Social and cultural background of the emergence and development of fachwerk architecture

Vestnik MGSU 8/2015
  • Gavrikov Denis Sergeevich - Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU) degree-seeking student, Department of Architectural Design, Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU), 65 Il’inskaya str., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Mezentsev Sergey Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-17

The article is devoted to the preconditions of the occurrence and development of half-timbered architecture in different regions of the world. The starting point is giving account of the content of the concept of “Fachwerk”. Using the term “Fachwerk” the article refers to a type of building structure which uses three-dimensional farm inclined at different angles as the basis for carrying out wooden beams; beside, the article defines the construction materials used in construction of timber-framed buildings, and the technology of their construction. The history of the formation and development of Fachwerk is among objectives of the study of half-timbered architecture as well. The main methods of research are observation, analysis, comparison, historical methods. Some photographs of certain half-timbered buildings were used to make a reader familiar with the aesthetic impact of this kind of architecture. The oldest building of protofachwerk could be found on the territory of modern Turkey and China. Later, in the Middle Ages, half-timbered buildings appeared among the Germans, Gauls, and other Western European nations. Still preserved, half-timbered buildings date back to the 14th century. Improvement of building materials and technologies of construction, economic, religious and cultural changes and transition of Western peoples from Middle Ages to modern times played a significant role in the formation of half-timbered architecture. It is also noted that there is a direct link or correlation between the religious characteristics of a society and a form of Fachwerk corresponding to them. A special place in the article is taken by Protestantism which contributed to the progressive development of technology, including construction and thereby changed the vector of development of the Western society from traditionalism to modernity. In the 20th century Fachwerk in Europe experienced a new prosperity, thanks to its use as a stylistic foundation of Swiss-style buildings, styles, stick, hips, Jugend, Storybook, Adirondack. Regional variants of Fachwerk and its interpretations are now available in some regions of Western, Central, South and East Asia, Africa, North and South America, and Australia. In the course of the study we revealed the influence of socio-cultural factors in the half-timbered architecture in different regions of its distribution. It is concluded that Fachwerk is an indicator of predisposition of a particular culture to the progressive development.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.8.7-17

References
  1. Gavrikov D.S. Terminologicheskoe utochnenie ponyatiya «fakhverk» [Terminological Redetermination of the Term “Fachwerk”]. V mire nauchnykh otkrytiy [In the World of Scientific Discoveries]. 2010, no. 6.3 (12), pp. 115—117. (In Russian)
  2. Gerner M. Fachwerk. Entwicklung, Entstandsetzung, Neubau. Muenchen, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 2007, 224 p.
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  17. Mezentsev S.D., Gavrikov D.S. Fakhverkovye reministsentsii v arkhitekture rossiyskikh nemtsev v XVIII—XX vv. [Fachwerk Reminiscences in Architecture of Russian Germans in 18—20th Centuries]. Internet-vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya: Politematicheskaya [Internet-Vestnik of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Polythematic series]. 2013, no. 4 (29). Available at: http://vestnik.vgasu.ru/attachments/MezentsevGavrikov-2013_4(29).pdf. Date of access: 15.03.2015. (In Russian)
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A MODERN APPROACH TO THE CONCEPT OF THE NOOSPHERE AND DEVELOPMENTOF ITS THEORY

Vestnik MGSU 6/2013
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Ryabova Svetlana Sergeevna - Academy of Public Administration of the President of the Republic of Belarus (Academy of Management) Senior Lecturer, Department of Management of Regional Development, Academy of Public Administration of the President of the Republic of Belarus (Academy of Management), 17 Moskovskaya st., Minsk, 220007, Republic of Belarus; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 139-147

The authors elaborate on a new critical approach to the assessment of the concept of the “noosphere”. The basic principles of Vernadskiy’s concept of the “noosphere” are assessed from the viewpoint of the current state of the human civilization. It is proven that the key principles of Vernadskiy’s theory cannot serve as the basis for the noosphere. So far, the theory of the “noosphere” does not exist. There are just a few prerequisites for the attainment of the noosphere, due to the limited knowledge and information about the natural environment and the human ability to interact with it without inflicting any damage. The authors argue the noosphere can only be attained if and when the superiority of the anthropocentrism is overcome and the shift-over to the biocentrism is implemented. The authors insist that the concept of “sustainable development”, which is widely regarded as the primary method for overcoming the global ecological crisis, can be evaluated as a limited and purely pragmatic solution to the environmental problems arising at this phase of the human development; therefore, it may serve as the basis for the modern theory of the “noosphere” to a limited extent.The basic principles of the method of harmonization used to arrange the conditions needed for the implementation of the noosphere are considered in the article. The authors demonstrate that the co-evolutionary approach to further development of the humanity and the biosphere is the basis for the formation of the noosphere. The conclusion is that both mutualism and competition facilitate evolution. The concept of co-evolution applies to the philosophical principle of harmonization valid both for an individual person and the whole humankind. A widening gap between the research achievements and the ability of the biosphere to perceive and to assimilate them is the reason for the ecological crisis. The solution consists in the ecologization of science and technology, as well as in the generation by each person and the whole humankind of the noosphere-centered mode of thinking. Compilation of the modern theory of the “noosphere” is a key task of natural sciences to be attained through the employment of technological advancements.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.6.139-147

References
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  10. Gartman N. K osnovopolozheniyu ontologii [The Founding Principle of the Ontology]. St.Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 2003, 639 p.
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  12. Potapov A.D., Ryabova S.S. Ekologizatsiya nauki i tekhniki kak metod formirovaniya noosfery [Ecologizaiton of Science and Technology as the Noosphere Formation Method]. V.I. Vernadskiy i noosfernaya paradigma razvitiya obshchestva, nauki, kul’tury, obrazovaniya i ekonomiki v XXI veke. [V.I. Vernadskiy and the Noospheric Paradigm for Development of Society, Science, Culture, Education and Economy in the 21st Century]. Tr. Mezhdunar. konf. [Works of International Conference]. March 12—14, 2013, St. Petersburg, vol. 1, pp. 176—190.

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