Heroic tunes and patriotic motives in moscow architecture of the 1940-1950s

Vestnik MGSU 8/2015
  • Gatsunaev Konstantin Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 18-29

Historically, Moscow architecture in its development has been following the political trends of the Russian society, and it is clearly reflected in the appearance and quality of Moscow buildings. The author discusses the most observable features and structural principles attributed to Soviet architecture in the middle of the 20th century and uses Moscow monuments as examples. The article is based on the analysis and systematization of spatial planning, architectural, design, and historical sources considering post-war Moscow architecture. The author proposes a historical approach to the problem of correlation between the architecture and post-war Soviet socio-cultural realities. The development of architecture demonstrates different features in different historical epochs. The victorious end of the World War II and crushing defeat of German Nazism generated intensive growth of patriotic emotions in the Soviet society. Heroic tunes and patriotic motives became the brightest features in Soviet architecture. The development of the Soviet architecture between 1945-1955 was determined by different factors. The author discusses the problem of consistency between the existing architectural environment of Moscow city centre and new architectural planning solutions, created by D.N. Chechulin. The importance of historical continuity and consistency of spatial planning policies of the urban development documentation such as the Master plot plan of Moscow (1951) is emphasized. New relations between Soviet government and Russian Orthodox Church were established in the end of the 1940s. Thereby, Soviet architects widely used the decorative elements and compositional principles of ancient Russian architecture. The column order of the Empire style became a required sample for Soviet architects. This style is built according to classical rules, although it has substantial deviations. The Government directives and skills of architects developed an own language of architectural forms typical for so-called “Stalin’s Empire” style.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.8.18-29

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Thermal insulation properties of walls

Vestnik MGSU 5/2014
  • Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Composite Materials Technology and Applied Chemistry, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Bessonov Igor' Vyacheslavovich - Scientific and Research Institute of Construction Phisics of Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences (NIISF RAASN) Candidate of Technical Sciences, leading research worker, Scientific and Research Institute of Construction Phisics of Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences (NIISF RAASN), 21 Lokomotivnyy proezd, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sapelin Andrey Nikolaevich - Scientific and Research Institute of Construction Physics of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences (NIISF RAASN) postgraduate student, Scientific and Research Institute of Construction Physics of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences (NIISF RAASN), 21 Lokomotivnyy proezd, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Bobrova Ekaterina Yur'evna - Higher School of Economics (HSE); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Economic Sciences, Director, Center for Low-rise Construction, Higher School of Economics (HSE); doctoral student, Department of Composite Materials Technology and Applied Chemistry, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), Higher School of Economics (HSE); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000, Moscow, Russian Federation; 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 70-77

Heat-protective qualities of building structures are determined by the qualities of the used materials, adequate design solutions and construction and installation work of high quality. This rule refers both to the structures made of materials similar in their structure and nature and mixed, combined by a construction system. The necessity to ecaluate thermal conductivity is important for a product and for a construction. Methods for evaluating the thermal protection of walls are based on the methods of calculation, on full-scale tests in a laboratory or on objects. At the same time there is a reason to believe that even deep and detailed calculation may cause deviation of the values from real data. Using finite difference method can improve accuracy of the results, but it doesn’t solve all problems. The article discusses new approaches to evaluating thermal insulation properties of walls. The authors propose technique of accurate measurement of thermal insulation properties in single blocks and fragments of walls and structures.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.70-77

References
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Methodical approaches to waste co-recycling technologies development

Vestnik MGSU 5/2014
  • Pugin Konstantin Georgievich - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Automobiles and Production Machines, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomol’skiy prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Vaysman Yakov Iosifovich - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Supervisor, Department of Environmental Protection, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomol’skiy prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 78-90

Currently, the waste industry is being perceived more as a raw material for producing the desired products. That is the result of waste production expanding and the improvement of processing of materials technology. Most part of waste recycling falls on construction technology. If waste recycling is used in building constructions there may be possible negative effects of heavy metals emission. Large waste volumes make it possible to develop heterogeneous waste recycling effects such as mutual neutralization of synergy and the improvement of consumer qualities of the obtained materials. Basing on summarized results of waste heterogeneous co-recycling research it was possible to find ways of construction materials potential preparation. Methodological principles are based on best available technologies principles. The presented paper sets targets, methods and tools to achieve them. The qualitative and quantitative characteristics may vary depending on the tasks to be implemented. It was stated that the effective counteraction of wastes reduced the emission of heavy metals on the account of mutual neutralization and the shift of water-soluble composition to fix form. The obtained material in relation to its consumer properties is as good as its raw material analogy.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.78-90

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Rice straw recycling problems

Vestnik MGSU 7/2013
  • Gorbunov German Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Technology of Finishing and Insulation Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Rasulov Olimdzhon Rakhmonberdievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Technology of Finishing and Insulation Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 106-113

The authors present a fairly extensive analysis of the state of the cereal crop industry in the Republic of Tajikistan and other regions of East and South-East Asia. Problems of generation of a huge amount of waste in the course of processing of cereals, in particular, rice straw processing by-products, are raised by the authors. The authors propose their original solution to the problems in question. Besides, traditional and original methods of application of rice straw in low-rise construction and production of building materials are presented in the article. The major part of the article covers traditional methods of disposal of rice straw as a raw material used in the production of cellulose, lignin biodegradable plastic, paper, cardboard, wicker products, thermal energy, etc. Another important issue, covered in the article, is the study of the straw/husk burning process, as well as the possibility of generating ash that contains various forms of silica. The fact that the ash content of the straw, according to various sources, varies within the range of16–20 %, and its silica content may be up to 89–91 % make it possible for the authors to state that straw and husk ash can be used as an active mineral additive in the production of effective building materials. It is noteworthy that the problems raised in the article are relevant, and their practical solutions are feasible.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.7.106-113

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  6. Dobrzhanskiy V.G. Zemnukhova L.A., Sergienko V.I. Sposob polucheniya vodorastvorimykh silikatov iz zoly risovoy shelukhi [Method of Generation of Water-soluble Silicates from Rice Husk Ash]. RF Patent no. 2106304 (Application no. 96118801 of 23.09.96).
  7. Skryabin A.A., Sidorov A.M., Puzyrev E.M., Shchurenko V.P. Sposob polucheniya dioksida kremniya i teplovoy energii iz kremniysoderzhashchikh rastitel’nykh otkhodov [Method of Generation of Silicon dioxide and Thermal energy from Siliceous Plant Waste]. Barnaul, AltGTU Publ., 2007.
  8. Rumyantsev B.M., Dang Shi Lan. Penozolobeton s aktivnym kremnezemom [Aerated Ash Concrete Containing Active Silica]. Stroitel’nye materialy i tekhnologii XXI veka [Construction Materials and Technologies of the 21st Century]. 2006, no. 6, pp. 38—39.

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Efficient use of pyrometric methods of measurement in the production of construction materials

Vestnik MGSU 9/2012
  • Samsonov Aleksey Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Assistant Professor, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Samsonov Ilya Alekseevich - Ltd AluTerra Limited Liability Company volunteer postgraduate student, Deputy Project Manager, Ltd AluTerra Limited Liability Company, 10S Presnenskaya Emb., Moscow, 123317, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 165 - 171

The authors argue that the use of pyrometers can be recommended for a limited number of
tasks. The method of spectral brightness conversion proposed by the authors serves as the founding
principle of a universal measuring device that has a low rate of errors. This method is effective
at different wavelengths.
The number of errors is reduced two-fold: first, the number of instrument-related errors is
reduced through increasing the sensitivity of the pyrometer and identifi cation of the finest pyrometry
ratio. Second, the authors suggest using, at least, three effective wavelengths to register the
spectral brightness. Moreover, the authors believe that the reduction of the systematic error of the
measured optical transition temperature designated for the derivation of its genuine values requires
the right choice of an effective wavelength so that the equivalent wavelength of the double spectral
ratio became infinitely big. This methodology makes it possible to derive an independent pyrometry
equation to identify unknown emissivity factors within three wavelengths. Thus, the pyrometric system
does not only take different temperature measurements, but also serves for the simultaneous
determination of monochromatic emissive power in the online mode, which is essential for the purposes
of taking measurements in the course of production of construction materials.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.9.165 - 171

References
  1. Garrison T.R., edited by D.Ya. Svet. Radiatsionnaya pirometriya [Radiation Pyrometry]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1964, 248 p.
  2. Sergeyev S.S. Novyy metod izmereniya rasplavov metallov [New Method of Metal Melt Measuring]. Nauka i tekhnologii v promyshlennosti [Science and Technologies in the Industry]. 2003, no. 1, pp. 32—35.
  3. Latyev L.N., Petrov V.A., Chekhovskoy V.Ya., Shestakov E.N., edited by A.E. Sheyndlin. Izluchatel’nye svoystva tverdykh materialov [Emitting Properties of Solid Materials]. Moscow, Energiya Publ., 1974, 472 p.
  4. Svet D.Ya. Opticheskie metody izmereniya istinnykh temperatur [Optical Methods of Measuring True Temperatures]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1982, 298 p.
  5. Poskachey A.A., Chubarov E.P. Optiko-elektronnye sistemy izmereniya temperatury [Optoelectronic Systems of Temperature Measurement]. Moscow, Energoatomizdat Publ., 1988, 248 p.
  6. Samsonov A.I. Universal’naya pirometricheskaya sistema [Universal Pyrometric System]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 329—333.
  7. Zhagullo O.M., edited by A.N. Gordov. Osnovnye terminy v oblasti temperaturnykh izmereniy [Basic Temperature Measurement Terms]. Moscow, Izdatel’svo standartov publ., 1992, 196 p.
  8. Samsonov A.I., Samsonov I.A. Povyshenie tochnosti pirometrii izlucheniya pri proizvodstve oblitsovochnykh stroitel’nykh materialov [Improving the Accuracy of Emission Pyrometry in the Manufacturing of Facing Construction Materials]. Internet-vestnik VolgGASU [Internet Bulletin of VolgGASU]. Multidisciplinary Series. 2011, no. 4 (19).
  9. Samsonov A.I. Universal’naya izmeritel’naya lineyka [Universal Measuring Scale]. MLTI Scientific papers, 1978, vol. 278, pp. 112—115.

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ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS : BASIC HISTORICAL STAGES

Vestnik MGSU 1/2017 Volume 12
  • Velichko Evgeniy Georgievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Construction Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Tskhovrebov Eduard Stanislavovich - Research Institute “Center for Environmental Industrial Policy” (Research Institute “CEIP”) Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor, Deputy Director, Research Institute “Center for Environmental Industrial Policy” (Research Institute “CEIP”), 42 Olimpiyskiy pr., Mytishchi, Moscow Region, Russian Federation, 141006.

Pages 26-35

Environmentally safe construction products are materials and products of construction purpose made of renewable natural resources and natural environment components with minimum spend of natural resources and energy, and the process of handling thereof (extraction of raw materials for production of the aforesaid materials and products, manufacture, transportation, use in engineering structures, processing, recycling, burial in natural environment) does not adversely affect neither humans nor environment. The article considers the basic historical stages of use of environmentally friendly construction materials in industrial and civil construction, starting from antiquity and ending with modern age. Review materials on the use of safe natural products such as wood, stone, thatch, peat, clay and other types of environmentally friendly materials in construction are presented. Properties of natural materials that ensure environmental safety of buildings, structures and premises, sanitary and hygienic requirements, coziness and comfort thereof for humans are analyzed. It is concluded that at present time the construction of high quality, comfortable, ecologically safe housing at affordable prices which is based on environmentally friendly technologies, resource and energy saving, construction materials safe for human health, should become one of the main priorities of economic and environmental policy of Russia.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.1.26-35

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Mathematical modeling of the emission of heavy metals into water bodies from building materials derived from production waste

Vestnik MGSU 1/2016
  • Pugin Konstantin Georgievich - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Automobiles and Production Machines, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomol’skiy prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Vaysman Yakov Iosifovich - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Supervisor, Department of Environmental Protection, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomol’skiy prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Boyarshinov Mikhail Gennad’evich - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Automobiles and Production Machines, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomol’skiy prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 105-117

At the present time industrial waste is considered to be an alternative to primary natural resources when producing construction materials and products. The use of industrial waste in the construction branch allows reducing ecological load on the environment and population as a result of reducing the amount of unrecyclable waste and reducing the use of primary natural resources. Though when involving waste products as raw material in the preparation of building materials there occur environmental risks of anthropogenic impact increase on the environment. These risks are related to possible emission of heavy metals from construction materials in use. The article describes a tool which allows predicting this issue, depending on the acidity of the medium, the residence time of the material in the environment. The experimental data obtained in determining the migration activity of metals from cement concretes to aqueous solutions served as the basis for the mathematical model. The proposed model allows us to make a prediction of anthropogenic impact on the environment and commensurate this impact with the possibility of assimilation of the environment area where the building materials are applied. This will allow conducting an effective assessment of the created and applied technologies of waste disposal, taking into account the operating conditions of the materials produced.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.1.105-117

References
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  9. Kendall Alissa, Keoleian Gregory A., Lepech Michael D. Materials Design for Sustainability through Life Cycle Modeling of Engineered Cementitious Composites. Materials and Structures. 2008, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1117—1131. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1617/s11527-007-9310-5.
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