TECHNOLOGY OF CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES. MECHANISMS AND EQUIPMENT

INFLAMMABLENESS AND SMOKE-GENERATING ABILITY OF POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS

Vestnik MGSU 8/2017 Volume 12
  • Ushkov Valentin Anatolyevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Head of the Research Laboratory of Modern Composite Construction Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 897-903

Possessing valuable operational properties, the vast majority of polymer composite materials (PCM) tend to ignite and spread the flame, the emergence of dangerous fire factors, leading to loss of life and property damage. The present article is concerned with influence of chemical nature and content of mineral fillers, phosphate plasticizers, bromine-containing fire-retardant agents, and dicyclopentadienyliron (ferrocene) derivatives on thermal fastness, flammability and smoke-generating ability of polymer composite materials. It’s shown that the main parameter defining the influence of mineral fillers on flammability of polymer composite materials is the specific amount of heat absorbed by fillers. It’s proved that bromine-containing fire-retardant agents increase smoke-generating ability of materials and allow obtaining low-flammable polymer composites with smoke-developed index not exceeding 500 m2/kg and high performance factors. The rational use of mineral fillers, bromine-containing fire-retardant agents, and ferrocene derivatives makes it possible to develop PCMs with reduced fire danger and high performance indicators.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.8.897-903

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Study of the properties of fine-grained concrete modifiedby the nanodisperse serpentinite additive

Vestnik MGSU 3/2013
  • Pustovgar Andrey Petrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Director, Research and Scientific Institute for Construction Materials and Technologies, Professor, Department of Construction of Nuclear Installations, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Lukuttsova Natal’ya Petrovna - Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education Bryansk State Technological University of Engineering Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, chair, Department of Building Structures Production, Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education Bryansk State Technological University of Engineering, prospekt Stanke Dimitrova str., Bryansk, 241037, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Ustinov Aleksandr Gennad’evich - Bryansk State Academy of Engineering and Technology (BGITA) postgraduate student, Department of Production of Structural Units, Bryansk State Academy of Engineering and Technology (BGITA), 3 pr. Stanke Dimitrova, Bryansk, 241037, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 155-162

The purpose of the research consists in development of a nano-sized additive containing mineral serpentinite designated for fine-grained concretes. In this article, the results of research into the influence of nanodisperse mineral serpentinite additives on physical-mechanical properties of fine-grained concrete are provided.Nano-sized particles are obtained by the milling of serpentinite together with C-3 plasticizer, the content of which is equal to 1 % of the mass of serpentine, and the milling time is 30 min. Milled nano-sized particles are dispersed in the water environment using the ultrasonic technology. The ultrasonic treatment frequency is 35 KHz, and the exposure time varies from 15 to 60 min.The study of the effect of the nanodisperse additive is performed using samples of fine-grained concretes made of white-color cement and quartz sand and hardened according to the regular procedure.If the concentration of serpentinite is equal to 0.01 % and the additive is obtained by the 15-minute exposure to ultrasonic dispersion, the 0.15 % content of the nanodisperse additive added to the fine concrete improves the compressive strength 1.5-fold, the bending strength — 1.3-fold, and improves the average density by 8%, while the water absorption rate goes down 1.7-fold. Resulting strength properties comply with the structure of cement identified with the help of an electronic microscope.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.3.155-162

References
  1. Paffengol’ts K.N. Geologicheskiy slovar’ [Dictionary of Geology]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1978.
  2. Shuman V. Mir kamnya. Gornye porody i mineraly [World of Stones. Rock and Minerals]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1986, pp. 134.
  3. Lukuttsova N.P., Pykin A.A., Chudakova O.A. Modifitsirovanie melkozernistogo betona mikro- i nanorazmernymi chastitsami shungita i dioksida titana [Modifying Fine-grained Concrete by Micro- and Nano-sized Particles of Schungite and Titanium Dioxide]. Vestnik BGTU im. V.G. Shukhova [Proceedings of Bryansk State Technical University named after V.G. Shukhov]. 2010, no. 2, pp. 67—70.
  4. Lukuttsova N.P. Nanomodifitsiruyushchie dobavki v beton [Nano-modifying Concrete Additives]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010, no. 9, pp. 101—104.
  5. Bazhenov Yu.M., Lukuttsova N.P., Matveeva E.G. Issledovanie nanomodifitsirovannogo melkozernistogo betona [Research into Nano-modified Fine-grained Concrete]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 4, vol. 2, pp. 415—418.
  6. Korolev E.V., Kuvshinova M.I. Parametry ul’trazvuka dlya gomogenizatsii dispersnykh sistem s nanorazmernymi modifikatorami [Parameters of the Ultrasound Used for Homogenization of Disperse Systems Having Nano-sized Modifiers]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010, no. 9, pp. 85—88.
  7. Lukuttsova N.P., Chudakova O.A., Khotchenkov P.V. Stroitel’nye rastvory s nanodispersnoy dobavkoy dioksida titana [Building Mortars Having a Nanodisperse Titanium Dioxide Additive]. Stroitel’stvo i rekonstruktsiya [Construction and Restructuring]. 2011, no. 1, pp. 66—69.
  8. Lukuttsova N.P., Akhremenko S.A., Pykin A.A., Degtyarev E.V. Analiz effektivnosti i ekologicheskoy bezopasnosti tekhnologii polucheniya nanomodifitsiruyushchey dobavki dlya betonov [Analysis of Efficiency and Safety of Technology of Recovery of a Nano-modifying Concrete Additive]. Biosfernosovmestimye goroda i poseleniya. Materialy nauch.-prakt. konf. [Towns and Settlements Compatible with the Biosphere. Works of the Scientific and Practical Conference]. Bryansk, BGITA Publ., 2012, pp. 82—88.

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PECULIAR RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES HAVING HOLLOW MICROSPHERES

Vestnik MGSU 6/2013
  • Inozemtsev Aleksandr Sergeevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Technology of Binders and Concretes; test engineer, Research and Educational Centre for Nanotechnologies; +7 (499) 188-04-00, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Korolev Evgeniy Valer’evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Advisor of RAACS, Director, Research and Educational Center “Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies”, Prorector, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 100-108

The most important characteristics of any concrete that determine its operational properties are the process conditions of its formation and rheological properties of the concrete mix. The authors present the findings of a study of rheological properties of a high-strength lightweight concrete having hollow microspheres. The authors demonstrate that the concrete mix containing hollow aluminosilicate microspheres have a high water demand; therefore, they need highly efficient super- and hyper-plasticizers. The nature of the influence produced by the brand and concentration of plasticizers on the mobility of the concrete mix, as well as on the density and strength of the concrete having hollow aluminosilicate microspheres is identified. Polycarboxylate plasticizers have an additional water content reduction effect. Their application has the highest plasticizing effect and assures moderate mobility of the concrete mix and density of the cement stone. The authors have also identified the regularities in the changes of physical and mechanical properties of high-strength lightweight concretes caused by the mobility of the concrete mix. The authors have proven the feasibility of production of high-strength lightweight concretes having the compressive strength equal to 70 MPa (10,000 psi). Multi-criteria optimization proves that Melflux plasticizers have the best performance based on the cone test (the diameter of the mix spread), and they also have a high density if added to the mixtures under research. Therefore, improvement of the quality of high-strength lightweight concretes and development of high-performance structural concretes having an average density of 1,300...1,500 kg/m
3 (10.8…12.5 lb/gal) require certain technological prerequisites.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.6.100-108

References
  1. Kalashnikov V.I. Cherez ratsional’nuyu reologiyu v budushchee betonov. Ch. 1: Vidy reologicheskikh matrits v betonnoy smesi i strategiya povysheniya prochnosti betona i ekonomii ego v konstruktsiyakh [Via Rational Rheology into the Future of Concretes. Part 1. Types of Rheological Matrixes in Concrete Mixes and Strategy for Improvement of the Concrete Strength and Lower Consumption of Concretes by Structures]. Tekhnologii betonov [Technologies of Concretes]. 2007, no. 5, pp. 8—10.
  2. Kalashnikov V.I. Cherez ratsional’nuyu reologiyu v budushchee betonov. Ch. 2: Tonkodispersnye reologicheskie matritsy i poroshkovye betony novogo pokoleniyakh [Via Rational Rheology into the Future of Concretes. Part 2. Fine-dispersed Rheological Matrixes and Powder Concretes of the New Generation]. Tekhnologii betonov [Technologies of Concretes]. 2007, no. 6, pp. 8—11.
  3. Kalashnikov V.I. Cherez ratsional’nuyu reologiyu v budushchee betonov. Ch. 3: Ot vysokoprochnykh i osobo vysokoprochnykh betonov budushchego k superplastifitsirovannym betonam obshchego naznacheniya nastoyashchego [Via Rational Rheology into the Future of Concretes. Part 3. From High-strength and Super-high-strength Concretes of the Future to Super-plasticized General Concretes of the Present]. Tekhnologii betonov [Technologies of Concretes]. 2008, no. 1, pp. 22—26.
  4. Kalashnikov V.I., Gulyaeva E.V., Valiev D.M. Vliyanie vida super- i giperplastifikatorov na reotekhnologicheskie svoystva tsementno-mineral’nykh suspenziy, poroshkovykh betonnykh smesey i prochnostnye svoystva betonov [Influence of the Type of Super- and Hyperplasticizers on Rheological Properties of Cement-mineral Suspensions, Powder Concrete Mixes and Strength Properties of Concretes]. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Stroitel’stvo. [News of Higher Education Institutions. Construction.] 2011, no.12, pp. 40—45.
  5. Kirillov K.I., Oreshkin D.V., Lyapidevskaya O.B., Pervushin E.G. Reologicheskie svoystva tamponazhnykh rastvorov s polymi steklyannymi mikrosferami [Rheological Properties of Grouting Mortars Having Hollow Glass Microspheres]. Stroitel’stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more [Construction of Onshore and Offshore Oil and Gas Wells]. 2006, no.11, pp. 42—45.
  6. Pustovgar A.P., Bur’yanov A.F., Vasilik P.G. Osobennosti primeneniya giper-plastifikatorov v sukhikh stroitel’nykh smesyakh [Adding Hyper-plasticizers to Dry Construction Mixtures]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010, no. 12, pp. 62—65.
  7. Bazhenov Yu.M. Vysokokachestvennye tonkozernistye betony [High-quality Fine-grain Concretes]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2000, no. 2, pp. 24—25.
  8. Kiski S.S., Ageev I.V., Ponomarev A.N., Kozeev A.A., Yudovich M.E. Issledovanie vozmozhnosti modifikatsii karboksilatnykh plastifikatorov v sostave modifitsirovannykh melkozernistykh betonnykh smesey [Research into Options for Modifying Carboxylated Plasticizers as Part of Modified Fine-grain Concrete Mixes]. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyy zhurnal [Journal of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 8, pp. 42—46.
  9. Bukharova S.V., Kulik S.G., Chalykh T.I., Shevchenko V.G. Napolniteli dlya polimernykh kompozitsionnykh materialov: Spravochnoe posobie [Fillers for Polymeric Compound Materials. Reference Book]. Moscow, Khimiya Publ., 1981, 736 p.
  10. Oreshkin D.V., Belyaev K.V., Semenov V.S. Polye steklyannye mikrosfery i prochnost’ tsementnogo kamnya stroitel’stva [Hollow Glass Microspheres and Strength of Cement Stone for Construction Purposes]. Stroitel’stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more [Construction of Onshore and Offshore Oil and Gas Wells]. 2010, no.11, pp. 45—47.
  11. McBride S. P., Shukla A., Bose A. Processing and Characterization of a Lightweight Concrete Using Cenospheres. Journal of Materials Science. 2002, vol. 37, pp. 4217—4225.
  12. Inozemtsev A.S., Korolev E.V. Prochnost’ nanomodifitsirovannykh vysoko-prochnykh legkikh betonov [Strength of Nano-modified High-strength Lightweight Concretes]. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve [Nanotechnologies in Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 1, pp. 24—39.
  13. Barbare N., Shukla A., Bose A. Uptake and Loss of Water in a Cenosphere-concrete Composite Material. Cement and Concrete Research. 2003, vol. 33, pp. 1681—1686.
  14. Rebinder P.A. Novye materialy v tekhnike i nauke: Izbrannye trudy [New Materials in Science and Engineering]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1966, pp. 17—37.
  15. Korolev E.V., Bazhenov Yu.M., Al’bakasov A.I. Radiatsionno-zashchitnye i khimicheski stoykie sernye stroitel’nye materialy [Radiation Shielding and Chemically Stable Sulfur-based Construction Materials]. Penza, Orenburg, IPK OGU Publ., 2010, 364 p.
  16. Inozemtsev A.S., Korolev E.V. Ekonomicheskie predposylki primeneniya vysokoprochnykh legkikh betonov [Economic Prerequisites for Application of High-strength Lightweight Concretes]. Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik Povolzh’ya [Scientific and Technical News Bulletin of the Volga Region]. 2012, no. 5, pp. 198—205.

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ANALYSIS OF DEPENDENCE OF THE FLOW TEMPERATURE OF THE PLASTICIZED POLYMER ON THE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND CONCENTRATION OF THE POLYMER AND THE PLASTICIZER

Vestnik MGSU 10/2012
  • Askadskiy Andrey Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Honoured Scientist of the Russian Federation, Professor, 8 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 3143, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Popova Marina Nikolaevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor 8 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 3076, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Volodina Aleksandra Evgen'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, 8 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 3143, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 147 - 153

Polymeric materials are widely used in construction. The properties of polymeric construction materials vary to a substantial extent; their durability, thermal stability, frost resistance, waterproof and dielectric properties are particularly pronounced. Their properties serve as the drivers of the high market demand for these products. These materials are applied as finishing materials, molded sanitary engineering products and effective thermal insulation and water proofing materials.
The authors analyze the influence of the chemical structure and structural features of polymers on their properties. The authors consider flow and vitrification temperatures of polymers. These temperatures determine the parameters of polymeric products, including those important for the construction process.
The analysis of influence of concentration of the plasticizer on the vitrification temperature is based on the two basic theories. In accordance with the first one, reduction of the vitrification temperature is proportionate to the molar fraction of the injected plasticizer. According to the second concept, reduction of the vitrification temperature is proportionate to the volume fraction of the injected solvent. Dependencies of the flow temperature on the molecular weight and the molar fraction of the plasticizer are derived for PVC. As an example, two plasticizers were considered, including dibutyl sebacate and dioctylftalatalate. The basic parameters of all mixtures were calculated through the employment of "Cascade" software programme (A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelemental Connections, Russian Academy of Sciences).

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.147 - 153

References
  1. Askadskiy A.A., Matveev Yu.I. Khimicheskoe stroenie i fizicheskie svoystva polimerov [The Chemical Structure and Physical Properties of Polymers]. Moscow, Khimiya Publ., 1983. 248 p.
  2. Tager A.A. Fiziko-khimiya polimerov [Physical Chemistry of Polymers]. Moscow, Nauchnyy mir publ., 2007. 573 p.
  3. Askadskii A.A. Computational Materials Science of Polymers. Cambridge, Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2003, 650 p.
  4. Askadskiy A.A., Tishin S.A., Kazantseva V.V., Kovriga O.V. O mekhanizme deformatsii teplostoykikh aromaticheskikh polimerov (na primere poliimida) [About the Mechanism of Deformation of Heatresistant Aromatic Polymers (Exemplifi ed by Polyimide)]. Vysokomolekulyarnykh soedineniya [Macromolecular Compounds]. 1990, vol. 32, series a, no. 12, pp. 2437—2445.
  5. Odinokova I.A., Shevelev A.Yu., Zelenev Yu.V. Prognozirovanie mekhanicheskikh svoystv chastichno-kristallicheskikh polimerov po ikh teplofizicheskim kharakteristikam [Forecasting of Mechanical Properties of Semicrystalline Polymers Based on Their Thermalphysic Characteristics]. Plasticheskie massy [Plastic Masses]. 1988, no. 3, pp. 25—26.
  6. Prokopchuk N.R., Tolkach O.Ya., Paplevko I.G. O temperaturnoy zavisimosti energii aktivatsii destruktsii plastmass, volokon i rezin [About the Temperature Dependence of the Energy of Activation of Decomposition of Plastic Masses, Fibres and Rubber]. Reports of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 1998, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 67—71.
  7. Bicerano J. Prediction of Polymers Properties. New-York, Marcel-Dekker Inc., 1996. pp. XVII+528.
  8. Askadskiy A.A., Popova M.N., Pakhneva O.V. Struktura i svoystva vtorichnykh poliolefinov [Structure and Properties of Secondary Polyolefines]. Collected works of International Scientific Conference “Integration, Partnership and Innovations in Civil Engineering Sciences and Education”]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., vol. 2, 2011. pp. 3—7.
  9. Askadskiy A.A., Popova M.N., Solov’eva E.V., Popov A.V. Poluchenie i svoystva vtorichnogo polivinilkhlorida [Recovery and Properties of Recycled Polyvinylchloride]. Collected works of International Scientific Conference “Integration, Partnership and Innovations in Civil Engineering Sciences and Education]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., vol. 2, 2011. pp. 8—11.
  10. Popova M.N. Tekhnologiya izgotovleniya i fiziko-khimicheskie kharakteristiki stroitel’nykh materialov na osnove vtorichnogo PVKh [Production Technology and Physicochemical Characteristics of Construction Materials Made of Recycled PVC]. Konstruktsii iz kompozitsionnykh materialov [Structures Made of Composite Materials]. 1998, no. 3.

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