DESIGNING AND DETAILING OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. MECHANICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

Estimation of seismic resistanceof an industrial building: probabilistic approach

Vestnik MGSU 11/2013
  • Zolina Tat’yana Vladimirova - Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering (AICI) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, vice-rector, Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering (AICI), 18 Tatishchev str., 414056, Astrakhan, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sadchikov Pavel Nikolaevich - State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU") Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Automated Design and Modeling Systems, State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU"), 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 42-50

This article represents the results of the research of general approaches and methods of risk evaluation for further exploitation of industrial buildings under seismic loads. Algorithms, developed or adopted by the authors of the article are designed for evaluating strength and stability of an industrial building, considered as a three-dimensional two-mass system, where the calculation points are located at the nodes of intersection of columns and brake structures of frames and the longitudinal axis of coating.Solving the problem of integral reliability and durability of buildings and structures as well as well-balanced design and strength under extreme conditions means to perform quantitative assessment of risk and to minimize it. Most existing analysis and risk evaluation methods are qualitative and estimate the probability of an emergency situation.Algorithm, offered by the authors of this article, includes assessment of seismic vulnerability risk of a construction in case of an earthquake of certain intensity. Problems, arising due to the complexity of probabilistic calculations, are solved by using automated control systems.Using classic methods of statistic dynamics and reliability theory, the authors offer a probability calculation, including the following:• Cop has aland quarter phase spectraldensity components of seismic movements;• entrance and exit spectrums;• dispersion of generalized coordinatesfor each natural frequency of a building;• waveform factor matrix;• effective oscillation period of a con-struction under seismic load;• failure frequencies at significancevalue;• total dispersion for all waveforms;• conventional, external and full seismicrisk.The given method of evaluating resistance of buildings and constructions to seismic loads is a probabilistic method and can be used as a basis for algorithms to automatize corresponding calculations during engineering design and exploitation of buildings and constructions.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.42-50

References
  1. Lychev A.S. Veroyatnostnye metody rascheta stroitel’nykh elementov i sistem [Probabilistic Methods for Calculating Construction Components and Systems]. Moscow, Assotsiatsiya stroitelnyih vuzov Publ., 1995, 143 p.
  2. Esteva L., Rosenblueth E. Espectros de Tembloles a Distancians Moderadas y Grandes. Bol. Soc. Mex. Ing. Sism., 1964, no. 2(1), pp. 1—18.
  3. Rayzer V.D. Teoriya nadezhnosti v stroitel’nom proektirovanii: monografiya [The Theory of Reliability in Construction Design: monograph]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 1998, p. 304.
  4. Tichy M. On the reliability measure. Structural Safety. 1988, vol. 5, pp. 227—235.
  5. Tamrazyan A.G. Otsenka riska i nadezhnosti konstruktsiy i klyuchevykh elementov — neobkhodimoe uslovie bezopasnosti zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Risk and Reliability Assessment of Structures and Key Elements as a Necessary Factor for the Safety of Buildings and Structures]. Vestnik TsNIISK [Proceedings of Central Research Institute of Construction Structures Named after V.A. Kucherenko]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 160—171.
  6. Zolina T.V. Veroyatnostnyy raschet odnoetazhnogo promyshlennogo zdaniya, oborudovannogo mostovym kranom, s uchetom prostranstvennoy raboty ego karkasa [The Probabilistic Calculation of One Storey Industrial Building Equipped with a Bridge Crane, Taking into Account the Spatial Work of its Carcass]. Vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura [Proceedings of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Construction and Architecture Series]. 2012, no. 28 (47), pp. 7—13.
  7. Pshenichkina V.A., Belousov A.S., Kuleshova A.N., Churakov A.A. Nadezhnost’ zdaniy kak prostranstvennykh sostavnykh sistem pri seysmicheskikh vozdeystviyakh [Reliability of buildings as spatial composite systems under seismic effects]. Volgograd, VolgGASU Publ., 2010, 224 p.
  8. Barshteyn M.F. Prilozhenie veroyatnostnykh metodov k raschetu sooruzheniy na seysmicheskie vozdeystviya [The Application of Probabilistic Methods to the Analysis of Structures for Seismic Effects]. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 1960, no. 2, pp. 6—14.
  9. Tamrazyan A.G. Raschet elementov konstruktsiy pri zadannoy nadezhnosti i normal’nom raspredelenii nagruzki i nesushchey sposobnosti [Calculation of Structural Elements at a Given Reliability and the Normal Load Distribution and Bearing Capacity]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 10, pp. 109—115.
  10. Zolina T.V., Sadchikov P.N. Avtomatizirovannaya sistema rascheta promyshlennogo zdaniya na kranovye i seysmicheskie nagruzki [The Automated System of Calculation of an Industrial Building on the Crane and Seismic Loads]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 8, pp. 14—16.

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Simulation of structure interaction with the base in caseof earthquake

Vestnik MGSU 12/2013
  • Mkrtychev Oleg Vartanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, head, Scientific Laboratory of Reliability and Seismic Resistance of Structures, Professor, Department of Strength of Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Dzhinchvelashvili Guram Avtandilovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Strength of Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Busalova Marina Sergeevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Strength of Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 34-40

The article focuses on the problem of calculating seismic impact on structures. The article studies the impact of structures on the changes in seismic load parameters. Studies are conducted with the use of direct dynamic calculation methods implementing explicit integration schemes equations of motion. Two computational models of monolithic reinforced concrete buildings on elastic half-space are considered: 9 and 16 storeys. The solution of the problem is found in time domain by direct integration of the equations of motion for the explicit scheme using software package LS-DYNA. The foundation simulation is performed using solid finite elements, and the bearing structures of buildings — using solid shell finite elements. The external action applied in the horizontal direction X is shown by accelerogram. Synthesized accelerogram is obtained by the Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences for Imereti lowland region, city of Sochi. In the study the authors used a specially developed method of calculation based on the algorithm of the base-structure interaction (interface soil-structure interaction). This algorithm can effectively simulate the interaction with linear and nonlinear deformable half-space in the form of a limited array with "transparent" borders. The results show that neglecting the change in external seismic impact parameters caused by the influence of the structures leads to errors in calculation results, which in turn can lead to deficiency of the bearing capacity and seismic resistance of building structures designed in seismic regions. When using the accepted methods of earthquake calculation based on existing regulations, the original design accelerograms should be set considering the dynamic characteristics of the designed buildings.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.12.34-40

References
  1. Mkrtychev O.V., Dzhinchvelashvili G.A. Raschet zhelezobetonnogo monolitnogo zdaniya na zemletryasenie v nelineynoy postanovke [Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Monolithic Building in Case of Earthquake in Nonlinear Formulation]. Sbornik dokladov Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-metodicheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 100-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya V.N. Baykova. Moskva, 4-5 aprelya 2012 goda [Collected Reports of the International Scientific Conference Dedicated to the 100th Anniversary of V.N. Baykov. Moscow, 4-5 April, 2012]. Moscow, 2012, pp. 283—289.
  2. Mkrtychev O.V., Dzhinchvelashvili G.A. Otsenka nelineynoy raboty zdaniy i sooruzheniy pri avariynykh vozdeystviyakh [Evaluation of Nonlinear Operation of Buildings and Structures in Emergency Exposures]. Problemy bezopasnosti rossiyskogo obshchestva [Security Problems of the Russian Society]. 2012, no. 3, pp. 17—31.
  3. Mkrtychev O.V. Otsenka nadezhnosti mnogoetazhnogo zdaniya pri seysmicheskom vozdeystvii na osnove resheniya dinamicheskoy zadachi [Evaluation of a Multi-storey Building Reliability under Seismic Impacts Basing on Dynamic Problem Solution]. Seysmostoykoe stroitel'stvo [Antiseismic Construction]. 2001, no. 2, pp. 33—35.
  4. Mkrtychev O.V. Raschet bol'sheproletnykh i vysotnykh sooruzheniy na ustoychivost' k progressiruyushchemu obrusheniyu pri seysmicheskikh i avariynykh vozdeystviyakh v nelineynoy dinamicheskoy postanovke [Calculation of Long-span and High-rise Buildings for Resistance to Progressive Collapse under Seismic and Emergency Impacts in Nonlinear Dynamic Formulation]. Sbornik dokladov nauchnogo seminara «Aktual'nye problemy rascheta zdaniy i sooruzheniy na osobye vozdeystviya (vklyuchaya seysmicheskie i avariynye)». 21 maya 2009 goda [Current Issues of the Analysis of Buildings and Structures in Case of Emergency Effects (Including Seismic and Accidental). Scientific Workshop. May 21, 2009]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2009, pp. 1—9.
  5. Herrera I., Bielak J. Soil-structure Interaction as a Diffraction Problem. Proceedings of the 6th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. New Delhi, India, 1977, vol. 2, pp. 1467—1472.
  6. Bielak J., Loukakis K., Hisada Y., Yoshimura C. Domain Reduction Method for Threedimensional Earthquake Modeling in Localized Regions, Part I: Theory. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 2003, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 817—824.
  7. Yoshimura C., Bielak J., Hisada Y., Fernandez A. Domain Reduction Method for Threedimensional Earthquake Modeling in Localized Regions, Part II: Verification and Applications. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 2003, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 825—841.

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CALCULATION OF THE UNIQUE HIGH-RISE BUILDING FOR EARTHQUAKES IN NONLINEAR DYNAMIC FORMULATION

Vestnik MGSU 6/2016
  • Mkrtychev Oleg Vartanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, head, Scientific Laboratory of Reliability and Seismic Resistance of Structures, Professor, Department of Strength of Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Andreev Mikhail Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Master student, Institute of Fundamental Education, engineer, Scientific Laboratory of Reliability and Seismic Resistance of Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 25-33

The article contains the calculation of a 80-storey high-rise building on 3-component accelerograms with different dominant frequencies. The “Akhmat Tower” belongs to the complex “Grozny-city 2” and is classified as a unique construction, its height is 400 m. During the construction unique high-rise buildings and high-rise buildings in seismic areas an additional computational studies are required, which should take into account the nonlinear nature of the design. For the case of linear instrumental-synthesized accelerograms, it is necessary to apply nonlinear dynamic methods. The studies were conducted using the software LS-DYNA, implementing the methods of direct integration of the equations of motion by the explicit scheme. The constructive scheme of the building frame is braced, the spatial stability is ensured by load-bearing interior walls, columns and hard disks, and frame metal coatings. The choice of the type and dimensions of the finite element and the step of integration is due to the ability to perform calculations in reasonable time, and to the required accuracy of calculation. For this aim the issues of convergence of the solutions on a number of settlement schemes were investigated with the terms of thickened mesh of finite elements: 0.5 m; 1 m; 2 m; 3 m. As a result of the research it was obtained that the best is to split into finite elements with a characteristic size of 2 m. The calculation of the building is made on rigid foundation. The authors used accelerograms normalized for earthquakes of 8 and 9 points on the MSK-64 scale. The destruction of the elements in the process of loading, and the interaction of the elements during their contact was taken into account, i.e. the calculation was made taking into account physical, geometrical and structural nonlinearities. The article analyzes the results of the calculation. The authors evaluated the seismic stability of the building. Possible ways to improve the seismic resistance of the building are suggested.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.6.25-33

References
  1. Dzhinchvelashvili G.A., Bulushev S.V. Kolebaniya vysotnykh zdaniy pri seysmicheskom vozdeystvii s uchetom fizicheskoy i geometricheskoy nelineynosti [Oscillations of high-rise buildings under seismic influence considering physical and geometric nonlinearity]. Stroitel’stvo: nauka i obrazovanie [Construction: Science and Education]. 2014. no. 2, paper 1. Available at: http://www.nso-journal.ru. (In Russian)
  2. Mkrtychev O.V., Dzhinchvelashvili G.A. Raschet zhelezobetonnogo monolitnogo zdaniya na zemletryasenie v nelineynoy postanovke [Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Monolityc Building foe Earthquakes in Nonlinear Formulation]. Sbornik dokladov Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-metodicheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 100-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya V.N. Baykova (g. Moskva, 4—5 aprelya 2012 g.) [Collection of Papers of International Research and Methodology Conference Dedicated to 100th Anniversary of V.N. Baykov (Moscow, April 4—5, 2012)]. Moscow, 2012, pp. 283—289. (In Russian)
  3. Andreeva P.I., Koval’chuk O.A. Sravnitel’nyy analiz rezul’tatov eksperimental’nykh naturnykh dinamicheskikh issledovaniy i rascheta dinamicheskikh kharakteristik vysotnogo zhilogo zdaniya [Comparative Analysis of the Results of Experimental Field Dynamic Investigations and Calculation of Dynamic Characteristics of a High-Rise Residential Building]. International Journal for Computational Civil and Structural Engineering. 2012, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 13—18. (In Russian)
  4. Mkrtychev O.V., Mkrtychev A.E. Raschet bol’sheproletnykh i vysotnykh sooruzheniy na ustoychivost’ k progressiruyushchemu obrusheniyu pri seysmicheskikh i avariynykh vozdeystviyakh v nelineynoy dinamicheskoy postanovke [Stability Calculation of Large-Span High-rise Structures for Progressive Collapse in Case of Seismic Emergency Loads in Nonlinear Dynamic Formulation]. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 2009, no. 4, pp. 43—49. (In Russian)
  5. Andreeva P.I. Sravnitel’nyy analiz metodov rascheta na seysmicheskie vozdeystviya [Comparative Analysis of Calculation Methods of Seismic Impacts]. Stroitel’stvo — formirovanie sredy zhiznedeyatel’nosti : sbornik trudov XVII Mezhdunarodnoy Mezhvuzovskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii studentov, magistrantov, aspirantov i molodukh uchenykh (g. Moskva, 23—25 aprelya 2014 g.) [Construction — Formation of Living Environment : Collection of Works of the 17th International Interuniversity Science and Practice Conference of students, Master students, postgraduate students and young scientists (Moscow, April 23—25, 2014). Pp. 489—492. (In Russian)
  6. Trifonov O.V. Modelirovanie dinamicheskoy reaktsii konstruktsiy pri dvukhkomponentnykh seysmicheskikh vozdeystviyakh [Simulating the Dynamic Response of Structures in Case of Two-Component Seismic Effects]. Seysmostoykoe stroitel’stvo. Bezopasnost’ sooruzheniy [Earthquake Engineering. Constructions Safety]. 2000, no. 1, pp. 42—45. (In Russian)
  7. Sanaz Rezaeian, Armen Der Kiureghian. Simulation of Synthetic Ground Motions for Specified Earthquake and Site Characteristics. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics. 2010, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1155—1180. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eqe.997.
  8. Soize C. Information Theory for Generation of Accelerograms Associated with Shock Response Spectra. Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering. 2010, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 334—347. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8667.2009.00643.x.
  9. Zentner I. Simulation of Non-Stationary Conditional Ground Motion Fields in the Time Domain. Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geo-hazards. 2013, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 37—48. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17499518.2013.763572.
  10. Tamrazyan A.G., Tomilin V.A. Nesushchaya sposobnost’ konstruktsiy vysotnykh zdaniy pri lokal’nykh izmeneniyakh fiziko-mekhanicheskikh kharakteristik materialov [Bearing Capacity of High-Rise Building Structures in Case of Local Changes of Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of the Materials]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2007, no. 11, pp. 24—25. (In Russian)
  11. Ayzenberg Ya.M., Smirnov V.I., Akbiev R.T. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po proektirovaniyu seysmoizolyatsii s primeneniem rezinometallicheskikh opor [Methodological recommendations on the Design of Seismic Isolation Using Metal-Rubber Supports]. Moscow, RASS Publ., 2008, 46 p. (In Russian)
  12. Koval’chuk O.A., Zubkov D.A., Andreeva P.I. Issledovanie effektivnosti re'zino-metallicheskikh vibroizolyatorov firmy «Vibroseysmozashchita» primenitel›no k karkasnym zdaniyam, vozvedennym vblizi tonneley metro melkogo zalozheniya [Investigation of the Efficiency of Metal-Rubber Vibration Isolators of “Vibroseysmozashchita” Company for Frame Buildings Built near the Subsurface Tunnels of Subway]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 6, pp. 335—340. (In Russian)
  13. Mkrtychev O.V., Bunov A.A. Sravnitel’nyy analiz reaktsiy mnogoetazhnykh zhe-lezobetonnykh zdaniy s sistemoy seysmoizolyatsii i bez nee na seysmicheskoe vozdeystvie [Comparative Analysis of the Reactions of Multistoreyed Buildings with Seismic Isolation System and without it on Seismic Effect]. 21 vek: fundamental’naya nauka i tekhnologiya : materialy III Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii [21st Century: Fundamental Science and Technology: Materials of the 3rd International Science and Practice Conference]. Moscow, 2014, vol. 3, pp. 122—126. (In Russian)
  14. Rumyantsev E.V., Belugina E.A. Modelirovanie konstruktsiy zheleznodorozhnogo terminala stantsii Adler s uchetom sistemy seysmoizolyatsii [Modeling Structures of Railway Terminal of Adler Station with Account for the System of Seismic Isolation]. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyy zhurnal [Engineering and Construction Journal]. 2012, no. 1 (27), pp. 22—30. (In Russian)
  15. Andreev V.I., Dzhinchvelashvili G.A., Kolesnikov A.V. Raschet zdaniy i sooruzheniy na seysmicheskie vozdeystviya s uchetom nelineynykh effektov [Calculation of Seismic Actions on Buildings and Structures with Account of Nonlinear Effects]. Stroitel’nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka [Construction Materials, Equipment, Technologies of the 21st Century]. 2012, no. 7, pp. 33—35. (In Russian)
  16. Dzhinchvelashvili G.A., Kolesnikov A.V., Zaalishvili V.B., Godustov I.S. Perspektivy razvitiya sistem seysmoizolyatsii sovremennykh zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Prospects of the Development of the Systems of Seismic Isolation of Modern Buildings and Structures]. Seysmostoykoe stroitel’stvo. Bezopasnost’ sooruzheniy [Earthquake Engineering. Constructions Safety]. 2009, no. 6, pp. 27—31. (In Russian)

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RESEARCH INTO A NEW STRUCTURAL SOLUTION APPLICABLE TO FOUNDATIONS RESTING ON THE SLIDING LAYER

Vestnik MGSU 11/2012
  • Abovskiy Naum Petrovich - Siberian Federal University (SFU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Honorary Member Russian Academy of Architectural and Construction Sciences (RAACS), Consulting Professor, Department of Building Structures and Control Systems, +7(391)243-24-98, Siberian Federal University (SFU), 82 Svobodnyy prospekt, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Inzhutov Ivan Semenovich - Siberian Federal University (SFU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Member Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (RAEN), Director, Institute of Civil Engineering, +7(391)252-78-11, Siberian Federal University (SFU), 82 Svobodnyy prospekt, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Deordiev Sergey Vladimirovich - Institute of Civil Engineering, Siberian Federal University (SFU) +7 (391) 252-78-64, Institute of Civil Engineering, Siberian Federal University (SFU), ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Palagushkin Vladimir Ivanovich - Siberian Federal University (SFU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Building Structures and Control Systems +7(391)206-27-55, Siberian Federal University (SFU), 82 Svobodnyy prospekt, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sibgatulin Viktor Gazizovich - Nonprofi t Partnership Ecological Centre for Rational Reclamation of Natural Resources (NP «ETs ROPR») Distinguished Geologist of the Russian Federation, Director, +7(391)226-31-38, Nonprofi t Partnership Ecological Centre for Rational Reclamation of Natural Resources (NP «ETs ROPR»), Offi ce 232, 53 prospekt Mira, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Khudoberdin Ivan Rafailovich - Siberian Federal University (SFU) engineer, Department of Building Structures and Control Systems, Siberian Federal University (SFU), 82 Svobodnyy prospekt, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 32 - 37

The authors provide solutions to the relevant issue of development and construction of
foundations resting on a sliding layer as a method of external seismic protection of buildings and
structures. The authors have developed a system of automated operating control over the external
seismic protection of buildings (structures) that represents an automatic switch of the emergencylevel
seismic load. The authors have filed an application for the registration of their invention. The
proposed solution has everything in place to be widely applied to improve the seismic protection of
buildings and structures, especially those resting on problematic soils.
The authors provide their description of a paradox of foundations: foundations are analyzed
in terms of "upside-down" loads, whereas seismic loads have an opposite direction. The authors
provide their solutions to this problem.
The authors argue that methods of seismic protection incorporated into effective regulations
are limited, and they do not constitute any external seismic protection methods, whereas the
application of seismic isolation inside buildings is unreasonable, as it is limited by the requirement
to install it "above the foundation". Presently, the above methods are being reworked into foundation
platforms resting on a sliding layer. Their efficiency has been proven by a computerized model and
a theoretical analysis.
The authors also provide their argumentation in favour of the conclusion that relevant seismic
protection development trends are to incorporate advanced structural solutions, including methods
of external seismic protection.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.11.32 - 37

References
  1. Abovskiy N.P., Inzhutov I.S., Deordiev S.V., Palagushkin V.I. Neobkhodimost’ sistemnykh issledovaniy po seysmostoykomu stroitel’stvu [A Need for Systemic Research into Seismic Construction]. Seysmostoykoe stroitel’stvo. Bezopasnost’ sooruzheniy. [Seismic Construction. Safety of Structures]. 2011, no. 3, pp. 71—74.
  2. Abovskiy N.P., Inzhutov I.S., Khoroshavin E.A., Deordiev S.V., Palagushkin V.I. O vozmozhnosti vneshnikh seysmozashchitnykh ustroystv [Applicability of External Seismic Protection Devices]. Seysmostoykoe stroitel’stvo. Bezopasnost’ sooruzheniy. [Seismic Construction. Safety of Structures]. 2011, no. 6, pp. 38—42.
  3. N.P. Abovskiy and others. Patents 2206665, 2273697, 38789, 45410, 50553, 53342, 55388, 64650, 69094, 73350, 59650. Russian Federation.
  4. Abovskiy N.P., Marchuk N.I., Maksimova O.M. and others. Konstruktivnaya seysmobezopasnost’ zdaniy i sooruzheniy v slozhnykh gruntovykh usloviyakh [Seismic Safety of Constructions of Buildings and Structures in Problematic Soils]. Krasnoyarsk, SFU Publ., 2009, 186 p.

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