Geoecological conditions of THE territory OF Tomsk and their influence on URBAN CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Vestnik MGSU 4/2012
  • Ol'khovatenko Valentin Egorovich - Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (TSUAB) Professor, Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Chair, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (TSUAB), 2 Solyanaya sq., Tomsk, 634003, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Lazarev Vladimir Mikhaylovich - Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (TSUAB) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associated Professor, Chair, Department of Geodesy, Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (TSUAB), 2 Solyanaya sq., Tomsk, 634003, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Filimonova Irina Sergeevna - Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (TSUAB) Senior Lecturer, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (TSUAB), 2 Solyanaya sq., Tomsk, 634003, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 131 - 139

Geoecological conditions, natural and anthropogenic factors that boost hazardous processes in the territory of Tomsk are considered in the paper. The algorithm of research of geoecological conditions of urban territories is proposed by the authors. The authors have also identified the reasons of hazardous processes and development patterns typical for them; the authors also break the territory into zones on the basis of the level of hazards and risks that the urban development is exposed to. The authors provide their recommendations in respect of the engineering protection of urban lands on the basis of the zoning of the territory of Tomsk.
Comprehensive geoecological research was performed in furtherance of the algorithm proposed by the authors. The research undertaking made it possible to identify the patterns of hazardous processes, to assess the state and sustainability of natural and technological systems in the zones of geoecological risks, to compile a map of urban zones based on the intensity of geoecological risks that challenged the urban development, and to develop a set of actions to assure the engineering protection of the territory, its buildings and structures.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.131 - 139

References
  1. Ol'khovatenko V.E., Rutman M.G., Lazarev V.I. Opasnye prirodnye i tekhnoprirodnye protsessy na territorii goroda Tomska i ikh vliyanie na ustoychivost' prirodno-tekhnicheskikh sistem [Hazardous Natural and Technological-Natural Processes in the Territory of Tomsk and Their Influence on the Sustainability of Natural and Technological Systems]. Tomsk, Pechatnaya Manufaktura Publ., 2005, 152 p.

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Engineering protection of pipelinesfrom erosion processes

Vestnik MGSU 7/2013
  • Skapintsev Aleksandr Evgen’evich - “Fundamentproekt” Open Joint Stock Company Team Leader, “Fundamentproekt” Open Joint Stock Company, 1 Volokolamskoe shosse, Moscow, 125993, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Engineering Geology and Geo-ecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Lavrusevich Andrey Alexandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geo-ecology; +7 (495) 500-84-26., Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 140-151

The authors consider varied engineering actions aimed at the protection of pipelines from developing erosion processes with a focus on the conditions of northern regions. Engineering solutions, considered in the article, include prevention of erosion processes along pipelines, protection from suffusion, protection of extended areas having the limit value of the slope angle, and actions aimed at the drainage of areas along pipelines. Prevention of erosion processes along pipelines consists in the restoration of the fertile layer using biological methods, as well as the volumetric soil reinforcement using geological grids. Prevention of suffusion processes consists in the employment of various types of suffusion shields accompanied by the application of geotextile. Berms are constructed as suffusion prevention actions in extended areas having a limit value of the slope angle. This action is used to reduce the water flow energy of drainage ditches and trays along the pipeline. The authors believe that a complete geotechnical monitoring network must be designed and developed to monitor the condition of pipelines and foundation soils.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.7.140-151

References
  1. Ragozin A.L., editor. Prirodnye opasnosti Rossii [Natural Hazards of Russia]. Moscow, Kruk Publ., 2002 — 2003. 320 p.
  2. Golodkovskaya G.A. Printsipy inzh.-geol. tipizatsii mestorozhdeniy poleznykh iskopaemykh [Principles of Geo-engineering Typification of Mineral Deposits]. Voprosy inzhenernoy geologii i gruntovedeniya [Issues of Engineering Geology and Pedology]. 1983, no. 5, pp. 355—369.
  3. Gensiruk S.A. Ratsional'noe prirodopol'zovanie [Rational Nature Management]. Moscow, 1989. 310 p.
  4. ¹ RD 39-00147105-006—97. Instruktsiya po rekul'tivatsii zemel', narushennykh i zagryaznennykh pri avariynom i kapital'nom remonte nefteprovodov [N RD 39-00147105- 006—97. Instruction for Reclamation of Soils Disturbed by Emergency and Capital Repairs of Oil Pipelines]. Moscow, Transneft' Publ., 1997.
  5. SPA “Promkompozit” website. Available at: http://www.promcompozit.ru/cgi-bin/index.cgi?adm_act=strukture&num_edit=1035. Date of access: 25.05.2013.
  6. Private company “Vyrobnyche ob’jednannja Gabiony zahid Ukrai'na” website. Available at: http://www.zahid-gabions.cv.ua. Date of access: 23.05.2013.
  7. Sarsby R.W.Ed. Geosynthetics in Civil Engineering. Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Cambridge, England, 2007. 312 p.
  8. Jones K.D. Sooruzheniya iz armirovannogo grunta [Earth Reinforcement and Soil Structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1989. 281 p.
  9. Dixon N., Smith D.M., Greenwood J.R. and Jones D.R.V. Geosynthetics: Protecting the Environment. Thomas Telford Publ., London, England, 2003. 176 p.
  10. LLC “Water Construction” website. Available at: http://vodbud.com/index.php?go=Content&id=15. Date of access: 25.05.2013.
  11. Waltham T., Bell T., Culshaw M. Sinkholes and Subsidence. Springer, Berlin, 2005. 300 p.
  12. Trofimov V.T., Voznesenskiy E.A., Korolev V.A. Inzhenernaya geologiya Rossii. T. 1. Grunty Rossii [Engineering Geology of Russia. Vol. 1. Soils of Russia]. Moscow, KDU Publ., 2011. 672 p.
  13. Istomina B.C. Fil'tratsionnaya ustoychivost' gruntov [Filtration Stability of Soils]. Moscow, 1957. 296 p.

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METHODOLOGY OF IDENTIFICATION OF THE DRAINAGE NORM FOR AREASEXPOSED TO FLOODING

Vestnik MGSU 8/2013
  • Voronov Yuriy Viktorovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Water Discharge and Water Ecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Shirkova Tat'yana Nikolaevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Water Discharge and Water Ecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 131-136

The authors argue that drainage norms depending on the functional use of territories must be considered as the first step in the design of flood protection systems. Further, calculation of the drainage norm should be performed based on the extent of the flooding vulnerability of areas. Any designer should identify the parameters of hazards that may cause harmful effects, including the groundwater level, the moisture content of soil, contamination of the groundwater and soil, and the change of soil properties by soaking and draining in order to characterize the hazard of flooding processes in urban and industrial areas. The classification of factors affecting the vulnerability of urban and industrial areas is based on the four features, or indicators of vulnerability, including urban, geotechnical, environmental, and operational indicators. An assessment of harmful effects of flooding should be made following the identification of the flooding hazard degree and the vulnerability of the area to flooding. The research findings contain the threshold of the geological safety and the acceptable depth of the groundwater. Any design of engineering protection actions should take account of the drainage norm within the boundaries based on the acceptable groundwater level in terms of the geological safety threshold.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.8.131-136

References
  1. Kuranov N.P., Kuranov P.N. Normativnye trebovaniya k sistemam inzhenernoy zashchity ot podtopleniya [Regulatory Requirements Applicable to Systems of Engineering Protection from Flooding]. Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaya tehnika [Water supply and sanitery equipment]. 2009, no.1, pp. 59—65.
  2. PACE official site. Available at: http://www.pacewater.com. Date of access: 28.05.2013.
  3. NDS official site. Available at: http://www.ndspro.com. Date of access: 28.05.2013.
  4. ADS official site. Available at: http://www.americandrainagesystems.com. Date of access: 28.05.2013.
  5. Drainage Systems Dublin official site. Available at: http://www.drainagesystems.ie. Date of access: 28.05.2013.
  6. Metodika otsenki veroyatnostnogo ushcherba ot vrednogo vozdeystviya vod i otsenki effektivnosti osushchestvleniya preventivnykh vodokhozyaystvennykh meropriyatiy [Methodology of Evaluation of Probable Damages Caused by the Harmful Influence of Water and Evaluation of Efficiency of Preventive Water Management Activities]. Ìoscow, VIEMS Publ., 2005.
  7. Kuranov N.P. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po otsenke urovney bezopasnosti, riska i ushcherba ot podtopleniy gradopromyshlennykh territoriy [Methodological Recommendations on Evaluation of Safety, Risk and Damage Levels in Respect of Flooding of Urban and Industrial Territories]. Moscow, ZAO “DAR/VODGEO” Publ., 2010, 58 p.
  8. Dzektser E.S., Pyrchenko V.A. Tekhnologiya obespecheniya ustoychivogo razvitiya urbanizirovannykh territoriy v usloviyakh vozdeystviya prirodnykh opasnostey [Technology for Sustainable Development of Urbanized Territories Exposed to Natural Hazards]. Moscow, ZAO “DAR/VODGEO” Publ., 2004, 166 p.
  9. Kuz'min V.V., Timofeeva E.A., Chunosov D.V. Otsenka riska negativnykh vozdeystviy pri podtoplenii urbanizirovannykh territoriy [Evaluation of the Risk of Negative Impacts of the Flooding Exposure in Respect of Urbanized Territories]. Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaya tekhnika [Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering]. Moscow, VST Publ., 2008, no. 6, pp. 44—49.
  10. Osipov V.I., Shoygu S.K., editors. Prirodnye opasnosti Rossii. Tom 3. Ekzogennye geologicheskie opasnosti [Natural Hazards in Russia. Volume 3. Exogenous Geological Dangers]. Ìoscow, KRUK Publ., 2003.
  11. Ragozin A.L., editor. Prirodnye opasnosti Rossii. Tom 6. Otsenka i upravlenie prirodnymi riskami [Natural Hazards in Russia. Volume 6. Evaluation and Management of Natural Risks]. Ìoscow, KRUK Publ., 2003.

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METHODOLOGY AND METHODS OF CALCULATING THE DRAINAGE RATE AT ENGINEERING PROTECTION FROM UNDERFLOODING OF LOCAL OBJECTS

Vestnik MGSU 10/2015
  • Kuranov Nikolay Petrovich - Research and Production Association VODGEO (VODGEO) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, President, Research and Production Association VODGEO (VODGEO), 9-3 Bolshoy Savvinskiy pereulok, Moscow, 119435, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kuranov Petr Nikolaevich - Private Corporation DAR/VODGEO (DAR/VODGEO) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Director General, Private Corporation DAR/VODGEO (DAR/VODGEO), 9-1 Bolshoy Savvinskiy pereulok, Moscow, 119435, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Koroteev Dmitriy Gennad’evich - Private Corporation DAR/VODGEO (DAR/VODGEO) chief engineer, Private Corporation DAR/VODGEO (DAR/VODGEO), 9-1 Bolshoy Savvinskiy pereulok, Moscow, 119435, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 138-152

In recent years, domestic and foreign scientific literature and regulatory documents refer to a trend of using the theory of risk in assessing the harmful effects of underflooding on buildings, constructions and industrial sites of various applications. The requirements of state standards, building regulations require carrying out “dangerous impact level assessment within the territory of the existing or forecasted uderflooding”. In this case “the drainage rates accepted in the design of protective structures must in each case ensure the position of the groundwater level below the critical level”. The authors have developed a methodology and specific methods of calculating the permissible levels of ground water for local construction projects based on risk theory and examples of calculation. Based on the research results, the following conclusions were made: 1. In accordance with the existing regulations of the Russian Federation in the design of engineering systems, the protection from underflooding should in each case ensured the position of groundwater levels below the critical level. In this connection, in each case calculations of drainage standards and acceptable levels of ground water must be carried out in the interpretation of the theory of risk. 2. The methodology was offered for calculation of these quantities on the basis of the existing requirements for calculation of the security levels when flooding of city and plant territories. 3. The authors obtained calculated dependencies and developed a method of calculation of the critical level of groundwater for local facilities with regard for their categories and responsibility level, geotechnical, hydrogeological conditions, features of the surrounding buildings, the possibility of hazardous processes induced by underflooding, deterioration of the object, etc. 4. The authors give recommendations for the calculation of the permissible norms of drainage and admissible groundwater depth in the design of engineering systems, protection from flooding of both newly designed facilities and existing and reconstructed objects. 5. The method of calculation is illustrated by an example, allowing not only to assess the rate of drainage and acceptable levels of groundwater for planned and existing facilities, but also to judge the negative impact of underflooding on the object.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.10.138-152

References
  1. Kuranov N.P., Koroteev D.G. Raschety riska ot podtopleniya lokal’nykh ob”ektov [Risk Calculations of Underflooding of Local Objects]. Vodosnabzhenie, vodootvedenie, ekologicheskaya bezopasnost’ stroitel’stva i gorodskogo khozyaystva: sbornik trudov [Water Supply, Sewerage, Environmental Safety of Building and Urban Economy: Collection of Works]. Moscow, ZAO «DAR/VODGEO» Publ., 2012, no. 12, pp. 120—138. (In Russian)
  2. Koroteev D.G. Raschety norm osusheniya i urovnya riska pri proektirovanii inzhenernoy zashchity ot podtopleniya lokal’nykh ob”ektov [Calculations of Drainage Rates and Risk Level in the Design of Artificial Protection from Underflooding of Local Objects]. Vodosnabzhenie, vodootvedenie, ekologicheskaya bezopasnost’ stroitel’stva i gorodskogo khozyaystva: sbornik trudov [Water Supply, Sewerage, Environmental Safety of Building and Urban Economy: Collection of Works]. Moscow, ZAO «DAR/VODGEO» Publ., 2013, no. 15, pp. 130—136. (In Russian)
  3. Voronov Yu.V., Shirkova T.N. Metodologiya opredeleniya normy osusheniya na podtaplivaemykh territoriyakh [Methodology of Identification of the Drainage Norm for Areas Exposed to Flooding]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 8, pp. 131—136. (In Russian)
  4. Kuz’min V.V., Timofeeva E.A., Chunosov D.V. Otsenka riska negativnykh vozdeystviy pri podtoplenii urbanizirovannykh territoriy [Assessing the Risk of Negative Impacts of Underflooding in Urbanized Areas]. Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaya tekhnika [Water Supply and Sanitary Technique]. 2008, no. 6, pp. 44—49. (In Russian)
  5. Kuz’min V.V., Chunosov D.V. Obosnovanie effektivnosti meropriyatiy po zashchite ot podtopleniya urbanizirovannykh territoriy na osnove teorii riska [Effectiveness Substantiation of Measures to Protect Against Flooding in Urban Areas Based on Risk Theory]. Vodosnabzhenie, vodootvedenie, gidrotekhnika i inzhenernaya gidrogeologiya: sbornik trudov [Water Supply, Sewerage, Hydraulic Engineering and Hydrogeology: Collection of Works]. Moscow, ZAO «DAR/VODGEO» Publ., 2011, no.12, pp. 64—75. (In Russian)
  6. Dzektser E.S., Pyrchenko V. A. Tekhnologiya obespecheniya ustoychivogo razvitiya urbanizirovannykh territoriy v usloviyakh vozdeystviya prirodnykh opasnostey [Technology for Sustainable Development of Urban Areas under the Impact of Natural Hazards]. Moscow, ZAO «DAR/VODGEO» Publ., 2004, 166 p. (In Russian)
  7. Ragozin A.L. Inzhenernaya zashchita territoriy, zdaniy i sooruzheniy ot opasnykh prirodnykh protsessov [Engineering Protection of Territories, Buildings and Structures from Natural Hazards]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 1992, no. 12, pp. 6—7. (In Russian)
  8. Titkova L.D. Sravnitel’nyy analiz metodov otsenki geologicheskogo riska na primere ob”ekta po ul. Vereyskogo v g. Moskve [Comparative Analysis of Geological Risk Assessment Methods on the Example of the Object on the Vereyskaya Street in Moscow]. Vodosnabzhenie, vodootvedenie, ekologicheskaya bezopasnost’ stroitel’stva i gorodskogo khozyaystva: sbornik trudov [Water Supply, Sewerage, Environmental Safety of Building and Urban Economy: Collection of Works]. Moscow, ZAO «DAR/VODGEO» Publ., 2015, no.17, pp. 217—230. (In Russian)
  9. Timofeeva E.A. Otsenka riska negativnykh vozdeystviy pri zatoplenii territorii [Assessing the Risk of Adverse Effects in Flooded Areas]. Vodosnabzhenie, vodootvedenie, ekologicheskaya bezopasnost’ stroitel’stva i gorodskogo khozyaystva: sbornik trudov [Water Supply, Sewerage, Environmental Safety of Building and Urban Economy: Collection of Works]. Moscow, ZAO «DAR/VODGEO» Publ., 2011, no. 12, pp.128—142. (In Russian)
  10. Volkova E.V., Rastorguev I.A., Rastorguev A.V. Chislennoe modelirovanie dlya obosnovaniya sistemy inzhenernoy zashchity g. Kazani [Numerical Simulation for the Study of Engineering Protection of Kazan]. Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaya tekhnika [Water Supply and Sanitary Technique]. 2010, no. 12, pp. 26—32. (In Russian)
  11. Kuz’min V.V., Chunosov D.V. Obosnovanie effektivnosti meropriyatiy po zashchite ot podtopleniya urbanizirovannykh territoriy na osnove teorii riska [Effectiveness Substantiation of Measures to Protect Against Underflooding in Urban Areas Based on Risk Theory]. Vestnik Saratovskogo gosagrouniversiteta im. N.I. Vavilova [Bulletin of Saratov State Agricultural University named after N.I. Vavilov]. 2010, no. 1, pp. 46—58. (In Russian)
  12. Timofeeva E.A. K obosnovaniyu metodologii otsenki riska v sistemakh vodosnabzheniya i vodootvedeniya [On Justification of Risk Assessment Methodology in Water Supply and Sanitation Systems]. Vodosnabzhenie, vodootvedenie, ekologicheskaya bezopasnost’ stroitel’stva i gorodskogo khozyaystva: sbornik trudov [Water Supply, Sewerage, Environmental Safety of Building and Urban Economy: Collection of Works]. Moscow, ZAO «DAR/VODGEO» Publ., 2012, no. 14, pp. 164—172. (In Russian)
  13. Kuranov P.N., Koroteev D.G. Metodika rascheta norm osusheniya i poroga geologicheskoy bezopasnosti pri podtoplenii gradopromyshlennykh territoriy [Methods of Calculating the Drainage Rate and Geological Safety Threshold during Underflooding of City Industrial Areas]. Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaya tekhnika [Water Supply and Sanitary Technique]. 2012, no. 2, pp. 40—44. (In Russian)
  14. Korostilev A.D., Koroteev D.G., Kuranov N.P., Kuranov P.N., Timofeeva E.A., Chunosov D.V. Probit-analiz i ego prilozheniya k otsenkam riska opasnykh protsessov v inzhenernoy gidrogeoekologii i gidrotekhniki [Probit Analysis and Its Applications to Estimate the Risk of Dangerous Processes in Hydraulic Engineering and Hydrogeoecology]. Vodosnabzhenie, vodootvedenie, gidrotekhnika i inzhenernaya gidrogeologiya: sbornik trudov [Water Supply, Sewerage, Hydraulic Engineering and Hydrogeology: Collection of Works]. Moscow, ZAO «DAR/VODGEO» Publ., 2012, no. 13, pp. 66—80. (In Russian)
  15. Cobby D., Morris S., Parkes A., Robinson V. Groundwater Flood Risk Management: Advances Towards Meeting the Requirements of the EU Floods Directive. Journal of Flood Risk Management. 2009, vol. 2, issue 2, pp. 111—119. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1753-318X.2009.01025.x/abstract. Date of access: 10.07.2015. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-318X.2009.01025.x.
  16. Cloutier Claude-André, Buffin-Bélanger Thomas, Larocque Marie. Controls of Groundwater Floodwave Propagation in a Gravelly Floodplain. Journal of Hydrology. April 2014, vol. 511, pp. 423—431. Available at: http://www.uqar.ca/files/pacesnebsl/cloutier_et_al_2014.pdf. Date of access: 10.07.2015. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.02.014.
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  18. Kreibich H., Thieken A.H., Grunenberg H., Ullrich K., Sommer T. Extent, Perception and Mitigation of Damage Due to High Groundwater Levels in the City of Dresden, Germany. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 2009, no. 9, pp. 1247—1258, 2009. Available at: http://www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/9/1247/2009/nhess-9-1247-2009.pdf. Date of access: 10.07.2015. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/nhess-9-1247-2009.
  19. Schinke R., Neubert M., Hennersdorf J., Stodolny U., Sommer T., Naumann T. Damage Estimation of Subterranean Building Constructions Due to Groundwater Inundation — The GIS-Based Model Approach GRUWAD. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 2012, no. 12, pp. 2865—2877. Available at: http://www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/12/2865/2012/nhess-12-2865-2012.pdf. Date of access: 10.07.2015. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-2865-2012.
  20. Hughes A.G., Vounaki T., Peach D.W., Ireson A.M., Jackson C.R., Butler A.P., Bloomfield J.P., Finch J., Wheater H.S. Flood Risk from Groundwater: Examples from a Chalk Catchment in Southern England. Journal of Flood Risk Management. 2011, vol. 4, issue 3, pp. 143—155. Available at: http://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/386222.pdf. Date of access: 10.07.2015. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-318X.2011.01095.x.

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