using Reliability Analysis to Combine Action Effects. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Structures & Buildings. August 2005, vol. 158, no. SB4, pp. 243—252.
  10. GOST27751—88 Nadezhnost’ stroitel’nykh konstruktsiy i osnovaniy. Osnovnye polozheniya po raschetu [State Standard 27751—88. Reliability of Structures and Foundation Soils. Principal Provisions for Analysis].
  11. STB EN 1991-1-1:2007. Evrokod 1. Vozdeystviya na nesushchie konstruktsii. Chast’ 1-1. Udel’nyy ves, postoyannye i vremennye nagruzki na zdaniya. [EN 1991-1-1 Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures. Part 1-1: General Actions. Densities, Self-weight, Imposed Loads for Buildings]. Minsk, STROYTECHNORM Publ., 2007.
  12. TKP EN 1991-1-3:2009. Evrokod 1. Vozdeystviya na konstruktsii. Chast’ 1-3. Obshchie vozdeystviya. Snegovye nagruzki [EN 1991-1-3 Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures. Part 1-3: General Actions. Snow Loads]. Minsk, STROYTECHNORM Publ., 2009.
  13. Izmenenie ¹1 SNiP 2.01.07—85 «Nagruzki i vozdeystviya» [CHANGES ¹1 to Construction Norms and Rules 2.01.07—85. Loads and Actions]. Minsk, Ministry of Architecture and Construction of the Republic of Belarus, 2004.
  14. Tur V.V., Markovskiy D.M. Kalibrovka znacheniy koeffitsientov sochetaniy dlya vozdeystviy pri raschetakh zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy v postoyannykh i osobykh raschetnykh situatsiyakh [Calibration of Load Combination Factors Used in Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Persistent and Accidental Design Situations]. Stroitel’naya nauka i tekhnika [Construction Science and Machinery]. 2009, ¹ 2(23), pp. 32—48.
  15. Tur V.V. Obespechenie nadezhnosti stroitel’nykh konstruktsiy v svete trebovaniy evropeyskikh i natsional’nykh normativnykh dokumentov po proektirovaniyu [Assurance of Reliability of Building Structures in the Context of Requirements of European and National Design Standards]. Perspektivy razvitiya novykh tekhnologiy v stroitel’stve i podgotovke inzhenernykh kadrov: sbornik nauchnykh statey. [Prospects for Development of New Technologies in the Construction Industry and Training of Engineers: Collection of Research Papers]. Grodno, GrGU Publ., 2010, pp. 480—497.
  16. Markovskiy D.M. Kalibrovka znacheniy parametrov bezopasnosti zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy s uchetom zadannykh pokazateley nadezhnosti [Calibration of Safety Parameters for Reinforced Concrete Structures based on the Target Reliability Indices]. Brest, 2009.
  17. TKP EN 1991-1-4:2009. Evrokod 1. Vozdeystviya na konstruktsii. Chast’ 1-4. Obshchie vozdeystviya. Vetrovye vozdeystviya. [EN 1991-1-4 Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures. Part 1-4: General Actions. Wind Actions]. Minsk, STROYTECHNORM Publ., 2009.
  18. Archives of meteorological observations at meteorological stations in Belarus, Ukraine, Russia, Poland and the Baltic States. Available at: http://pogoda.by/zip. Date of access: 20.02.2012.
  19. S?kora M., Holick? M. Comparison of Load Combination Models for Probabilistic Calibrations. In Faber M.H., K?hler J., Nishijima K. (eds.). Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering. ICASP11, 1-4 August, 2011, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Leiden, the Netherlands, Taylor & Francis/Balkema, 2011, pp. 977—985.
  20. JCSS Probabilistic Model Code, Zurich. Joint Committee on Structural Safety, 2001. Available at: www.jcss.byg.dtu.dk.
  21. Eurocode 3. Editorial Group Background Documentation to Eurocode No. 3 Design of Steel Structures Part 1. General Rules and Rules for Buildings, Background Document for Chapter 5 of Eurocode 3, Document 5.01, 1989.
  22. Rayzer V.D. Metody teorii nadezhnosti v zadachakh normirovaniya raschetnykh parametrov stroitel’nykh konstruktsiy [Methods of the Reliability Theory Applicable to Problems of Standardization of Design Parameters of Building Structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1986, 192 p.
  23. Bulychev A.P. Vremennye nagruzki na nesushchie konstruktsii zdaniy torgovli [Temporary Loads on Bearing Structures of Retail Stores]. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics and Analysis of Structures]. 1989, no. 3, pp. 57—59.
  24. Gordeev V.N. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na zdaniya i sooruzheniya [Loads and Actions on Buildings and Structures]. Gordeev V.N., Lantukh-Lyashchenko A.I., Pashinskiy V.A., Perel’muter A.V., Pichugin S.F., Perel’muter A.V., editor. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2007, 482 p.
  25. Holicky M., Sykora M. Partial Factors for Light-Weight Roofs Exposed to Snow Load. Bris R., Guedes Soares C., Martorell S., editors. Supplement to the Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference ESREL 2009. Prague, Czech Republic, 7—10 September 2009. Ostrava: V?B Technical University of Ostrava, 2009, p. 23—30.

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ASSESSMENT OF MODEL UNCERTAINTY IN SHEAR RESISTANCE PROVIDED BY EN 1993-1-5 AND SNIP II-23

Vestnik MGSU 5/2013
  • Nadolski Vitaliy Valer’evich - Belarusian National Technical University (BNTU) master of sciences, assistant lecturer, Department of Metal and Timber Structures; +375 259 997 991, Belarusian National Technical University (BNTU), 65 prospekt Nezavisimosti, Minsk, 220013, Republic of Belarus; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Martynov Yuriy Semenovich - Belarusian National Technical University (BNTU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Professor, Department of Metal and Timber Structures, Belarusian National Technical University (BNTU), 65 prospekt Nezavisimosti, Minsk, 220013, Republic of Belarus; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-20

The paper is focused on the model uncertainty related to the shear resistance of steel elements with transverse stiffeners on the basis of available test results. The paper shows the general characteristics of resistance models for shear which are used in the regulatory documents EN 1993-1-5 and SNIP II-23. Their areas of application are described. The procedure for selecting the experimental values of shear resistance is described, as well. Comparison of experimental and theoretical values of the shear resistance is performed. Statistical characteristics of the model uncertainty of the shear resistance of steel elements having transverse stiffeners are obtained. Variation of the model uncertainty using basic variables is analyzed, and significant variables are identified for the models specified in SNIP II-23. In the paper, probabilistic description of model uncertainties is analyzed. The proposed probabilistic description of the model uncertainty consists of the lognormal or normal distribution having the coefficient of variation of 0.16 and the mean value of 1.18. The author believes that further research into the models of shear resistance specified in SNiP II-23 is required with a view to their improvement. The database of experimental findings in the area of shear resistance is compiled.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.5.7-20

References
  1. SNiP II-23—81*. Stal’nye konstruktsii [Construction Norms and Rules II-23—81*. Steel Structures]. Moscow, 1991.
  2. EN 1993-1-5-2006. Eurocodes 3 – Design of steel structures – Part 1.5: Plated Structural Elements. Brussels, European Committee for Standardization, 2006, 53 p.
  3. Martynov Yu.S., Lagun Yu.I., Nadolski V.V. Modeli soprotivleniya sdvigu stal’nykh elementov, uchityvayushchie poteryu mestnoy ustoychivosti stenki [Shear Resistance Models of Steel Elements with Account for Web Buckling]. Metallicheskie konstruktsii [Metal Constructions]. 2012, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 111—122.
  4. AISC-360-05. Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. American Institute of Steel Construction. Chicago, 2005, 256 pp.
  5. CSA-S16-01. Limit States Design of Steel Structures includes Update no. 1, 2010, Update no. 2, 2001. Mississauga, Ontario, Canadian Standards Association, 2009, 198 p.
  6. H?glund T. Strength of Steel and Aluminum Plate Girders: Shear Buckling and Overall Web Buckling of Plane and Trapezoidal Webs – Comparison with Tests. Tech. report no. 4. Stockholm, Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Structural Engineering, 1995.
  7. Posobie po proektirovaniyu stal’nykh konstruktsiy (k SNiP II-23—81* Stal’nye konstruktsii) [Handbook of Design of Steel Structures (based on Construction Norms and Rules II-23—81*. Steel Structures)]. Moscow, TsITP Gosstroy SSSR Publ., 1989, 148 p.
  8. Kuznetsov V.V., editor. Metallicheskie konstruktsii. T. 1. Obshchaya chast’. (Spravochnik proektirovshchika) [Metal Structures. Vol. 1. General Issues. (Designer’s Reference Book)]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 1998, 576 p.
  9. Basler K. Strength of Plate Girders in Shear. Proc. ASCE, Journal Structural Division. 1961, vol. 87(2), no. ST 7, pp. 181—197.
  10. H?glund T. Design of Thin Plate I-Girders in Shear and Bending with Special Reference to Web Buckling. Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Building Statics and Structural Engineering. Stockholm, Sweden, 1973.
  11. Johansson B., Maquoi R., Sedlacek G., M?ller C., Beg D. Commentary and worked examples to EN 1993-1-5 “Plated structural elements”. JRC Reports (Eurocodes related). Luxemburg, Office for Official Publication of the European Communities, 2007, 226 p.
  12. Ziemian R.D. Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures. Hoboken, New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010, 1117 p.
  13. Gardner L. and Nethercot D. Designers’ Guide to EN 1993-1-1. Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. London, Thomas Telford Ltd., 2005, 109 p.
  14. Basler K., Mueller J. A., Thurlimann B. and Yen B. T. Web Buckling Tests on Welded Plate Girders. Welding Research Council Bulletin no. 64, September 1960, reprint no. 165 (60-5). Fritz Laboratory Reports, 1960.
  15. Benjamin Braun. Stability of Steel Plates under Combined Loading. Stuttgart Univ., Diss. Inst. f. Konstruktion u. Entwurf, 2010, 226 p.
  16. Charlier R. and Maquoi R. Etude experimentale de la capacit? portante en cisaillement de poutres a ame pleine raidies longitudinalement par des profiles a section ferm?. CRIF, Bruxelles, MT 169, 1986.
  17. Cooper P.B., Lew H.S. and Yen B.T. Welded Constructional Alloy Steel Plate Girders. Journal Structural Division, ASCE, vol. 90, no. ST1, 1964, p. 36.
  18. Cooke N., Moss P.J., Walpole W.R., Langdon D.W., Mervyn H.H. Strength and Serviceability of Steel Girder Webs. Journal ASCE. 1983, no. 109, pp. 785—807.
  19. D’Apice M.A., Fielding D.J. and Cooper P.B. Static Tests on Longitudinally Stiffened Plate Girders. Welding Research Council. New York, Bulletin no. 117, 1966.
  20. Evans H.R. An Approach by Full-scale Testing of New Design Procedures for Steel Girders Subjected to Shear and Bending. Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers. No. 81, 1986.
  21. Fielding D. J. and Cooper P. B. Static Shear Tests on Longitudinally Stiffened Plate Girders. 1965.
  22. Fujii T. Minimum Weight Design of Structures Based on Buckling Strength and Plastic Collapse. Japan, Institute of Shipbuilding, 1967, no.122.
  23. Fujii T. Comparison between the Theoretical Shear Strength of Plate Girders and the Experimental Results. Contribution to the prepared discussion. In IABSE Colloquium, vol. 11, IABSE, London, 1971, pp. 161—172.
  24. Hachirho T. A Fundamental Study on Simplified Analysis of Buckling, Load-carrying Capacity and Deformability of Girders. Kyoto University, 2004, 197 p.
  25. Lew H.S., Natarajan M. and Toprac A.A. Static Tests on Hybrid Plate Girders. Welding Research Council. Supplement vol. 75, part II, 1969, 86 p.
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  27. Lyse I. and Godfrey H.J. Investigation of Web Buckling in Steel Beams. Trans. ASCE, 100. 1935, pp. 675—695.
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  30. Nishino F. and Okumura T. Experimental Investigation of Strength of Plate Girders in Shear. IABSE, Proc. 8th Congr, Final Report, 1968, pp. 451—463.
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  33. Rockey K., Vanltinat G. and Tang K.H. The Design of Transverse Stiffeners on Webs Loaded in Shear — an Ultimate Load Approach. Proceedings I.C.E., Part 2, 71, Dec. 1981, pp. l069—1099.
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  40. JCSS Probabilistic Model Code, Joint Committee of Structural Safety, 2001.

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STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY IN EUROCODES

Vestnik MGSU 11/2012
  • Holický Milan - Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU) Ph.D., Prof., Deputy Director, Klokner Institute, +420 2 2435 3842, Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU), Solinova 7, 166 08 Prague 6, Czech Republic; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 117 - 124

The structural reliability recommended in Eurocodes and other international documents vary
within a broad range, while the reference to the failure consequences and design working life is
mentioned only very vaguely. In some cases the target reliability indexes are indicated for one or
two reference periods (in Eurocodes for 1 year and 50 years), however no explicit link to the design
working life is usually provided. This article attempts to clarify the relationship between the target
reliability levels, failure consequences, the design working life and the discount rate. The theoretical
study based on probabilistic optimization is supplemented by recommendations useful for code
makers and required by practicing engineers. It appears that the optimum reliability indices depend
primarily on the ratio of the cost of structural failure to the cost per unit of structural parameter, and
less significantly on the design working life and on the discount rate.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.11.117 - 124

References
  1. EN 1990 (2002), “Eurocode — Basis of structural design”, CEN/TC 250, 2002.
  2. ISO 2394 (1998), “General principles on reliability for structures”, ISO, 1998.
  3. JCSS (2001) “Probabilistic Model Code”, http://www.jcss.ethz.ch/.
  4. Diamantidis D. (2009), “Reliability differentiation”, In.: Holicky et al.: Guidebook 1, Load effects on Buildings, CTU in Prague 2009.
  5. Holicky M, Schneider J. (2002), “Structural Design and Reliability Benchmark Study”, In.: Safety, Risk and Reliability — Trends in Engineering. IABSE International Conference, Malta.

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