ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

PECULIARITIES OF CONSTRUCTION OF INSTITUTIONS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION IN MOSCOW IN THE 1920IES AND 1930IES

Vestnik MGSU 6/2012
  • Byzova Ol'ga Mikhaylovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Culture Studies; +7 (499) 183-21-29., Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 6 - 10

Actions aimed at the generality of elementary education in the course of the period days of the industrialization and cultural revolution in the USSR is under discussion in the proposed paper. On the basis of the archived documents, organization of construction of school buildings in Moscow in the 20ies and 30ies of the 20th century is analyzed.
It is noteworthy that industrialization in the periods of the first, second and third five-year plans reshaped the country and Moscow as its capital. Former suburbs turned into large industrial areas that had giant factories and housing built around them to accommodate workers. Thus, the population of Moscow grew in numbers.
The need for competent staff facilitated construction of new schools. Peculiarities of school construction in Moscow within the first five-year plan are considered in article on the basis of a school building in Likhobory in 1932. The school building design, work progress, assembly and interior, deadlines and problems of construction are specified. It is noteworthy that, despite any difficulties, 19 new school buildings were completed in Moscow in the years of the first five-year plan. Classes were organized according to the principle of two shifts to implement the general education programme in 1932.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.6.6 - 10

References
  1. Boguslavskiy M.V. Reformy rossiyskogo obrazovaniya XIX—XX vv. kak global’nyy proekt [Reforms of the Russian Education in XIX-XX Centuries as a Global Project]. Voprosy obrazovaniya [Issues of Education]. 2006, no. 3, pp. 17—18.
  2. Kuznetsov A.I., Kuznetsov R.A. Kul’tura voprosov: istoriya obrazovaniya v Rossii [Culture Matters: History of Education in Russia]. Moscow, 2011, pp.133—135.
  3. M.A. Prokof’ev, editor. Narodnoe obrazovanie v SSSR [General Education in the USSR]. Moscow, 2008, pp.191—196.
  4. Kiseleva T.G. Narodnoe obrazovanie i prosveshchenie v Rossii: real’nost’ i mify [General Education and Enlightenment in Russia: Reality and Myths]. Moscow, 2002, pp. 110—114.
  5. Andreevskiy G. V. Povsednevnaya zhizn’ Moskvy v Stalinskuyu epokhu. 1920—1930-e gody [Everyday Life of Moscow in the Stalin Era. 1920-1930s]. Moscow, 2010, pp. 116—120.
  6. Tsentral’nyy arkhiv goroda Moskvy [The Central Archives of City of Moscow]. F.528, op.1, d.1530. p. 21.
  7. Tsentral’nyy arkhiv goroda Moskvy [The Central Archives of City of Moscow]. F.528, op.1, d.1530, p. 26.
  8. Tsentral’nyy arkhiv goroda Moskvy [The Central Archives of City of Moscow]. F.528, op.1, d.7, p. 3.
  9. Tsentral’nyy arkhiv goroda Moskvy [The Central Archives of City of Moscow].F.528, op.1, d.7, p. 4.
  10. Tsentral’nyy arkhiv goroda Moskvy [The Central Archives of City of Moscow]. F.528, op.1, d.59, p. 4.

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Problems of spatial planning and urban development: social-philosophical aspect

Vestnik MGSU 6/2014
  • Mezentsev Sergey Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 17-26

The article examines social and philosophical problems of spatial planning and urban development from the 1920's until the present. From the historical point of view there are three phases: the 1920s, 1930-1980s, 1990-2010s. In the 1920s two approaches were used in the development of the country: technical and economic and personalistics. The first meant not only the development of power engineering but also of the economy in the whole country. The second lies in stimulation of active creative work, disclosure of worker’s personal potential. On the one hand, it was turned to economic and technical modernization on the basis of the State Plan of the Electrification of Russia; on the other, it was relied on "diligent farmer". In the 1930-1980s the technical and economic approach was dominating. In the 1990-2010s the market approach was widely extended. According to the latter, the development of the national economy should be executed depending on the law of demand and supply. In Russia the realization of the market economy based on demand and supply was reduced to development of exclusively highly profitable business. In the article the author uses the methods of historical knowledge, analysis and comparison and provides suggestions on solving problems of spatial planning and urban development. Special emphasis is placed on the Soviet experience of the 1920s, when the market relations have not been completely destroyed.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.6.17-26

References
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  2. Bocharov Yu.P. Ul'tra-megaproekt «Bol'shaya Moskva» i geopoliticheskie riski Rossii [Ultra-mega-project «Big Moscow» and Geopolitical Risks in Russia]. Demoskop Weekly. 2013, no. 551—552. Available at: http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/2013/0551/analit04.php. Date of access: 12.03.2014.
  3. Davies R.W. (ed.) From Tsarism to the New Economic Policy: Continuity and Change in the Economy of the USSR. London, Macmillan, 1990, 417 p.
  4. Davies R.W. Soviet Economic Development from Lenin to Khrushchev. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998, 112 p.
  5. Gvozdetskiy V.L. Plan GOELRO. Mify i real'nost' [Electrification plan. Myths and Reality]. Nauka i zhizn' [Science and Life]. 2001, no. 5, pp. 102—109.
  6. Morozova N.I. Aktual'noe znachenie sovetskogo opyta territorial'nogo planirovaniya i ratsional'nogo razmeshcheniya proizvodstva [Relevance of the Soviet Experience of the Territorial Planning and Rational Distribution of Production]. Vestnik Astrakhanskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Seriya: Ekonomika [Bulletin of the Astrakhan State Technical University. Series: Economics]. 2011, no. 1, pp. 12—16.
  7. Goryushkin V.I. Istoriya sela Perevolochnoe Kurskogo kraya: Shchigrovskiy uezd — Sovetskiy rayon [History of the Village Perevolochnoe in Kursk Region: Shigrov District — Soviet Region]. Moscow, Direktmedia Publishing, 2008, pp. 51—52.
  8. Lenin V.I. Rech' pri zakrytii konferentsii 28 maya [Speech on the Conference Closing on May, 28]. Polnoe sobranie sochineniy: v 55 tomakh [Complete Works; in 55 Volumes]. Moscow, Izdatel'stvo politicheskoy literatury Publ., 1970, vol. 43, p. 340.
  9. Stalin I.V. K voprosam agrarnoy politiki v SSSR. Rech' na konferentsii agrarnikovmarksistov 27 dekabrya 1929 g. [To the Questions of Agricultural Policy in USSR. Speech on the Conference of Agriculturists-Marxists on December, 27, 1929]. Sochineniya: v 13 tomakh [Works: in 13 Volumes]. Moscow, Gospolitizdat Publ., 1949, vol. 12, p. 171.
  10. Posokhin M.V., editor. Gradostroitel'stvo SSSR, 1917—1967 [Town-Planning in USSR 1917—1967]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1967, 419 p.
  11. Gregory D.A. Housing and Urban Development in the USSR. N.Y., State University of New York Press, 1985, 354 p.
  12. Taubman W. Governing Soviet Cities: Bureaucratic Politics and Urban Development in the USSR. N.Y., Praeger Publ., 1973, 166 p.
  13. Egorov A.G., Bogolyubov K.M., editors. KPSS v rezolyutsiyakh i resheniyakh s"ezdov, konferentsiy i plenumov TsK: v 15 tomakh [CPSU in Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences and Central Committee Plenums]. Institut Marksizma-Leninizma pri TsK KPSS Publ., 9th Edition, Moscow, 1983—1990, vol. 4, p. 494; vol. 5, pp. 17, 393, 397.
  14. Rutland P. The Myth of the Plan: Lessons of Soviet Planning Experience. London, Hutchinson, 1985, 286 p.
  15. Mozhin V.P., Kristanov V.V., Lavrishchev A.N. and others. Planirovanie razmeshcheniya proizvoditel'nykh sil SSSR: osushchestvlenie politiki KPSS na etapakh sotsialisticheskogo stroitel'stva: v 2-kh chast’akh [Distribution Planning of Productive Forces in USSR: CPSU Policy Making at the Stage of Socialistic Construction: in 2 Parts]. Moscow, Ekonomika Publ., 1985, 688 p.
  16. Khorev B.S. Territorial'naya organizatsiya obshchestva (aktual'nye problemy regional'nogo upravleniya i planirovaniya v SSSR) [Spatial Social Organization (Current Problems of Regional Administration and Planning in USSR]. Moscow, Mysl' Publ., 1981, 320 p.
  17. Mkrtchyan N.V. Vnutrennyaya migratsiya: velikoe proshloe i skromnoe budushchee [Internal Migration: the Great Past and the Modest Future]. Doklad o razvitii chelovecheskogo potentsiala v Rossiyskoy Federatsii 2008: Rossiya pered litsom demograficheskikh vyzovov [Report on Human Development in the Russian Federation 2008: Russia Facing Demographic Challenges. Moscow, PROON Publ., 2009, pp. 80—96.
  18. Polian P.M. Against Their Will: The History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR. Budapest: Central European University Press, 2004, 425 p.
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  20. Boettke P.J. Why Perestroika Failed: The Politics and Economics of Socialist Transformation. N.Y., Routledge, 1993, 193 p.
  21. Gregory P., Stuart R. Russian and Soviet Economic Performance and Structure (7th ed.). N.Y., Prentice Hall, 2000, 502 p.
  22. Baevskiy O.A., Bekker A.Yu., Bekker V.Ya., Borovik E.N.; Kuz'min A.V., editor. Gradostroitel'stvo Moskvy 90-e gody 20 veka [Urban Development in Moscow in 90s of the 20 Century]. Moscow, Moskovskie uchebniki i Kartografiya Publ., 2001, 280 p.
  23. Mkrtchyan N.V. Dinamika naseleniya regionov Rossii i rol' migratsii: kriticheskaya otsenka na osnove perepisey 2002 i 2010 gg. [Population Dynamics of the Russian Regions and the Role of Migration: a Critical Analysis Based on the Years 2002 and 2010]. Izvestiya Rossiyskoy akademii nauk. Seriya geograficheskaya [News of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Geographical Series]. 2011, no. 5, pp. 28—42.
  24. Mkrtchyan N.V., Kashnitskiy I.S. Styagivanie naseleniya s periferii v regional'nye tsentry: Rossiya i Evropeyskiy Sever [Relocation of the Population from the Periphery to the Regional Centers: Russia and the European North]. Ugorskiy proekt i potentsial blizhnego severa: ekonomika, ekologiya, sel'skie poseleniya [Ugorsky Project and the Potential of Near North: Economy, Ecology, Rural Settlements]. Moscow, Logos Publ., 2013.
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  26. DaVanzo J., Grammih C.A. Dire Demographics: Population Trends in the Russian Federation. Santa Monica, CA, Rand Corporation, 2001, 101 p.
  27. Mkrtchyan N.V. Kto obustroit Rossiyu v usloviyakh dlitel'noy depopulyatsii? [Who Will Develop Russia in Conditions of the Prolonged Depopulation?]. Rossiyskoe ekspertnoe obozrenie [Russian Expert Review]. 2008, no. 1(24), pp. 16—18.

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CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS OF GENERAL EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN MOSCOW IN THE YEARS OF THE FIRST FIVE-YEAR PLAN

Vestnik MGSU 6/2013
  • Byzova Ol'ga Mikhaylovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Culture Studies; +7 (499) 183-21-29., Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 236-243

The author considers the actions aimed at the liquidation of illiteracy and introduction of universal primary education in the period of industrialization and culture dissemination in the USSR. The author draws attention to the fact that the fast-growing industry was in need of competent specialists and indicates the demand for wide-scale reforms in the education.The author argues that as a result of the implementation of the first five-year plan universal education was introduced in the country, illiteracy was eliminated and wide-scale secondary professional education was made available, highly skilled professionals and researchers were trained, etc. It is noteworthy that industrialization substantially improved the state of affairs in the country and in its capital.The author has studied numerous archived documents to present the evidence of development of a network of schools, higher number of students, organization of construction of school buildings, bigger amount of government funding of schools and other institutions for children in Moscow in the years of the first five-year plan.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.6.236-243

References
  1. Byzova O.M. Poryadok raskhodovaniya gosudarstvennykh posobiy na stroitel'nye nuzhdy dlya realizatsii programmy vseobshchego obucheniya v Rossii v nachale XX v. [Government Allowances for Construction Works within the Framework of Implementation of the General Education Programme in Russia in the Early 20th Century: Expenditure Procedures]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 4, vol. 3, pp. 59—64.
  2. Kuznetsov A.I., Kuznetsov R.A. Kul'tura voprosov: istoriya obrazovaniya v Rossii [Issues of Culture: History of Education in Russia]. Moscow, 2011, pp. 133.
  3. Prokof'ev M.A., editor. Narodnoe obrazovanie v SSSR [Public Education in the USSR]. Moscow, 2008, p. 191.
  4. Massovoe prosveshchenie v SSSR (k itogam pervoy pyatiletki) [Wide-scale Education in the USSR (Results of the First Five-year Plan)]. Part 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1933, p. 6.
  5. Kol'tsov A.V. Kul'turnoe stroitel'stvo v RSFSR v gody pervoy pyatiletki (1928—1932). [Culture Dissemination in the RFSSR in the Years of the First Five-year Plan (1928—1932)]. Moscow-Leningrad, 1960, p. 74.
  6. Byzova O.M. Osobennosti stroitel'stva obshcheobrazovatel'nykh uchrezhdeniy Moskvy v 1920—1930-e gg. [Peculiarities of Construction of Institutions of Secondary Education in Moscow in the 20ies and 30ies]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 6—10.
  7. Narodnoe obrazovanie. G. Moskva (osnovnye pokazateli) [Public Education. City of Moscow (Principal Indicators)]. Moscow, 1934, pp. 11—12.

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