SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

Geological environment as a noospheric category

Vestnik MGSU 11/2013
  • Trofimov Viktor Titovich - Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov (MGU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Vice-rector, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov (MGU), Rector's office, 1 Leninskiye Gory, Moscow, 119234, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Korolev Vladimir Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov (MGU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, professor, Department of Engineering and Ecological Geology, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov (MGU), Rector's office, 1 Leninskiye Gory, Moscow, 119234, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 188-193

In the paper the term definition "geological environment", given earlier by various researchers, is considered. It is emphasized that geological environment is changing and evolving with the times. This evolution is at the same time quantitative (a gradual increase in geological environment volume due to the increasing anthropogenic impacts on the lithosphere) and qualitative (changes in the geological environment).According to the authors, at the present time different definition should be given to the category "geological environment" in comparison to the previously used by different authors in different disciplines. Namely, the category "geological environment" should be understood not only by "eco-sense" as a habitat (partial) or activity environment (including economic and other activity), but also by the "noospheric sense" — as intelligently organized environment habitat (partial, along with other geospheres of the Earth) and human activity environment.The geological environment is not just "a part of the lithosphere .... etc. ", but also an essential component of the Earth's biosphere and ecosystems at various levels, including global level, ensuring their existence and operation. Therefore, if human activity deteriorates this environment, that leads to the destruction of ecosystems, which are in some way related to the geological environment, and to the environmental crisis, and ultimately — to the degradation of the entire civilization.Hence the alternative is necessary — the implementation of such a reasonable (noospheric, regulated and controlled) human activity, which would not worsen the geological environment, but on the contrary, would lead to its preservation and coexistence with other components of the Earth's biosphere, which excludes environmental crises.On the basis of this noospheric conception a new definition of the term "geological formation" is given: geological environment is the area of the upper lithosphere layers, which in the past, present or future is in collaboration with engineering and economic human activity, qualitatively and quantitatively evolving over time, and which is a component of natural or natural-industrial ecosystems, and the possible element of the geonoogenesis.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.188-193

References
  1. Trofimov V.T. Geologicheskaya sreda [Geological Environment]. Trofimov V.T., Korolev V.A., Khar'kina M.A. etc. Editor Trofimov V.T. Bazovye ponyatiya inzhenernoy geologii i ekologicheskoy geologii. 280 osnovnykh terminov [Basic Concepts of Engineering Geology and Ecological Geology. 280 Key Terms]. Moscow, Geomarketing Publ., 2012, 320 p.
  2. Popov V.I. Sostoyanie i zadachi izucheniya osadochnykh formatsiy [State and Tasks of Sedimantary Formations Investigation]. Soveshchanie po osadochnym porodam [Conference on Sediments]. Moscow, Academy of Sciences of USSR, 1952, no.1, pp. 59—87.
  3. Lomtadze V.D. Geologicheskiy slovar' [Geological dictionary]. St. Petersburg, SPb GU Publ., 1999, 360 p.
  4. Sergeev E.M. Inzhenernaya geologiya — nauka o geologicheskoy srede [Engineering Geology — a Science on Geological Environment]. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. 1979, no. 1, pp. 3—19.
  5. Mel'nikova K.P., Sergeev E.M., Idei V.I. Vernadskogo o noosfere i dal'neyshee razvitie inzhenernoy geologii [The ideas of Vernadsky about Noosphere and the Further Development of Engineering Geology]. Vestnik MGU. Seriya 4. Geologiya [Proceedings of Moscow State University. Series 4. Geology]. 1963, no. 1, pp. 43—47.
  6. Sergeev E.M. Eshche raz ob inzhenernoy geologii [Once Again on Engineering Geology]. Puti dal'neyshego razvitiya inzhenernoy geologii [The Development Options of Engineering Geology]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1971, pp. 117-123.
  7. Vernadskiy V.I. Neskol'ko slov o noosfere [A Few Words about the Noosphere]. Uspekhi biologii [Biology Achievements]. 1944, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 113—120.
  8. Teilhard de Chardin P. The Phenomenon of Man. Moscow, Ustoychivyy Mir Publ., 2001, 232 p.
  9. Gryaznov O.N., Dubeykovskiy S.G. Noogenez i geologicheskaya sreda promyshlenno-gorodskikh aglomeratsiy Urala [Noogenesis and Geological Environment of Industrial and Urban Centers of the Ural]. Teoreticheskie problemy inzhenernoy geologii: Trudy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii [Theoretical Problems of Engineering Geology: Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1999, pp. 155—157.
  10. Korolev V.A. Noogenez i usloviya deystviya zakonov inzhenernoy geologii [Noogenesis and Action Conditions of the Engineering Geology Laws]. Teoreticheskie problemy inzhenernoy geologii: Trudy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii [Theoretical Problems of Engineering Geology: Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1999, pp. 147—148.
  11. Korolev V.A. Perspektivy razvitiya inzhenernoy geologii i ee transformatsii v geologiyu noosfery [Prospects for the Development of Engineering Geology and its Transformation into the Geology of the Noosphere]. Inzhenernaya geologiya segodnya i zavtra: Trudy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii [Engineering Geology Today and Tomorrow. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1996, pp. 60—71.
  12. Korolev V.A. Ob osnovnykh polozheniyakh teorii noogeneza i zadachakh geologii noosfery (noogeologii) [On the Fundamentals of Noogenesis Theory and Objectives of the Geology of Noosphere (Noogeology)]. Teoreticheskie problemy inzhenernoy geologii: trudy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii [Theoretical Problems of Engineering Geology. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1999, pp. 145—146.
  13. Snezhkin B.A. Noogenez — prevrashchenie geologicheskoy sredy v sredu obitaniya cheloveka [Noogenesis — Transformation of Geological Environment into Human Environment]. Teoreticheskie problemy inzhenernoy geologii: trudy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii [Theoretical Problems of Engineering Geology. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1999, pp. 149—150.
  14. Snezhkin B.A., Korolev V.A., Trofimov V.T. Noogenez — osoznannoe, pozitivnoe i razumnoe preobrazovanie gruntovykh tolshch [Noogenesis — Conscious, Positive and Rational Transformation of Soil Strata]. Genezis i modeli formirovaniya svoystv gruntov: trudy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii [Genesis and Formation Models of the Properties of the Soils. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1998, pp. 24—25.

Download

GEO-ENVIRONMENTAL DUE DILIGENCE AIMED AT SELECTION OF SITES DESIGNATED FOR ACCOMMODATION OF MOBILE GAS TURBINE POWER PLANTS IN RECREATIONAL LANDS

Vestnik MGSU 5/2012
  • Bryukhan' Fedor Fedorovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, +7 (495) 922-83-19, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kos'kin Igor' Olegovich - Scientific and Production Association Gidrotehproekt Open Joint Stock Company Leading Engineer, Scientific and Production Association Gidrotehproekt Open Joint Stock Company, 55a Oktyabr'skaya Str., Valday City, Novgorod Region, 175400, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 143 - 149

Mobile gas turbine plants (MGTP) are the key sources of power designated to improve the safety of power supply in case of power deficit. In Russia, their pilot launch was initiated 5 - 6 years ago, and since then, they have demonstrated their high efficiency. In view of the upcoming Winter Olympic Games, organizations responsible for continuous power supply have resolved to build three MGTPs in Sochi. As Sochi is located in the natural area of preferential protection that has been granted Federal significance, construction and operation of the aforementioned facilities requires a detailed geo-environmental due diligence. Significant efforts have been exerted to substantiate the accommodation of MGTPs in three different sites and to identify the maximal number of power generators per site with account for the ecological restrictions imposed onto the natural areas of preferential protection.
The impact produced by MGTPs on the environment depends on their technological features and the appropriate natural and anthropogenic properties of their sites and adjacent lands. Therefore, selection of new sites must be backed by the assessment of negative consequences. This requirement applies mainly to recreational lands. Recent sources report that the principal factors of negative impact of MGTPs include the chemical pollution of the ambient air and the noise pollution of residential buildings located in the immediate proximity to MGTPs. Factors of secondary importance include the pollution of surface and underground waters, soils, intrusion into the geological environment, production of waste, thermal and electromagnetic pollutions.
The authors assess different factors of impact produced by MGTPs on the environment. As a result of the geo-ecological due diligence it has been discovered that the maximal number of power generators per site must not exceed 2-4, if the oxide emission technology is employed. At the same time, failure to employ the above technology must prevent any MGTPs from being installed there. Noise pollution assessments have demonstrated that acceptable noise intensity will be exceeded at the distance of up to 300 meters from the MGTP. Therefore, construction of MGTPs requires noise protection arrangements, for example, installation of specialized noise-absorbing fences or screens. It is noteworthy that soil pollution, geological environment pollution, thermal and electromagnetic pollution may be disregarded due to inconsiderable period of time while MGTPs are in operation. Adjusted calculations and assessments are to be made at the stage of the project development.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.5.143 - 149

References
  1. Bryukhan’ A.F., Bryukhan’ F.F., Potapov A.D. Inzhenerno-ekologicheskie izyskaniya dlya stroitel’stva teplovykh elektrostantsiy [Engineering and Ecological Surveying for Construction of Thermal Power Plants]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010, 192 p.
  2. Bryukhan’ A.F., Cheremikina E.A. Mobil’nye pikovye gazoturbinnye elektrostantsii i okruzhayushchaya sreda [Mobile Peak-Load Gas Turbine Power Plants and the Environment]. Moscow, Forum Publ., 2011, 128 pp.
  3. Viktor de Biasi. Mobil’naya GTU MOBILEPAC. Vyrabotka 25 MVt elektroenergii v den’ dostavki na mesto [Mobile GTU MOBILEPAC. Production of 25 MW of Electricity on the Day of Delivery onto the Location]. Gazoturbinnye tekhnologii [Gas Turbine Technologies], 2006, no. 1, pp. 26—29.
  4. OND-86. Metodika rascheta kontsentratsiy v atmosfernom vozdukhe vrednykh veshchestv, soderzhashchihsya v vybrosakh predpriyatiy [Methods of Calculating the Concentrations of Harmful Substances in Emissions of Enterprises]. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1987, 93 p.
  5. SanPiN 2.1.6.575-96. Gigienicheskie trebovaniya k okhrane atmosfernogo vozdukha naselennykh mest [Sanitary Norms and Rules. Hygienic requirements for the Protection of Atmospheric Air of Populated Areas]. Goskomsanyepidnadzor Rossii [State Committee of Russia in charge of Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision], Moscow, 1996.
  6. SN 2.2.4/2.1.8.562-96. Shum na rabochikh mestakh, v pomeshcheniyakh zhilykh, obshchestvennykh zdaniy i na territorii zhiloy zastroyki [Sanitary Norms 2.2.4/2.1.8.562-96. Noise at Workplaces, in Residential and Public Buildings and Residential Areas]. Goskomsanyepidnadzor Rossii [State Committee of Russia in charge of Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision], Moscow, 1996.
  7. SNiP 23-03—2003. Zashchita ot shuma [Construction Norms and Rules 23-03—2003. Noise Protection]. St.Petersburg, DEAN Publ., 2004, 74 p.
  8. Cheremikina E.A. Ranzhirovanie tipov vozdeystviy mobil’nykh pikovykh gazoturbinnykh elektrostantsiy na komponenty prirodnoy sredy po stepeni ikh znachimosti [Ranking the Types of Impacts of Peak-Load Mobile Gas Turbine Power Plants Produced on Constituents of the Environment Based on Their Significance] Sbornik dokladov 7-y Vserossiyskoy nauchno-tehnicheskoy konferentsii «Sovremennye problemy ekologii» [Proceedings of the 7th All-Russian Scientific Conference «Contemporary Problems of Ecology»]. Tula, 2010, pp. 39—41.
  9. 25 MW of Mobile Power. East Hartford (CT), Pratt & Whitney, 2010, 6 p.

Download

Principles of classification of soilmasses for construction purposes

Vestnik MGSU 9/2013
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 41-46

The author proposes original grounds for the classification of the full range of soil masses as a supplement to the classification of soils provided in GOST 25100—2011. The author proposes four classes of soil masses, each class having several types and sub-types of soils. The classification will improve the accuracy of engineering and geological surveys and computer models of the geological environment developed for the purpose of design of buildings and structures. The author offers a classification of soils to identify the geological environment comprising one or more types of soil which are genetically and structurally distinct. Any soil mass type differs by its origin, and, as a consequence, its internal geological structure, stress-strain state and inherent geological processes. Any genetically isolated type of soils a specific program of research, both in terms of methods and in terms of density testing in the point of sampling. The behavior of rock masses together with the engineering structure is pre-determined by the properties of the rock, its relative position (geological structure), a network of cracks and other weakening factors, and the natural state of stress. The fracture network is of paramount importance. Cracks are characterized by direction, length, width, surface roughness of walls, and a distance between parallel cracks.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.9.41-46

References
  1. Pashkin E.M., Kagan A.A., Krivonogova N.F.; Pashkina E.M., editor. Terminologicheskiy spravochnik po inzhenernoy geologii [Reference Book of Terms of Engineering Geology]. Moscow, KDU Publ., 2011, 952 p.
  2. Panyukov P.N. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. Moscow, Gosgortekhizdat Publ., 1962.
  3. Bondarik G.K. Teoriya geologicheskogo polya [Geological Field Theory]. Moscow, MIMS Publ., 2002, 129 p.
  4. Belyi L.D. Obshie principial'nye polozheniya [General Principal Provisions]. In the book: Geologiya i plotiny [Geology and Dams]. Moscow — Leningrad, Gosenergoizdat Publ., 1959, pp. 9—19.
  5. Muller L. Der Felsbau. Ferdinand Enke Verlag. Stuttgart, 1963, 453 p.
  6. Bauduin C.M. Determination of Characteristic Values. In: U. Smoltczyk, editor, Geotechnical Engineering Handbook. Berlin, Ernst Publ., 2002, vol. I, pp. 17—50.
  7. Frank R., Kovarik J.B. Comparasion des niveaux de modele pour la resistance ultime des pieux sous charges axiales. Revue Francaise de Geotechnique. 2005, 110, pp. 12—25.
  8. Belyi L.D. Osnovy teorii inzhenerno-geologicheskogo kartirovaniya [Fundamentals of the Theory of Engineering Geological Mapping]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1964.

Download

Results 1 - 3 of 3