
Musorina Tat'yana Aleksandrovna 
Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU)
postgraduate student, Hydraulics and Strength Department, Civil Engineering Institute, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), 29 Politechnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation.

Gamayunova Ol'ga Sergeevna 
Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU)
senior lecturer, Department of Construction of Unique Buildings and Structures, Civil Engineering Institute, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), 29 Politechnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation.

Petrichenko Mikhail Romanovich 
Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU)
Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Hydraulics and Strength Department, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), 29 Politechnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation.
Subject: multilayer building envelope is the subject of the paper. Recently, in the context of energy conservation policies, the heat engineering requirements for enveloping structures of buildings and structures have significantly increased. At the same time, their moisture condition has a significant impact on the operational properties of materials of structures and on microclimate of rooms constrained by these structures. Research objectives: emphasize importance of the task of predicting the temperature and moisture condition of the walling at the stage of design and construction of building envelopes. In this paper, the temperature distributions in layered walls are analyzed. Materials and methods: to achieve the objectives, computational and experimental studies are conducted. By alternating (rearranging) layers and preserving the thermal resistance of the wall on the whole, we find the optimal alternation of layers that minimizes deviation of the maximum wall temperature from the average temperature. Results: for the optimal location of layers in the wall’s structure, the moisture penetration into the wall is minimal or absent altogether. This is possible if the heatinsulating layer is mounted on the outer surface of the structure. Conclusions: the obtained results of computational and experimental studies allow us to verify appropriateness of accounting for alternation of layers in multilayer structures. These calculations proved that the higher the average temperature level, the more energyefficient the structure will be.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2017.11.12691277

Tusnina Olga Alexandrovna 
Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU)
postgraduate student, Department of Metal and Timber Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation;
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In the paper the features of a structural thermotechnical analysis with the use of numerical methods are considered. Characteristics of heat transfer processes can be obtained using experimental or theoretical analysis. A theoretical investigation works with mathematical model, not with real physical phenomenon. The mathematical model for heat transfer processes consists of a set of differential equations. If the methods of classical mathematics are used for solving these equations, many phenomena of practical interest will be predicted. That’s why in order to solve these problems it is advisable to apply numerical methods. In this paper an algorithm of numerical calculation of threedimensional temperature fields is considered.The numerical algorithm for solving the differential equation of steady threedimensional thermal conductivity is represented. Discretization of this equation was performed by controlvolume method. A solution of a set of discretized equations can be obtained by using a convenient combination of the direct method TDMA (Tridiagonal matrix algorithm) for onedimensional situation and the GaussSeidel method. The described approach allows us taking into consideration thermal inhomogeneity, such as thermal bridges, and the features of the geometry of the structure. The computing program TEPL was developed on the basis of the described algorithms. As a result of the calculation made by TEPL threedimensional temperature field was obtained. On the basis of this field thermal resistance and temperature distribution in the structure were calculated.The examples of using the program for solving real practical problems are shown in the paper. Roofing consisted of sandwich panels supported by purlins with the use of screws in one case and rivets as fasteners in the other. The main difference between these two structures is that screws are installed through the insulation layer of a panel and violate its integrity, while rivets are connected to the lowest sheet of a panel and purlin flange and do not make any changes in insulation. The results of the numerical analysis in TEPL show that screws are thermal bridges and must be taken into account in the process of calculating thermal resistance of roofs.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2013.11.9199
References
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Bedov Anatoliy Ivanovich 
Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU)
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation;
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Gaysin Askar Miniyarovich 
Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU)
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Building Structures, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), Ofﬁce 225, 195, Mendeleeva St., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation.

Gabitov Azat Ismagilovich 
Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU)
Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Building Structures, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), 195 Mendeleeva str., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation;
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Galeev Rinat Grigor’evich 
Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU)
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Highways and Technology of Construction Production, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), 195 Mendeleeva str., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation.

Salov Aleksandr Sergeevich 
Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU)
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Highways and Technology of Construction Production, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), 195 Mendeleeva str., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation;
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Shibirkina Marina Sergeevna 
Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU)
engineer, Department of Highways and Technology of Construction Production, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), 195 Mendeleeva str., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation;
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In the Soviet Union a lot of residential buildings with wooden window systems were built. In the last 15 years the requirements to heat protection of buildings have strengthened and the technologies of window systems production have developed. New window constructions appeared, in which window frames of PVC profiles are used. So now doublecasement windows with glass are replaced by singlecasement with glass units. The replacement of windows is associated with a number of specific problems. The authors analyzed the quantitative parameters of the heat losses in the claddings of brick buildings. It was revealed that significant heat leakage occurs in the joint areas of window frame with the wall, at the junction of slopes. The authors offer a quantitative calculation of heat losses in these units in case of twodimensional heat flux based on thermal conductivity matrix taking into account the convective heat transfer. On the basis of this calculation a computer program was developed that allows pinpointing the most problematic areas for choosing rational actions for elimination of cold bridges.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2015.11.4657
References
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 Gaysin A.M., Gareev R.R., Babkov V.V., Nedoseko I.V., Samokhodova S.Yu. Dvadtsatiletniy opyt primeneniya vysokopustotnykh vibropressovannykh betonnykh blokov v Bashkortostane [Twenty Years Experience of Applying HighHollow Vibrocompressed Concrete Blocks in Bashkortostan]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015, no. 4, pp. 82—86. (In Russian)
 Bedov A.I., Babkov V.V., Gabitov A.I., Gajsin A.M., Rezvov O.A., Kuznecov D.V., Gafurova Je.A., Sinicin D.A. Konstruktivnye reshenija i osobennosti rascheta teplozaschity naruzhnyh sten zdanij na osnove avtoklavnyh gazobetonnyh blokov [Structural Solutions and Special Features of the Thermal Protection Analysis of Exterior Walls of Buildings Made of Autoclaved GasConcrete Blocks]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 2, pp. 98—103. (In Russian)
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Bedov Anatoliy Ivanovich 
Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU)
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Reinforced Concrete and Stone Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26, Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Gaysin Askar Miniyarovich 
Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU)
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Building Structures, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), Ofﬁce 225, 195, Mendeleeva St., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation.

Gabitov Azat Ismagilovich 
Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU)
Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Building Structures, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), Ofﬁce 225, 195, Mendeleeva St., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation.

Kuznetsov Dmitriy Valeryevich 
Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU)
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Building Structures, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), Ofﬁce 225, 195, Mendeleeva St., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation.

Salov Aleksandr Sergeevich 
Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU)
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Highways and Technology of Construction Operations, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), Ofﬁce 225, 195, Mendeleeva St., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation.

Abdulatipova Elena Midkhatovna 
Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU)
Doctor of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of Department of Technological Machines and Equipment, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), Ofﬁce 225, 195, Mendeleeva St., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation.
Energy efficiency in construction is the main direction of energy saving in which the basic measure is to reduce heat losses through walling. In this regard, a particularly promising measure is an application of highhollow multislot ceramic for external walls due to its predictable properties and reliability in operation. Range of highhollow ceramic products currently manufactured in the Republic of Bashkortostan is considered in the article. Simulation and calculation of strength characteristics of highhollow ceramic stones in the SCAD program system were performed, fracture model geometric parameters were obtained. Results of mechanical tests of highhollow ceramic products are shown. The simulation and calculations performed in the SCAD program system with obtaining of geometric parameters of the fracture model made it possible to compare the convergence of calculation results with actual test results. Based on the results of the performed research it is concluded that the fracture model in the SCAD program system has practically coincided with the fracture pattern obtained in the process of experimental study of strength of highhollow ceramic stones.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2017.1.1725

Samarin Oleg Dmitrievich 
Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU)
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Heating and Ventilation, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation;
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Currently, the successful development of construction industry depends on the improved energy performance of buildings, structures and facilities, as well as on the quality assurance of the indoor climate. The approximate calculation of twodimensional temperature field of the ground outside the underground part of the building is considered using the analytical solution of differential equation of thermal conduction by the method of sources and sinks according to the existing boundary conditions. This problem is a very highpriority task now because of actualization of building standards in Russian Federation and because of the increasing demands to safety and security of heat supply. That’s why it is very important to find a simple but accurate enough dependence for the heat losses through the floor situated on the ground. The results of the estimation of thermal resistance of floor areas on the ground are presented on the basis of the obtained temperature field. The comparison of these results with the regulatory requirements specified in SP 50.13330.2012, and with the data of numerical calculations of other authors using finite difference approximation of the thermal conduction equation with consideration of soil freezing is held. It is shown that the requirements of the SP 50.13330.2012 are physically reasonable, and numerical calculations can also be described by the analytical dependence obtained in this paper with appropriate selection of the numerical coefficients with the preservation of engineering form of the calculation procedure. The obtained model is easy to use in engineering practice especially during preliminary calculations. The presentation is illustrated with numerical and graphical examples.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2016.1.118125
References
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 Malyavina E.G. Teplopoteri zdaniya : spravochnoe posobie [Heat Losses of Buildings. Reference Guideline]. Moscow, AVOKPRESS, 2007, 144 p. (in Russian)
 Gindoyan A.G., Grushko V.Ya., Sundukov I.Yu. Issledovanie teplopoter’ cherez poly po gruntu [Research of Heat Losses through Floors on the Ground]. Stroitel’naya fizika v XXI veke : materialy nauchnotekhnicheskoy konferentsii [Building Physics in the 21st Century : Papers of the Scientific and Technical Conference]. Moscow, NIISF RAASN Publ., 2006,pp. 207—211. (in Russian)
 Malyavina E.G., Ivanov D.S. Opredelenie teplopoter’ podzemnoy chasti zdaniya raschetom trekhmernogo temperaturnogo polya grunta [Estimation of Heat Losses of the Underground Part of a Building by Calculating ThreeDimensional Temperature Field of the Soli]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011,no. 11, pp. 209—215. (In Russian)
 Malyavina E.G., Ivanov D.S. Raschet trekhmernogo temperaturnogo polya grunta s uchetom promerzaniya pri opredelenii teplopoter’ [Calculation of ThreeDimensional Temperature Field of the Soil in View of Freezing While Estimating Heat Losses]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 371—376. (In Russian)
 Parfent’ev N.A., Parfent’eva N.A. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie teplovogo rezhima konstruktsiy pri fazovykh perekhodakh [Mathematical Simulation of the Thermal Regime of Constructions under Phase Transitions]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 320—322. (In Russian)
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Perekhozhentsev Anatoliy Georgievich 
Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (VSUACE)
Doctor of technical sciences, Honorary Figure of Russian Higher Education, member, the Union of Architects of Russia, Professor, chair, Department of the Architecture of Buildings and Structures, Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (VSUACE), 1 Akademicheskaya str., 400074, Volgograd, Russian Federation;
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.
Setting standards of thermal resistance of building envelopes is a current task related with energy saving and energy efficiency of building envelopes. The problem of choosing the factor determining the standard thermal resistance also stays current even after updating of the Construction Norms. The author consider the concept of norming the thermal resistance of building envelope, in which the temperature of the inner surface of a building envelope providing comfortable temperature conditions in premises. The main task of an architect, who is designing an energy efficient building envelope is providing comfortable conditions in premises both in cold and warm periods of the year. The temperature of the inner surface of building envelopes should be included into the construction norms as the main criterion providing comfortable air temperature in premises.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2016.2.173185
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Hoshim R. Ruziev 
Bukhara Engineering Technology Institute
, Bukhara Engineering Technology Institute, 15 K. Murtazaev st., Bukhara, 200100, Uzbekistan.
Introduction. The paper presents theoretical and experimental studies of the improvement of the structure of lightweight concrete, which provides the maximum value of the attenuation of the amplitude of external air temperature fluctuations during the passage of heat flow through the walls and the reduction of thermal conductivity, the results of the 3factor experiment on determining the rational structure of claydite concrete and the methods for their processing. To determine the purposeful structure of the composition of lightweight concrete and its thermal conductivity, a complex of research works was carried out at the Central Research Institute for Housing, applied to lightweight concrete for exterior walls. The main optimization criterion was the maximum reduction in thermal conductivity while providing the necessary strength, durability and waterproofness. The purpose of this work is theoretical research and experimental substantiation of methods for improving the structure of lightweight concrete used for a hot climate with improved functional performance. Materials and methods. As material a claydite gravel with bulk density p = 400 kg/m3 of Lianozovsky plant (Moscow) was used, at a ratio of 40 % of the fraction 510 mm and 60 % of the fraction 1020 mm and a Portland cement of the brand “400” of the Voskresensky plant, not plasticized. The water flow rate was varied for 10 seconds, to ensure the mixture to be vibropacked.As a foam generating agent and plasticizer, the “Saponified wood resin” (SDO) was used in a 5 % aqueous solution. The methods were adopted in accordance with the Recommendation on the technology of factory production and quality control of lightweight concrete and largepanel constructions of residential buildings. M. CNIIEP dwelling, 1980. In the department of the lightweight concrete application at CNIIEP of dwelling, a method for the purposeful formation of the structure and composition of lightweight concrete, which provides a set of physictechnical, technological and technicaleconomic requirements, was developed. Results. Calculations are reduced to obtaining mathematical models of dependence of strength R, density ρ, thermai conductivity λ and other indicators of concrete characteristics from initial factors in the form of regression equations. Based on the equations obtained, it was possible to determine the expedient composition of lightweight concrete, which, in combination with the operational characteristics, provides comparable results of the technical and economic characteristics of a singlelayer structure from the projected type of lightweight concrete. Conclusions. 1. An improved composition of the structural and heat insulating lightweight concrete for the loadbearing part of the structure, providing its high thermal stability by chemical additives and low consumption of porous sand, was developed. An algorithm for selecting its composition on computer is made. 2. The conducted researches in the field of design of external enclosing structures for hot climate conditions have shown that: singlelayer exterior wall constructions with massiveness of D ≤ 4 provide minimum allowable values of heat flux attenuation and temperature fluctuation amplitude on the inner wall surface.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2018.10.12111219