SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

MATHEMATICAL MODEL DESIGNATED FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL LOAD PRODUCED BY A BUILDING PROJECT

Vestnik MGSU 3/2012
  • Lapidus Azariy Abramovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, chair, Department of Technology and Management of the Construction, Honored Builder of the Russian Federation, Recipient of the Prize of the Russian Federation Government in the field of Science and Technology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Berezhnyy Aleksandr Yurevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) postgraduate student, Department of Technical Regulations, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 149 - 153

In the paper, the author proposes a mathematical model designated for the assessment of the ecological impact produced on the environment within the territory of the construction site. Integrated index EI (Environmental Index) is introduced as a vehicle designated for the evaluation of the ecological load. EI represents the intensity of the ecological load, or a generalized and optimized parameter reflecting the intensity of the anthropogenic impact of the construction site onto the natural environment.
The theoretical background of the proposed approach consists in an integrated methodology implemented in the system engineering of construction projects. A building system may be represented as the aggregate of all stages of construction works and participants involved in them. The building system is object-oriented, and it is implemented under the impact of pre-determined environmental factors. The core constituent of the building system represents a Production Technology Module (PTM), or summarized groups of processes. The model formula designated for the assessment of the intensity of the ecological load produced by the construction project onto the environment may be represented as follows:

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.3.149 - 153

References
  1. Potapov A.D., SlesarevM.Yu., Telichenko V.I., Shcherbina E.V. Ekologicheskaya bezopasnost’ stroitel’stva [Environmental Safety of Construction]. Moscow, ASV, 2007.
  2. Slesarev M.Yu., Telichenko V.I. Upravlenie ekologicheskoy bezopasnost’yu stroitel’stva. Ekologicheskaya ekspertiza i otsenka vozdeystviy [Management of Sustainable Construction. Environmental Assessment and Evaluation of Impacts]. Moscow, ASV, 2004.
  3. Lapidus A.A., Berezhnyy A.Yu. Upravlenie kachestvom stroitel’nogo ob’’ekta po sredstvom optimizatsi i proizvodstvenno-tekhnologicheskikh moduley [Construction Quality Control through the Optimization of Production and Technological Modules]. Moscow, Stroitel’nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka [Building Materials, Equipment, Technologies of the XXIst century], Issue 12, 2010.
  4. Gusakov A.A. Sistemotekhnika stroitel’stva [System Engineering of Building Projects]. Moscow, ASV, 2004.

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Exposure of civil engineers to hazardous and harmful occupational factors and methods of their countering

Vestnik MGSU 7/2013
  • Bumarskova Natal’ya Nikolaevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Physical Training and Sports, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 181-186

Adaptation means accommodation of a living organism to constantly changing conditions external and internal environments. This capacity was developed in the process of the evolutionary development. Absent of this capacity, no human organism can leave normally or adjust to various external factors.In the contemporary research literature, adaptation is associated with different factors, including occupation, climate, social environment, etc. The process of adaptation is complex, and it contemplates different types of adaptation, namely, individual sociopsychological, communicative, and physiological adaptation. It is accompanied by substantial intellectual, mental and physical efforts.The variety of building structures coupled with process-related and organizational methods of their construction require attention to the issues of safety. In the course of life and work (working environment), a person is exposed to various hazards or phenomena, processes, and objects capable of damaging human health under certain conditions. An occupational hazard means an adverse impact on human health in the form of its deterioration or injury under certain conditions.The studies show that the three-shift working activity is the cause of fatigue. Fatigue boosts errors in the sensomotor coordination and deteriorates human health. The daily rhythm of physiological functions is driven by the intensity of the working activity causing changes in the body temperature, heart rate and blood pressure. Harmful factors, such as chlorine and chlorine dioxide, produce negative impact on the psycho-physiological status of the organism. They are countered by the system of adaptation and rehabilitation as an integral part of the university curriculum. Its objective is to enhance the effectiveness of professional activities, to ensure the optimal functioning of a human body exposed to heavy workloads and adverse external conditions.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.7.181-186

References
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  2. Kal’nish V.V., Shvets A.V. Vliyanie nepreryvnoy sutochnoy raboty na nadezhnost’ deyatel’nosti operatorov [Influence of Continuous 24-hour Work onto Reliability of Operators’ Work]. Fiziologiya cheloveka [Human Physiology]. 2012, vol. 38, no. 3, 81 p.
  3. Solonin Yu.G., Boyko E.R., Loginova T.P., Ketkina O.A. Dinamika fiziologicheskikh i psikhofiziologicheskikh pokazateley u operatorov pri trekhsmennoy rabote v razlichnykh usloviyakh truda [Dynamics of Physiological and Psycho-physiological Parameters Demonstrated by Operators Working Three Shifts under Various Working Conditions]. Fiziologiya cheloveka [Human Physiology]. 2011, no. 3, pp. 135—138.
  4. Soroko S.I. Individual’nye strategii adaptatsii cheloveka v ekstremal’nykh usloviyakh [Individual Human Adaptation Strategies in Case of Exposure to Extreme Conditions]. Fiziologiya cheloveka [Human Physiology]. 2012, vol. 38, no. 6, 78 p.
  5. Romain Barres, Jie Yan, Brendan Egan. Acute Exercise Remodels Promoter Methylation in Human Skeltal Muscule. Cell Metabolism. 2012, vol. 15(3), pp. 405—411.
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  7. Solodkov A.S. Itogi i perspektivy issledovaniy problemy adaptatsii v sporte [Findings of and Prospects for Research into the Problem of Adaptation in Sports]. Uchenye zapiski universiteta imeni P.F. Lesgafta [Scholarly Notes of Lesgaft University]. 2005, no. 18, 65 p.
  8. Grutsyak N.B., Grutsyak V.I. Fizicheskaya kul’tura kak moshchnyy faktor, sposobstvuyushchiy adaptatsii inostrannykh studentov v vuze [Physical Education as the Strong Factor Facilitating Adaptability of International Students at Universities]. Fizicheskoe vospitanie studentov [Physical Training of Students]. 2010, no. 2, pp. 37—39.
  9. Arsen’ev D.G., Zinkovskiy A.V., Ivanova M.A. Sotsial’no-psikhologicheskie i fiziologicheskie problemy adaptatsii inostrannykh studentov [Socio-psychological and Physiological Problems of Adaptation of International Students]. St.Petersburg, 2003, 160 p.
  10. Konik G.A. Uchebnye zanyatiya po vidam sporta kak sredstvo formirovaniya motivatsii k zdorovomu obrazu zhizni u studentov vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy [Sports Classes as a Means of Formation of Motivation of University Students to Healthy Lifestyle]. Fizicheskoe vospitanie studentov tvorcheskikh spetsial’nostey [Physical Education of Students of Arts]. 2006, no. 4, pp. 108—114.

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