SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

SANDY SOILS: GEO-ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THEIR STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT PROCESS (IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PHYSICAL CHEMICAL THEORY OF EFFECTIVE STRESSES)

Vestnik MGSU 2/2013
  • Potapov Ivan Aleksandrovich - Scientific and Research Institute of Emergency Healthcare named after N.V. Sklifosovskiy engineer, Scientific and Research Institute of Emergency Healthcare named after N.V. Sklifosovskiy, ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol’evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) engineer, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 166-180

The authors consider the strength development of sandy soils in the contest of the physical chemical theory of effective stresses. The authors drive particular attention to the assessment of formation of various types of energy contacts in sandy soils. The article is based on the overview of theories developed by several researchers, on the one hand, and on the findings of the experimental research of sandy soils that have different structural patterns, on the other hand. The experiments include both those that were held a while ago and the most recent projects. The authors have proven that the strength of sandy soils is, to a significant extent, driven by their morphological peculiarities that determine their condition in the context of the assessment of their “densitymoisture”. Strength values of sands are dependent on their moisture content both in terms of their maximal shear stress values obtained in the course of shear testing, or their per-unit penetration resistance, penetration values, as well as the inner friction angle and cohesion. The “strength-moisture” is presented as a curvilinear graph that has two upper limits, one for shear tests and the other one for penetration tests. Maximal strength, according to the shear test, is attained for dry sands, if their moisture content is close to the “optimal” value. As for the penetration tests, maximal per-unit resistance to penetration and penetration values are also close to the “optimal” moisture content value. The authors have identified that moisture content is an important factor of strength of sandy soils that demonstrate various structural characteristics.However, the process of formation of structural peculiarities of sands, namely, their morphological parameters and the nature of the surface of sand particles is influenced by the presence of various films on the surface of sand particles. The article represents a preliminary analysis of the theoretical and experimental findings, therefore, any discussions are welcome.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.2.166-180

References
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THE ROLE OF THE "DENSITY - MOISTURE" OF SANDY SOILS IN FORMATION OF EFFICIENT STRESSES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL THEORY

Vestnik MGSU 12/2012
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Potapov Ivan Aleksandrovich - Scientific and Research Institute of Emergency Healthcare named after N.V. Sklifosovskiy engineer, Scientific and Research Institute of Emergency Healthcare named after N.V. Sklifosovskiy, ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) engineer, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 104 - 110

The paper deals with the formation of limiting bulk densities of sandy soils of different origin against different values of humidity and varying structural features. The authors have identified that the optimum moisture content is typical for sands and clays exposed to mechanical compaction. The nature of this dependence is different from the one between the density and humidity of clay soils. These differences are driven by the peculiarities of formation of bound water shells in the event of low humidity. A linear dependence between the optimal humidity of sands and maximal molecular moisture capacity has been identified. The authors make a statement based on the proven de
pendence between the maximal molecular moisture capacity and the morphology of sands. Their statement is that the formation of bound water shells in the low humidity environment is dependent not only on the fineness of particles, but, to a higher extent, on the peculiarities of the shape and the nature of the surface of sand grains. Another important factor of impact on the density of sandy soils in the natural environment consists in their humidity.
Multiple researchers believe that the correlation between density and humidity of sands is to be the subject of research. It is noteworthy that limit densities of air-dried sands are to be assessed. Therefore, any sands have some particular bound water content, and the lower the intensity of treatment of sand particles, the higher the water content. The findings demonstrate that in most cases typical coagulatory and transitory contacts of non-saturated sands are to be considered in line with the ideas expressed by V.I. Osipov, as the above contacts determine the formation of effective stresses from the prospective of the physicochemical theory.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.12.104 - 110

References
  1. Osipov V.I. Fiziko-khimicheskaya teoriya effektivnykh napryazheniy v gruntakh [Physicochemical Theory of Effective Stresses in Soils]. IGE RAN [Institute of Geo-ecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences]. Moscow, IFZ RAN [Institute of Physics of the Earth (IPE)], 2012, 74 p.
  2. Potapov A.D., Potapov I.A., Shimenkova A.A. Nekotorye aspekty primenimosti k peschanym gruntam polozheniy fi ziko-khimicheskoy teorii effektivnykh napryazheniy [Particular Aspects of Applicability of Provisions of the Physical and Chemical Theory of Effective Stresses to Sandy Soils]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 10, pp. 229—239.
  3. Potapov I.A., Potapov A.D., Shimenkova A.A. Formirovanie raznykh tipov energeticheskikh kontaktov v peschanykh gruntakh v aspekte fi ziko-khimicheskoy teorii effektivnykh napryazheniy [Formation of Different Types of Energy Contacts in Sandy Soils in the Framework of the Physicochemical Theory of Effective Stresses]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 11, pp. 210—218.
  4. Potapov I.A., Shimenkova A.A., Potapov A.D. Zavisimost’ suffozionnoy ustoychivosti peschanykh gruntov razlichnogo genezisa ot tipa fi l’trata [Dependence of Suffosion Stability of Sandy Soils of Various Geneses on the Type of Filtrate]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 5, pp. 79—86.
  5. Potapov A.D. Morfologicheskoe izuchenie peskov razlichnogo genezisa v inzhenerno-geologicheskikh tselyakh [Morphological Research of Sands of Various Geneses for Engineering Geology Purposes]. Moscow, PNIIIS [Production, Scientific and Research Institute of Engineering Surveying in Construction], 1982, 243 p.
  6. Dudler I.V. Znachenie ponyatiya «plotnost’ — vlazhnost’» dlya izucheniya i otsenki fi ziko-mekhanicheskikh svoystv peschanykh gruntov [Meaning of the Notion of “Density-Humidity” in the Mastering and Assessment of Physical-mechanical Properties of Sandy Soils]. Voprosy inzhenernoy geologii [Issues of Engineering Geology]. Moscow, MISI Publ., 1977, 7 p.
  7. Anan’ev V.P., Potapov A.D. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. Moscow, Vyssh. shk. publ., 2008, 260 p.
  8. Lysenko M.P. Sostav i fiziko-mekhanicheskie svoystva gruntov [Composition and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Soils]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1972, 272 p.
  9. Kabai J. The Compatibility of Sands and Sandy Gravels. Techn. University Budapest. 1968, vol. 63, 6 p.
  10. Trofimov V.T., editor. Gruntovedenie [Soil Science]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 2005, 1024 p.

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FORMATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF ENERGY CONTACTS IN SANDY SOILS IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL THEORY OF EFFECTIVE STRESSES

Vestnik MGSU 11/2012
  • Potapov Ivan Aleksandrovich - Scientific and Research Institute of Emergency Healthcare named after N.V. Sklifosovskiy engineer, Scientific and Research Institute of Emergency Healthcare named after N.V. Sklifosovskiy, ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatolevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) engineer, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 210 - 218

The authors examine the applicability of the physicochemical theory of effective stresses to
sandy soils. It is proven that the above theory may be furthered by the argument that all three
types of energy contacts, including coagulatory, transient and phase contacts, are present in sandy
soils. Coagulatory contact predominates over the other three types of contact. The authors provide
their findings in terms of morphological peculiarities attributable to genetic differences of quaternary
sands. The authors have completed an experimental research to identify the fixed water content in
sands and artificial mixtures that have a sand grain size, and they have also analyzed dimensions
of the per-unit surface of samples of natural sands and their fractions to identify correlation between
morphological peculiarities of sands and their maximal molecular water-absorbing capacity. The
authors have proven the presence of a correlation between the morphology of sand grains and their
number in the test sample exposed to the research undertaking, as it determines the number of
contacts between particles of sand.
The experimental data has proven that the principal provisions of the physicochemical theory
of effective stresses are applicable to sandy soils. Natural sands that have particles of different
shapes and surface nature demonstrate different types of contacts that prevent compliance of analytical
data with the results of experimental researches. Moreover, natural dimensions of coagulatory
contact areas of "sandy" systems substantially exceed those identified analytically. Areas of per-unit
surfaces of sands that contain particles with highly developed surfaces and clay films exceed those
of rounded particles the surfaces of which are smooth and polished as a result of their soft friction
in the water. This phenomenon boosts the thickness of adsorbed hydrated or solvated shells. As the
influence of physicochemical factors onto effective stresses in sands is not as prominent as in clays,
supplementary and more accurate experiments are to be held in respect of separate sand fractions
of monogene sands and in respect of samples of natural sands.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.11.210 - 218

References
  1. Trofimov V.T. Gruntovedenie [Soil Science]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 2005, 1024 p.
  2. Pashkin E.M., Kagan A.A., Krivonogova N.F. Terminologicheskiy slovar’-spravochnik po inzhenernoy geologii [Dictionary of Terms and Reference Book of Engineering Geology]. Moscow, Universitet Publ., Knizhnyy dom publ., 2011, 950 p.
  3. Bely L.D., Doudler I.V., Mosiakov E.F., Potapov A.D., Julin A.N. Research Methods and Evaluation of Various Genesis Sand Grain Morphology Role in the Formation of Their Geological-Engineering Properties. Bulletin of IAEG, Krefeld, 1975, no. 11, vol. 1, pp. 27—31.
  4. Doudler I.V., Mosiakov E.F., Potapov A.D. Infl uence of Characteristic Moisture Content Values on Physical-chemical Properties of Sands of Various Genesis. Moscow, Moscow Institute of Civil Engineering, 1974, no. II 4, pp. 14—17.
  5. Platov N.A., Potapov A.D., Lebedeva M.D. Peschanye grunty [Sandy Soils]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010, 254 p.
  6. Potapov I.A., Shimenkova A.A., Potapov A.D. Zavisimost’ suffozionnoy ustoychivosti peschanykh gruntov razlichnogo genezisa ot tipa fi l’trata [Dependence of Suffosion Stability of Sandy Soils of Various Geneses on the Type of the Filtrate]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 5, pp. 79—86.
  7. Anan’ev V.P., Potapov A.D. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. Moscow, Vyssh. shk. publ., 2008, 260 p.
  8. Osipov V.I. Fiziko-khimicheskaya teoriya effektivnykh napryazheniy v gruntakh [Physicochemical Theory of Effective Stresses in Soils]. Moscow, IFZ RAN Pub., 2012, 74 p.
  9. Potapov A.D. Morfologicheskoe izuchenie peskov razlichnogo genezisa v inzhenerno-geologicheskikh tselyakh [Morphological Research of Sands of Various Geneses for Engineering Geology Purposes]. Moscow, PNIIIS [Production, Scientific and Research Institute of Engineering Surveying in Construction], 1982.

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