ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

RESIDENTIAL ARCHITECTURE OF YEREVAN IN THE 20TH CENTURY. IDENTIFICATION OF THE MAIN STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PLANNING STRUCTURE OF A DWELLING UNIT

Vestnik MGSU 5/2016
  • Azatyan Karen Rubenovich - National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA) Candidate of Architecture, Associate Professor, Department of Architectural Drafting and Architectural Environment Design, National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA), 105 Teryan str., Yerevan, 0009, Armenia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 18-27

The article discusses some features of planning solutions of apartments in the architecture of Yerevan, which are typical to different periods, since the turn of 19-20th centuries to the present day. Housing is the chief determinant of human activity. In the process of societal development the house is the foundation of a family, and the family, on its turn, is the key to the stable state. Nevertheless, the time influences the residential architecture. Societal progress periodically affects the living environment. Therefore, housing formation process never reaches the stage of completion: it is always in an endless process of development. The above mentioned primarily concerns the evolution of the planning structure of the apartment. In this context, the dynamics of evolution of housing in Yerevan has accelerated in the second half of the 19th century. The centuries-generated space-planning system of apartment begins to develop in accordance with the rapid changes of social, urban planning and life processes of the time (extension of industry, formation of new socio-economic relations, rapid growth of population, acceleration of construction processes). The impetuous transformation of the dwelling structure is reflected in the complex process of evolution - starting from the traditional houses and ending with the apartments in high-rise buildings. The research of the problems of the traditional dwelling structure, its transformation in the first apartment buildings and diverse improvements of apartment planning solutions contributes to the definition of the main development stages of the dwelling units during the last century, which are observed in the article. Identification of the characteristics of each stage and the multilateral evaluation of different qualities of spatial-planning arrangement of apartments allow working out proper solutions for dwelling units in the future.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.5.18-27

References
  1. Sborshchikov S.B., Sborshchikova M.N. Razvitie metodov upravleniya programmami zhilishchnogo stroitel’stva na osnove prognozirovaniya [Development of the Control Methods of Housing Construction Programs Based on Prediction]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 1—1, pp. 221—226. (In Russian)
  2. Subbotin O.S. Kharakternye tipy maloetazhnykh zhilykh zdaniy i istoricheskoe (etnokul’turnoe) rayonirovanie territorii severnogo Kavkaza [Specific Types of Low-Rise Residential Buildings and the Historical (Ethno-Cultural) Zoning of the North Caucasus Territory]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 3, pp. 22—24. (In Russian)
  3. Azatyan K.R. Nachal’naya stadiya formirovaniya mnogokvartirnykh zhilykh domov v Erevane. Arkhitektura zhilykh sooruzheniy nachala XX veka [The Initial Stage of the Formation of Apartment Blocks in Yerevan. The Architecture of Residential Buildings in the Beginning of the 20th Century]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov EGUAS [Proceedings of Yerevan State University of Architecture and Construction]. Erevan, 2010, vol. II (38), pp. 29—34. (In Russian)
  4. Gasparyan M.A. Arkhitektura Erevana XIX — nachala XX veka [Architecture of Yerevan in the 19th — early 20th century]. Erevan, Ushardzan Publ., 2008, 262 p. (In Russian)
  5. Shagov N.V., Verevkina I.D., Koksharova E.A. Razvitie tipovogo zhilishchnogo stroitel’stva v sovetskoy Rossii s 1917 po 1940 g. [Development of Standard Housing in Soviet Russia from 1917 till 1940]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 4, pp. 22—31. (In Russian)
  6. Azatyan K.R. Planirovochnye i funktsional’nye resheniya kvartir v period formirovaniya arkhitektury mnogokvartirnykh domov Erevana [Planning and Functional Solutions of Apartments in Yerevan during the Formation of the Apartment-Block Architecture]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov EGUAS [Proceedings of Yerevan State University of Architecture and Construction]. Erevan, 2013, vol. I (48), pp. 3—18. (In Russian)
  7. Dolukhanyan L.K. Arkhitektura Sovetskoy Armenii: 20-e gody [Architecture of the Soviet Armenia: 1920s]. Erevan, Sovetakan grokh Publ., 1980, 85 p. (In Russian)
  8. Gatsunaev K.N. Dom Narkomfina kak ob”ekt kul’turnogo naslediya [Narkomfin House as a Monument of Cultural Heritage]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 7, pp. 7—17.
  9. Dudka E.N. Nerealizovannye konkursy 1920—1930-kh gg. v kontekste razvitiya arkhitekturnogo protsessa [Unrealized Competitions of the 1920—1930ies in the Context of the Architecture Development Process]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 11—16. (In Russian)
  10. Zurabyan Z.A. Osobennosti arkhitektury zhilogo doma na nachal’nom etape raz-vitiya mnogokvartirnogo gorodskogo zhilishcha Erevana [Characteristics of a Dwelling House Architecture During the Development of the Apartment Urban Housing in Yerevan]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov EGUAS [Proceedings of Yerevan State University of Architecture and Construction]. Erevan, 2010, vol. III (39), pp. 21—24. (In Russian)
  11. Zhdanova I.V. Metody povysheniya kachestva seriynoy zhiloy zastroyki 70—80-kh gg. XX v. [Methods of Improving the Quality of Serial Apartment Block of the 70—80s of the 20th Century]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 1, pp. 22—26. (In Russian)
  12. Hakobyan T.D. Puti modernizatsii krupnopanel’nykh zhilykh zdaniy g. Erevana [Ways of Modernization of Large-Panel Residential Buildings in Yerevan]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 12, pp. 9—19. (In Russian)
  13. Rashidyan G.G. Razvitie arkhitektury massovogo zhilishcha Armenii i zadachi so-vremennogo etapa [Development of the Architecture of Mass Housing in Armenia and the Problems of the Present Stage]. Erevan, 1999, 88 p. (In Russian)
  14. Rashidyan G.G., Azatyan K.R. Osobennosti arkhitektury novykh zhilykh rayonov massovoy zastroyki Erevana [The Features of Architecture of the Mass Housing in New Residential Areas in Yerevan]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov EGUAS [Proceedings of Yerevan State University of Architecture and Construction]. Erevan, 2013, vol. IV (51), pp. 47—57. (In Russian)
  15. Azatyan K.R., Engoyan A.R., Khanoyan K.R. Usovershenstvovanie metoda tipovogo proektirovaniya zhilykh zdaniy v Erevane i vnedrenie blok-sektsionnoy sistemy v 1970-kh godakh [Improvement of the Standardized Design Methodology of Residential Buildings and Introduction of Bay System in Yerevan in 1970s]. Nauchnye trudy NUASA [Scientific Papers of National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia]. Erevan, 2014, vol. III (54), pp. 3—12. (In Russian)
  16. Rashidyan G.G., Azatyan K.R., Engoyan A.R. Novye podkhody v arkhitekture zhil’ya Erevana v 1970-ykh godakh [New Approaches to the Residential Architecture in Yerevan in the 1970s]. Vestnik inzhenernoy akademii Armenii [Proceedings of Engineering Academy of Armenia]. 2013, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 699—703. (In Russian)
  17. Schroeder U. Variabel nutzbare Hauser und Wohnungen. Bauverlag GmbH. Weisbaden und Berlin, 1980.
  18. Pinchak L.A. Zhilishchnyy fond Ukrainy: sostav, struktura, statistika [Housing Stock of the Ukraine: Composition, Structure, Statistics]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 9, pp. 118—124. (In Russian)

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RESIDENTIAL ARCHITECTURE OF YEREVAN IN THE 20TH CENTURY. MAIN STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROCESS OF YARD PUBLIC SPACE ORGANIZATION

Vestnik MGSU 3/2018 Volume 13
  • Azatyan Karen Rubenovich - National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA) Candidate of Architecture, Associate Professor, Department of Architectural Drafting and Architectural Environment Design, National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA), 105 Teryan str., Yerevan, 0009, Armenia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 301-308

Subject: for many centuries the yard was the social centre of residential development. However, the problems of its spatial organization often do not receive appropriate attention in modern cities. The city of Yerevan, in this sense, is also not an exception, where the new socio-economic conditions that emerged in the early 1990s led to radical changes in the residential development organization. Under this impact, a serious transformation has also been made to the yard space, which is the subject of this study. Research objectives: identification of the main stages of the yard space evolution in the residential building development of Yerevan in the 20th century and the revelation of its characteristic features. Materials and methods: the work is carried out on the basis of observations and published sources by the method of theoretical research, analysis and generalization of the material. Results: the work is composed of the following thematic subdivisions: the yard in the structure of traditional housing (in residential buildings of the 19th and early 20th centuries); development of the yard space in the new format of perimeter-quarter development (in the system of perimeter development of streets in the 1920-1950s); problems of yard organization in open compositions of building development (in the new forms of free building development by standardized elements in 1960s); attempts of yard restoration in the systematized compositions of building development (in the process of formation of large complexes of building development in 1970-1980s); loss of the yard space in contemporary conditions (in the residential building development formed since 1990s in the new socio-economic conditions). Conclusions: based on the results of the analysis, classification of the main stages of the yard space organization evolution during the last century is presented. This classification must be included in the process of the general study of development of residential architecture of Yerevan in the 20th century.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.3.301-308

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF HOUSING AND COMMUNAL SERVICES OF RUSSIA AND KAZAKHSTAN

Vestnik MGSU 7/2018 Volume 13
  • Shalbolova Urpash Zhaniyazovna - L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University (ENU) Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, Department of Economics and Entrepreneurship, L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University (ENU), 5 K. Munaitpasova st., Astana, 010000, Kazakhstan.
  • Silka Dmitriy Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Economics and Management in Construction, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Kenzhegaliyeva Zita Zhanabaevna - L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University (ENU) PhD candidate, L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University (ENU), 5 K. Munaitpasova st., Astana, 010000, Kazakhstan.
  • Egemberdiyeva Saule Meirbekovna - L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University (ENU) Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, Department of Economics and Entrepreneurship, L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University (ENU), 5 K. Munaitpasova st., Astana, 010000, Kazakhstan.

Pages 836-846

Subject: economic development of housing and communal services is directly connected with implementation of the housing policy of the country, which is of great importance for the construction industry, the economy and the population. The deplorable state of utility networks and structures of resource-holding systems in Russia and Kazakhstan, inherited from the Soviet Union, basically did not meet the requirements of a sustainable and proper quality of provision of communal services. After acquiring independence in Russia and Kazakhstan, as in other post-Soviet countries, housing and communal services (housing and utilities) reform was implemented, massive privatization of the housing stock was carried out, which resulted in formation of a qualitatively new housing relations. At the same time, the past period has revealed certain disproportions in the development of housing relations, and as a result, a lot of problems have accumulated in the housing and communal sector that need to be addressed. In this regard, the relevance of the study aimed at conducting a comparative analysis of the development and the state of the housing and communal services of these countries is justified. The article assesses the current state and trends in the development of housing and communal services in Russia and Kazakhstan. This research was carried out within the framework of the scientific project APО05134552 «Economic evaluation of investment projects for modernization of housing and communal services of the Republic of Kazakhstan». Research objectives: conducting a comparative analysis of the development and condition of housing and communal services in Russia and Kazakhstan, and identifying problems related to the housing reform implemented in these countries and modernization of communal infrastructure. Materials and methods: the study used statistical data on the state of the housing stock and housing and communal services provided by the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation and the Statistics Agency of the Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. This scientific study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of government programs implemented in the housing and communal services sector was based on the methods of analysis, induction, deduction, comparative and dialectical-logical approaches. Results: the assessment of the state of housing and communal services in Russia and Kazakhstan is given by the indicators assembled into the groups of the main sub-sectors of the housing and communal services - housing sub-sector and communal services sub-sector - for the 2010-2016 time period. Economic evaluation of the development of housing and communal services was based on the development of a set of quality indicators: 1) the proportion of emergency housing stock in the total area of the entire housing stock; 2) provision of the housing stock with the types of amenities (water supply, water disposal, heating, gas or electric stoves); 3) the level of housing provision for population; 4) accident rate in the networks; 5) loss of resources in the networks (water and heat). Conclusions: in the course of the study, it became possible to identify problematic issues that hinder the more successful development of the housing and communal sector in the analyzed countries. The conducted studies justify the need for sectoral reforms and an integrated system for assessing the development of housing and communal services in accordance with strategic policy and targeted state programs.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.7.836-846

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Housing as an element of regional social and economic system: the experienceof applied research

Vestnik MGSU 2/2014
  • Anufriev Dmitriy Petrovich - Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering (AISI) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Rector, Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering (AISI), 18 Tatishcheva st., Astrakhan, 414056, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 187-195

On the basis of the applied research results in Astrakhan region the author revealed a regional profile of complex issues related to security, house building quality, the level of provision and the cost of housing and utility services. Three-quarters of Astrakhan inhabitants are the owners of the property that is the result of macro-economical shift in the Russian Federation during the last two decades — the transition from state ownership to private, which manifestation was the privatization of the housing stock. In Astrakhan region about one third of the population lives in dilapidated and outworn housing stock and about 60 % of them need an improvement of living conditions. In this case, most categories of citizens, who need an improvement of their living conditions, do not have financial possibility to do this neither with their own financial resources, nor participating in the programs of mortgage lending. Thus, housing is both expensive and unaffordable for most in need. Planned housing is in the first place in the hierarchy of Astrakhan citizens’ needs — the construction of private housing (39—42 %), which reflects the current understanding of the global trends of livability. Only 15—19 % of citizens plan to purchase a separate apartment, which reveals the requirements to the quality of constructing multi-storey buildings and to the quality of their service by housing and operating companies. Only about 7 % of respondents are satisfied with the activities of housing and managing companies in the field of housing in the region. About 40 % of respondents face violations of their rights in the construction and housing sector, only 11—15 % of the population could assert their rights, 8—13 % did not try to defend their violated rights, about 15 % could not defend their rights. Occasionally or frequently, every third or fourth respondent faced the facts of extortion, bribery and corruption in the spheres of construction and housing and communal services. It is shown that the dissatisfaction of Astrakhan citizens, both in terms of acquisition of property and in terms of its intended use, leads to destructive practices of emigration of the most active part of the working population of the region.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.2.187-195

References
  1. Anufriev D.P. Matematicheskaya model' regional'nogo stroitel'nogo kompleksa [Ìathematical Model of Regional Building Complex]. Astrakhan' — dom budushchego: Tezisy 2 Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii [Astrakhan — Home of the Future. Proceedings of the 2nd International Scientific and Practical Conference]. Astrakhan, 2010, pp. 58—73.
  2. Kargapolova E.V., Aryasova A.Yu., Grechkina T.Yu., Lebedintseva L.A., Ubogovich Yu.I. Sotsiokul'turnyy portret Astrakhanskoy oblasti: opyt sotsiologicheskogo, ekonomicheskogo i politicheskogo analiza: monografiya [Social and Cultural Portrait of the Astrakhan Region: the Experience of Sociological, Economic and Political Analysis]. Volgograd, Volgogradskoe nauchnoe izdatel’stvo Publ., 2010, 307 p.
  3. Lapin N.I., Belyaeva L.A., editors. Regiony v Rossii: sotsiokul'turnye portrety regionov v obshcherossiyskom kontekste [Regions in Russia: Social and Cultural Portraits of Regions in All-Russian Context]. Moscow, Academia Publ., 2009, 808 p.
  4. A practical Guide for Conducting: Housing Profiles. UN-Habitat, 2011, 100 p.
  5. Tibaijuka A.K. Building Prosperity. The Centrality of Housing in Economic Development. London, UN-Habitat, 2009, 289 p.
  6. Anufriev D.P. Upravlenie stroitel'nym kompleksom kak sotsial'no-ekonomicheskoy sistemoy: postanovka problemy [Managing the Building Complex as a Social and Economic System: Problem Statement]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 8, pp. 8—10.
  7. Goodwin R.M. The Non-linear Accelerator and Persistence of Business Cycles. Econometrica. 1991, vol. 19, no.1, pp. 1—17.
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  9. Gusev A.B. Dostupnost' zhil'ya v Rossii i za rubezhom: sravnitel'nyy analiz [Housing Affordability in Russia and Abroad: a Comparative Analysis]. Available at: http://www.urban-planet.org/article_8.html. Date of access: 20.08.2013.
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Housing stock of the Ukraine: composition, structure, statistics

Vestnik MGSU 9/2013
  • Pinchak Liliana Anatol'evna - Ivan Franko Lviv National University (LNU named after Ivan Franko) 1 Universitetskaya st., Lviv, 79000, Ukraine, Ivan Franko Lviv National University (LNU named after Ivan Franko), ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 118-124

The author considers the state of the housing market in the Ukraine, the expediency of the new legislation contemplating compilation of the unified state register of households in need of better housing conditions. The structure, statistics, and values characterizing the condition of the housing stock of the Ukraine and the residential housing provided to certain categories of the population of the Ukraine has proven that the housing needs of the Ukrainian population remain unsatisfied. The analysis of the housing market is performed to assess the government policy and the outcome of housing-related reforms in the country. The domestic practice of solving housing problems in the Soviet style was based on a system of state funding and free distribution of state-funded housing. Today many Ukrainian households have no access to the housing market, even when state support and various socio-economic housing programs are available because of harsh mortgage conditions and high RE prices. Therefore, the objective of the research consists in the analysis of the housing register aimed at the identification of the reasons for the deficiency of the housing stock and liquidation of its deficiency in the future. The research performed by the author has proven that the conclusions made independently by various researchers and scholars coincide, and RE market regularities and phenomena, specified in the national legislation, are properly understood by the market players. The housing market development continues within the legal framework. In the course of the last 12 years the number of Ukrainian households registered as those in need of better housing conditions has gone down, although the housing stock accrues every year.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.9.118-124

References
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  4. Gerasimenko A.V. Otsenka vliyaniya sotsial'nykh programm na dinamiku rozhdaemosti v Ukraine [Assessment of Influence Produced by Social Security Programs on Fertility Dynamics in the Ukraine]. Demografiya i sotsial'naya ekonomika [Demography and Social Economy]. 2010, no. 1(13), pp. 55—65.
  5. RE Market Situation. Evans. Available at: http://www.gzt.ru/topnews/realty/-dlya-resheniya-kvartirnogo-voprosa-rossiyaninu-/338482.html]. Date of access: June 6, 2013.
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  10. Gosudarstvennaya sluzhba statistiki Ukrainy. Elektronnyy zhurnal [State Statistics Service of the Ukraine. Electronic Log no. 03.6-33/690 of May 15, 2013]. Available at: http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua Date of access: July 10, 2013.
  11. Postanovlenie KMU «Ob utverzhdenii Pravil predostavleniya dolgosrochnykh kreditov individual'nym zastroyshchikam zhil'ya na sele» ¹ 1597 ot 5.10.1998 g. [Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Ukraine “On Approval of Procedures for Issuance of Long-term Loans to Individual House Owners in Rural Areas”]. Date of Most Recent Update: October 16, 2010. Available at: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1597-98-% D0% BF Date of access: July 07, 2013.
  12. Tselevaya programma razvitiya ukrainskogo sela na period do 2015 goda [Target Program for Development of Ukrainian Villages through 2015]. Available at: http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua/ Date of access: June 11, 2013.
  13. Skarzhinskiy M. Ponyatie zhil'ya v grazhdanskom prave Ukrainy [Notion of Housing in the Civil Law of the Ukraine]. Predpriyatie, khozyaystvo i pravo [Enterprise, Economy, and Law]. 2004, no. 9, pp. 75—77.

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