SUBSTANTIATION OF DESIGN MEASURES TO INCREASE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF EXTERIOR WALLS

Vestnik MGSU 11/2017 Volume 12
  • Musorina Tat'yana Aleksandrovna - Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) postgraduate student, Hydraulics and Strength Department, Civil Engineering Institute, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), 29 Politechnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation.
  • Gamayunova Ol'ga Sergeevna - Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) senior lecturer, Department of Construction of Unique Buildings and Structures, Civil Engineering Institute, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), 29 Politechnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation.
  • Petrichenko Mikhail Romanovich - Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Hydraulics and Strength Department, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), 29 Politechnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation.

Pages 1269-1277

Subject: multi-layer building envelope is the subject of the paper. Recently, in the context of energy conservation policies, the heat engineering requirements for enveloping structures of buildings and structures have significantly increased. At the same time, their moisture condition has a significant impact on the operational properties of materials of structures and on microclimate of rooms constrained by these structures. Research objectives: emphasize importance of the task of predicting the temperature and moisture condition of the walling at the stage of design and construction of building envelopes. In this paper, the temperature distributions in layered walls are analyzed. Materials and methods: to achieve the objectives, computational and experimental studies are conducted. By alternating (rearranging) layers and preserving the thermal resistance of the wall on the whole, we find the optimal alternation of layers that minimizes deviation of the maximum wall temperature from the average temperature. Results: for the optimal location of layers in the wall’s structure, the moisture penetration into the wall is minimal or absent altogether. This is possible if the heat-insulating layer is mounted on the outer surface of the structure. Conclusions: the obtained results of computational and experimental studies allow us to verify appropriateness of accounting for alternation of layers in multilayer structures. These calculations proved that the higher the average temperature level, the more energy-efficient the structure will be.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.11.1269-1277

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Thermotechnical analysis of the structuresby using numerical methods

Vestnik MGSU 11/2013
  • Tusnina Olga Alexandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Metal and Timber Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 91-99

In the paper the features of a structural thermotechnical analysis with the use of numerical methods are considered. Characteristics of heat transfer processes can be obtained using experimental or theoretical analysis. A theoretical investigation works with mathematical model, not with real physical phenomenon. The mathematical model for heat transfer processes consists of a set of differential equations. If the methods of classical mathematics are used for solving these equations, many phenomena of practical interest will be predicted. That’s why in order to solve these problems it is advisable to apply numerical methods. In this paper an algorithm of numerical calculation of threedimensional temperature fields is considered.The numerical algorithm for solving the differential equation of steady three-dimensional thermal conductivity is represented. Discretization of this equation was performed by control-volume method. A solution of a set of discretized equations can be obtained by using a convenient combination of the direct method TDMA (Tri-diagonal matrix algorithm) for one-dimensional situation and the Gauss-Seidel method. The described approach allows us taking into consideration thermal inhomogeneity, such as thermal bridges, and the features of the geometry of the structure. The computing program TEPL was developed on the basis of the described algorithms. As a result of the calculation made by TEPL three-dimensional temperature field was obtained. On the basis of this field thermal resistance and temperature distribution in the structure were calculated.The examples of using the program for solving real practical problems are shown in the paper. Roofing consisted of sandwich panels supported by purlins with the use of screws in one case and rivets as fasteners in the other. The main difference between these two structures is that screws are installed through the insulation layer of a panel and violate its integrity, while rivets are connected to the lowest sheet of a panel and purlin flange and do not make any changes in insulation. The results of the numerical analysis in TEPL show that screws are thermal bridges and must be taken into account in the process of calculating thermal resistance of roofs.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.91-99

References
  1. Krivoshein A.D., Fedorov S.V. K voprosu o raschete privedennogo soprotivleniya teploperedache ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiy [On the Question of Calculating Reduced Thermal Resistance of Building Envelopes]. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyy zhurnal [Magazine of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 8, pp. 21—27.
  2. Tusnin A.R. Proektirovanie sten s okonnymi proemami [A Design of Walls with Window Openings]. Stroitel'stvo i nedvizhimost' [Construction and Real Estate]. 1997, no. 12, p. 7.
  3. Tusnin A.R., Tusnina V.M. Soprotivlenie teploperedache sten s okonnymi proemami [Thermal Resistance of Walls with Window Openings]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no.1, vol. 2, pp. 123—129.
  4. Gorshkov A.S. Energoeffektivnost' v stroitel'stve: voprosy normirovaniya i mery po snizheniyu energopotrebleniya zdaniy [Energy Efficiency in Construction: Issues of Regulation and Measures to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Buildings]. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyy zhurnal [Magazine of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 1, pp. 9—13.
  5. Kraynov D.V., Safin I.Sh., Lyubimtsev A.S. Raschet dopolnitel'nykh teplopoter' cherez teploprovodnye vklyucheniya ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiy (na primere uzla okonnogo otkosa) [Calculation of Additional Conductive Heat Loss through the Building Envelope Inclusions (on the Example of a Window Unit Slope)]. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyy zhurnal [Magazine of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 6, pp. 17—22.
  6. Ben Larbi A. Statistical Modelling of Heat Transfer for Thermal Bridges of Buildings. Energy and Buildings. 2005, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 945—951.
  7. Karabulut K., Buyruk E., Fertelli A. Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer for Thermal Bridges Taking into Consideration Location of Thermal Insulation with Different Geometries. Strojarstvo. 2009, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 431—439.
  8. Svoboda Z. The Analysis of the Convective-Conductive Heat Transfer in the Building Constructions. Proceedings of the 6th Int. IBPSA Conference Building Simulation, Kyoto. 1999, vol. 1, pp. 329—335.
  9. Ait-Taleb T., Abdelbaki A., Zrikem Z. Coupled Heat Transfers through Buildings Roofs Formed by Hollow Concrete Blocks. International Scientific Journal for Alternative Energy and Ecology. 2008, no. 6 (62), pp. 30—34.
  10. Gladkiy S.L., Yasnitskiy L.N. Reshenie trekhmernykh zadach teploprovodnosti metodom fiktivnykh kanonicheskikh oblastey [The Solution of Three-dimensional Heat Conduction Problems Using Fictitious Canonical Regions Method]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Matematika. Mekhanika. Informatika [Proceedings of Perm Univercity. Mathematics. Mechanics. Computer Sciences]. 2011, vol. 1(5), pp. 41—45.
  11. Belostotskiy A.M., Shcherbina S.V. Sravnitel'nye raschetnye issledovaniya energoeffektivnosti sushchestvuyushchikh i vnov' razrabotannykh materialov i konstruktsiy na osnove konechnoelementnogo modelirovaniya dvumernogo i trekhmernykh zadach teploprovodnosti [Comparative Study of the Energy Efficiency of Available and Newly Developed Materials and Structures Based on the Finite-element Resolution of 2d and 3d Problems of Heat Conductivity]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 3, pp. 212—219.
  12. Patankar S. Chislennye metody resheniya zadach teploobmena i dinamiki zhidkosti [Numerical Methods of Solving the Problems of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow]. Moscow, Energoatomizdat Publ., 1984, 150 p.

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Determination of heat losses of a window frame to the wall joint when replacing the outdated constructions of window blocks with modern ones

Vestnik MGSU 11/2015
  • Bedov Anatoliy Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Gaysin Askar Miniyarovich - Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Building Structures, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), Office 225, 195, Mendeleeva St., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation.
  • Gabitov Azat Ismagilovich - Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Building Structures, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), 195 Mendeleeva str., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Galeev Rinat Grigor’evich - Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Highways and Technology of Construction Production, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), 195 Mendeleeva str., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation.
  • Salov Aleksandr Sergeevich - Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Highways and Technology of Construction Production, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), 195 Mendeleeva str., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Shibirkina Marina Sergeevna - Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU) engineer, Department of Highways and Technology of Construction Production, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), 195 Mendeleeva str., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 46-57

In the Soviet Union a lot of residential buildings with wooden window systems were built. In the last 15 years the requirements to heat protection of buildings have strengthened and the technologies of window systems production have developed. New window constructions appeared, in which window frames of PVC profiles are used. So now double-casement windows with glass are replaced by single-casement with glass units. The replacement of windows is associated with a number of specific problems. The authors analyzed the quantitative parameters of the heat losses in the claddings of brick buildings. It was revealed that significant heat leakage occurs in the joint areas of window frame with the wall, at the junction of slopes. The authors offer a quantitative calculation of heat losses in these units in case of two-dimensional heat flux based on thermal conductivity matrix taking into account the convective heat transfer. On the basis of this calculation a computer program was developed that allows pinpointing the most problematic areas for choosing rational actions for elimination of cold bridges.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.11.46-57

References
  1. Boriskina I.V., Shvedov N.V., Plotnikov A.A. Sovremennye svetoprozrachnye konstruktsii grazhdanskikh zdaniy [Modern Translucent Constructions of Civil Buildings]. Saint Petersburg, NIUPTs «Mezhregional’nyy institut okna» Publ., 2005, vol. 1. Osnovy proektirovaniya [Fundamentals of the Design]. 160 p. (In Russian)
  2. Babkov V.V., Gaysin A.M., Fedortsev I.V., Sinitsin D.A., Kuznetsov D.V., Naftulovich I.M., Kil’dibaev R.S., Kolesnik G.S., Karanaeva R.Z., Savateev E.B., Dolgodvorov V.A., Gusel’nikova N.E., Gareev P.P. Teploeffektivnye konstruktsii naruzhnykh sten zdaniy, primenyaemye v praktike proektirovaniya i stroitel’stva respubliki Bashkortostan [Thermal Efficiency of External Walls of Buildings Used in the Practice of Design and Construction in the Republic of Bashkortostan]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006, no. 5, pp. 43—46. (In Russian)
  3. Gaysin A.M., Gareev R.R., Babkov V.V., Nedoseko I.V., Samokhodova S.Yu. Dvadtsatiletniy opyt primeneniya vysokopustotnykh vibropressovannykh betonnykh blokov v Bashkortostane [Twenty Years Experience of Applying High-Hollow Vibrocompressed Concrete Blocks in Bashkortostan]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015, no. 4, pp. 82—86. (In Russian)
  4. Bedov A.I., Babkov V.V., Gabitov A.I., Gajsin A.M., Rezvov O.A., Kuznecov D.V., Gafurova Je.A., Sinicin D.A. Konstruktivnye reshenija i osobennosti rascheta teplozaschity naruzhnyh sten zdanij na osnove avtoklavnyh gazobetonnyh blokov [Structural Solutions and Special Features of the Thermal Protection Analysis of Exterior Walls of Buildings Made of Autoclaved Gas-Concrete Blocks]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 2, pp. 98—103. (In Russian)
  5. Babkov V.V., Gaysin A.M., Arkhipov V.G., Naftulovich I.M., Gareev R.R., Moskalev A.P., Kolesnik G.S. Mnogoetazhnye oblitsovki v konstruktsiyakh naruzhnykh teploeffektivnykh trekhsloynykh sten zdaniy [Multi-storey Veneer at the Exterior Thermal Efficient Three-Layer Walls of Buildings]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2003, no. 10, pp. 10—13. (In Russian)
  6. Samarin O.D. Osnovy obespecheniya mikroklimata zdaniy [Bases of Maintenance of Microclimate in Buildings]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2014, 208 p. (In Russian)
  7. Nedoseko I.V., Pudovkin A.N., Kuz’min V.V., Aliev R.R. Keramzitobeton v zhilishchno-grazhdanskom stroitel’stve v Respublike Bashkortostan. Problemy i perspektivy [Claydite-concrete in Civil Engineering in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Problems and Prospects]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015, no. 4, pp. 16—20. (In Russian)
  8. Rakhmankulov D.L., Gabitov A.I., Abdrakhimov R.R., Gaysin A.M., Gabitov A.A. Iz istorii razvitiya kontrolya kachestva materialov i tekhnologiy [From the History of Quality Control Development of Materials and Technologies]. Bashkirskiy khimicheskiy zhurnal [Bashkir Chemical Journal]. 2006, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 93—95. (In Russian)
  9. Samarin V.S., Babkov V.V., Gaysin A.M., Egorkin N.S. Perspektivy krupnopanel’nogo domostroeniya v Respublike Bashkortostan [The Prospects of Large-Panel Housing Construction in the Republic Bashkortostan]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2011, no. 3, pp. 12—14. (In Russian)
  10. Shagmanov R.R., Shibirkina M.S. Raschet teplozashchitnykh kharakteristik okon [Calculation of Thermal Properties of Windows]. Problemy stroitel’nogo kompleksa Rossii : materialy XIKh Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-tekhnicheckoy konferentsii (g. Ufa, 10—12 marta 2015 g.)[The Problems of the Construction Complex of Russia : Materials of the 19th International Scientific-Technical Conference, 10—12 March 2015]. Ufa, 2015, pp. 90—92. (In Russian)
  11. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V. Teoreticheskie predposylki rascheta privedennogo soprotivleniya teploperedache ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiy [Theoretical Background the Calculation of Reduced Resistance to Heat Transfer of Enclosing Structures]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010, no. 12, pp. 4—12. (In Russian)
  12. Bedov A.I., Balakshin A.S., Voronov A.A. Prichiny avariynykh situatsiy v ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiyakh iz kamennoy kladki mnogosloynykh sistem v mnogoetazhnykh zhilykh zdaniyakh [The Causes of Emergencies in Building Constructions of Stone Clad Systems in High-Rise Residential Buildings]. Stroitel’stvo i rekonstruktsiya [Construction and Reconstruction]. 2014, no. 6 (56), pp. 11—17. (In Russian)
  13. Mirsaev R.N, Babkov V.V., Nedoseko I.V., Yunusova S.S., Pechenkina T.V., Krasnogorov M.I. Opyt proizvodstva i ekspluatatsii gipsovykh stenovykh izdeliy [Experience of Production and Operation of Gypsum Wall Products]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008, no. 3, pp. 78—80. (In Russian)
  14. Nedoseko I.V., Ishmatov F.I., Aliev R.R. Primenenie konstruktsionno-teploizolyatsionnogo keramzitobetona v nesushchikh i ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiyakh zdaniy zhilishchno-grazhdanskogo naznacheniya [Application of Structural Insulating Concrete in Load-Bearing and Enclosing Structures of Buildings of Housing and Civil Purposes]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011, no. 7, pp. 14—17. (In Russian)
  15. Norrie D.H., de Vries G. Vvedenie v metod konechnykh elementov [An Introduction to Finite Element]. Russian translation. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1981, 304 p. (In Russian)
  16. Salov A.S. Raschet optimal’nogo variantnogo secheniya i variantnogo armirovaniya izgibaemogo zhelezobetonnogo elementa po kriteriyu snizheniya materialoemkosti i ratsional’nogo sochetaniya klassov betona i armatury: Svidetel’stvo o gosudarstvennoy registratsii programmy dlya EVM № 2011613598; pravoobladatel’ GOU VPO UGNTU ; zayavl. 21.03.2011 ; zareg. 05.05.2011 [Calculation of Optimal Variant and Variant-Sectional Reinforcement of Flexible Reinforced Concrete Element According to the Criterion of Reducing the Consumption of Materials and a Rational Combination of Classes of Concrete and Reinforcement: the Certificate of State Registration of Computer Programs no. 2011613598; the patent holder GOU VPO UGNTU; registered 05.05.2011]. (In Russian)
  17. Lukashevich A.A. Postroenie i realizatsiya skhem pryamogo metoda konechnykh elementov dlya resheniya kontaktnykh zadach [The Design and Implementation of Schemes of Direct Finite Element Method for the Solution of Contact Problems]. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Stroitel’stvo [News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction]. 2007, no. 12, pp. 18—23. (In Russian)
  18. Shoykhet B.M. Struktura i pronitsaemost’ voloknistykh teploizolyatsionnykh materialov [Structure and Permeability of Fibrous Heat-Insulating Materials]. Tekhnologii stroitel’stva [Technologies of Construction]. 2008, no. 7, pp. 96—98. (In Russian)
  19. Umnyakova N.P., Butovskiy I.N., Chebotarev A.G. Razvitie metodov normirovaniya teplozashchity energoeffektivnykh zdaniy [Development of the Methods for Measurement of Thermal Insulation of Energy Efficient Buildings]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014, no. 7, pp. 19—23. (In Russian)
  20. Khayrullin V.A., Shibirkina M.S. Gosudarstvennoe regulirovanie kachestva konechnoy stroitel’noy produktsii [State Regulation of the Quality of the Final Construction Products]. Evraziyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal [Eurasian Law Journal]. 2014, no. 9 (76), pp. 204—205. (In Russian)
  21. Korchagin P.V. Vybor setki v metode konechnykh elementov dlya rascheta potoka veshchestva cherez granitsu pri reshenii zadachi perenosa [Choice of Mesh in the Finite Element Method to Calculate the Flux of Matter through the Boundary When Solving Transfer Problems]. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Severo-Kavkazskiy region. Seriya: Estestvennye nauki. Prilozhenie [University News. North-Caucasian Region. Natural Sciences Series. Appendix]. 2004, no. S2, pp. 72—74. (In Russian)
  22. Reddy J.N. An Introduction to Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2004, 488 p.
  23. Rombach G.A. Finite Element Design of Concrete Structures : Practical Problems and Their Solutions. London, Thomas Telford Publishing, 2004, 300 p.
  24. Thomas J. R. Hughes. The Finite Element Method: Linear Static and Dynamic Finite Element Analysis. New York, Dover Publications, 2000, 704 p.
  25. Sharafutdinova M.V., Usmanova D.Z., Salov A.S. Monitoring tekhnicheskogo sostoyaniya ekspluatiruemykh ob”ektov, raspolozhennykh vblizi stroitel’noy ploshchadki [Monitoring of Technical State of Operating Facilities Located Near Construction Site]. 63-ya nauchno-tekhnicheskaya konferentsiya studentov, aspirantov i molodykh uchenykh UGNTU : sbornik materialov konferentsii [63-th Scientific and Technical Conference of Students, Postgraduates and Young Scientists of USPTU: Proceedings of the Conference]. Ufa, UGNTU Publ., 2012, book 3, pp. 150—153. (In Russian)
  26. Karanaeva R.Z., Babkov V.V., Kolesnik G.S., Sinitsin D.A. Rabota penopolistirola v sostave teploeffektivnykh naruzhnykh sten zdaniy po sisteme fasadnoy teploizolyatsii [Operation of EPS in the Composition of Thermal Efficient External Walls of Buildings According to the System of Facade Heat Insulation]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2009, no. 8, pp. 26—29. (In Russian)

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COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF DETERMINATION OF PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES of HIGH-HOLLOW ceramic wall products on the basis of modern software systems

Vestnik MGSU 1/2017 Volume 12
  • Bedov Anatoliy Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Reinforced Concrete and Stone Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26, Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Gaysin Askar Miniyarovich - Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Building Structures, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), Office 225, 195, Mendeleeva St., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation.
  • Gabitov Azat Ismagilovich - Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Building Structures, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), Office 225, 195, Mendeleeva St., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation.
  • Kuznetsov Dmitriy Valeryevich - Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Building Structures, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), Office 225, 195, Mendeleeva St., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation.
  • Salov Aleksandr Sergeevich - Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Highways and Technology of Construction Operations, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), Office 225, 195, Mendeleeva St., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation.
  • Abdulatipova Elena Midkhatovna - Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of Department of Technological Machines and Equipment, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU), Office 225, 195, Mendeleeva St., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation.

Pages 17-25

Energy efficiency in construction is the main direction of energy saving in which the basic measure is to reduce heat losses through walling. In this regard, a particularly promising measure is an application of high-hollow multislot ceramic for external walls due to its predictable properties and reliability in operation. Range of high-hollow ceramic products currently manufactured in the Republic of Bashkortostan is considered in the article. Simulation and calculation of strength characteristics of high-hollow ceramic stones in the SCAD program system were performed, fracture model geometric parameters were obtained. Results of mechanical tests of high-hollow ceramic products are shown. The simulation and calculations performed in the SCAD program system with obtaining of geometric parameters of the fracture model made it possible to compare the convergence of calculation results with actual test results. Based on the results of the performed research it is concluded that the fracture model in the SCAD program system has practically coincided with the fracture pattern obtained in the process of experimental study of strength of high-hollow ceramic stones.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.1.17-25

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Substantiation of the simplified method of determining heat losses through underground parts of building enclosures

Vestnik MGSU 1/2016
  • Samarin Oleg Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Heating and Ventilation, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 118-125

Currently, the successful development of construction industry depends on the improved energy performance of buildings, structures and facilities, as well as on the quality assurance of the indoor climate. The approximate calculation of two-dimensional temperature field of the ground outside the underground part of the building is considered using the analytical solution of differential equation of thermal conduction by the method of sources and sinks according to the existing boundary conditions. This problem is a very high-priority task now because of actualization of building standards in Russian Federation and because of the increasing demands to safety and security of heat supply. That’s why it is very important to find a simple but accurate enough dependence for the heat losses through the floor situated on the ground. The results of the estimation of thermal resistance of floor areas on the ground are presented on the basis of the obtained temperature field. The comparison of these results with the regulatory requirements specified in SP 50.13330.2012, and with the data of numerical calculations of other authors using finite difference approximation of the thermal conduction equation with consideration of soil freezing is held. It is shown that the requirements of the SP 50.13330.2012 are physically reasonable, and numerical calculations can also be described by the analytical dependence obtained in this paper with appropriate selection of the numerical coefficients with the preservation of engineering form of the calculation procedure. The obtained model is easy to use in engineering practice especially during preliminary calculations. The presentation is illustrated with numerical and graphical examples.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.1.118-125

References
  1. Samarin O.D. Energeticheskiy balans grazhdanskikh zdaniy i vozmozhnye napravleniya energosberezheniya [Energy Balance of Public Buildings and Possible Ways of Energy Saving]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Residential Construction]. 2012, no. 8, pp. 2—4. (in Russian)
  2. Malyavina E.G. Teplopoteri zdaniya : spravochnoe posobie [Heat Losses of Buildings. Reference Guideline]. Moscow, AVOK-PRESS, 2007, 144 p. (in Russian)
  3. Gindoyan A.G., Grushko V.Ya., Sundukov I.Yu. Issledovanie teplopoter’ cherez poly po gruntu [Research of Heat Losses through Floors on the Ground]. Stroitel’naya fizika v XXI veke : materialy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy konferentsii [Building Physics in the 21st Century : Papers of the Scientific and Technical Conference]. Moscow, NIISF RAASN Publ., 2006,pp. 207—211. (in Russian)
  4. Malyavina E.G., Ivanov D.S. Opredelenie teplopoter’ podzemnoy chasti zdaniya raschetom trekhmernogo temperaturnogo polya grunta [Estimation of Heat Losses of the Underground Part of a Building by Calculating Three-Dimensional Temperature Field of the Soli]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011,no. 11, pp. 209—215. (In Russian)
  5. Malyavina E.G., Ivanov D.S. Raschet trekhmernogo temperaturnogo polya grunta s uchetom promerzaniya pri opredelenii teplopoter’ [Calculation of Three-Dimensional Temperature Field of the Soil in View of Freezing While Estimating Heat Losses]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 371—376. (In Russian)
  6. Parfent’ev N.A., Parfent’eva N.A. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie teplovogo rezhima konstruktsiy pri fazovykh perekhodakh [Mathematical Simulation of the Thermal Regime of Constructions under Phase Transitions]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 320—322. (In Russian)
  7. Lapina N.N., Pushkin V.N. Chislennoe reshenie odnomernoy ploskoy zadachi Stefana [The Numerical Solution of One-Dimensional Planar Stephan’s Problem]. Vestnik DGTU [Vestnik of DSTU. Theoretical and Scientific-Practical Journal of Don State Technical University]. 2010, vol. 10, no. 1 (44), pp. 16—21. (In Russian)
  8. Akimov M.P., Mordovskoy S.D., Starostin N.P. Vozdeystvie podzemnogo truboprovoda teplosnabzheniya na vechnomerzlye grunty Kraynego Severa [The Influence of Buried Heat Supply Pipe on Constantly Frozen Soils of the Extreme North]. Vestnik Severo-Vostochnogo federal’nogo universiteta im. M.K. Ammosova [Vestnik of Yakutsk State University named after M.K. Ammosov]. 2012, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 19—23. (In Russian)
  9. Akimov M.P., Mordovskoy S.D., Starostin N.P. Chislennyy algoritm dlya issledovaniya vliyaniya beskanal’nogo podzemnogo truboprovoda teplosnabzheniya na vechnomerzlye grunty [The Numerical Algorithm for the Research of the Influence of Non-Channel Underground Heat Supply Pipe on Constantly Frozen Soils]. Matematicheskie zametki YaGU [Mathematical Notes of North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk]. 2010, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 125—131. (In Russian)
  10. Gerson Henrique Dos Santos, Nathan Mendes. Combined Heat, Air and Moisture (HAM) Transfer Model for Porous Building Materials. Journal of Building Physics. 2009, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 203—220. DOI: http://www.doi.org/10.1177/1744259108098340.
  11. Halawa E., van Hoof J. The Adaptive Approach to Thermal Comfort: A Critical Overview. Energy and Buildings. 2012, vol. 51, pp. 101—110. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.04.011.
  12. Brunner G. Heat Transfer. Supercritical Fluid Science and Technology. 2014, vol. 5, pp. 228—263.
  13. Horikiri K., Yao Y., Yao J. Modelling Conjugate Flow and Heat Transfer in a Ventilated Room for Indoor Thermal Comfort Assessment. Building and Environment. 2014, vol. 77, pp. 135—147. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.03.027.
  14. Yun Tae Sup, Jeong Yeon Jong, Han Tong-Seok, Youm Kwang-Soo. Evaluation of Thermal Conductivity for Thermally Insulated Concretes. Energy and Buildings. 2013, vol. 61, pp. 125—132. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.01.043.
  15. Dylewski R., Adamczyk J. Economic and Ecological Indicators for Thermal Insulating Building Investments. Energy and Buildings. 2012, no. 54, pp. 88—95. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.07.021.
  16. Lapinskiene Vilune, Paulauskaite Sabina, Motuziene Violeta. The Analysis of the Efficiency of Passive Energy Saving Measures in Office Buildings. Environmental Engineering : Papers of the 8th International Conference. Vilnius, 2011, pp. 769—775.
  17. Duan X., Naterer G.F. Heat Transfer in a Tower Foundation with Ground Surface Insulation and Periodic Freezing and Thawing. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 2010, vol. 53, no. 11—12, pp. 2369—2376. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2010.02.003.
  18. Zukowski M., Sadowska B., Sarosiek W. Assessment of the Cooling Potential of an Earth-Tube Heat Exchanger in Residential Buildings. Environmental Engineering : Pap. of the 8th International Conference. May 19—20. 2011, Vilnius. Lithuania, vol. 2, pp. 830—834.
  19. Miseviciute V., Martinaitis V. Analysis of Ventilation System’s Heat Exchangers Integration Possibilities for Heating Season. Environmental engineering : Pap. of 8th Conf. of VGTU. 2011, vol. 2, pp. 781—787.
  20. Samarin O.D. Raschet temperatury na vnutrenney poverkhnosti naruzhnogo ugla zdaniya s sovremennym urovnem teplozashchity [Calculation of Temperature in the Internal Surface of the External Corner of a Building with Modern Level of Thermal Protection]. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Stroitel’stvo [News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction]. 2005, no. 8, pp. 52—56. (in Russian)

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Control of thermal resistance of building envelopes according to heat comfort in a premise

Vestnik MGSU 2/2016
  • Perekhozhentsev Anatoliy Georgievich - Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (VSUACE) Doctor of technical sciences, Honorary Figure of Russian Higher Education, member, the Union of Architects of Russia, Professor, chair, Department of the Architecture of Buildings and Structures, Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (VSUACE), 1 Akademicheskaya str., 400074, Volgograd, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 173-185

Setting standards of thermal resistance of building envelopes is a current task related with energy saving and energy efficiency of building envelopes. The problem of choosing the factor determining the standard thermal resistance also stays current even after updating of the Construction Norms. The author consider the concept of norming the thermal resistance of building envelope, in which the temperature of the inner surface of a building envelope providing comfortable temperature conditions in premises. The main task of an architect, who is designing an energy efficient building envelope is providing comfortable conditions in premises both in cold and warm periods of the year. The temperature of the inner surface of building envelopes should be included into the construction norms as the main criterion providing comfortable air temperature in premises.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.2.173-185

References
  1. Gagarin V.G. O nedostatochnoy obosnovannosti povyshennykh trebovaniy k teplozashchite naruzhnykh sten zdaniy [On the Lack up Inadequate Rationale of the Raised Requirements to the Thermal Protection of the Outside Walls of the Buildings]. Problemy stroitel’noy teplofiziki sistem mikroklimata i energosberezheniya v zdaniyakh : sbornik dokladov 3-y nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii (23—25 aprelya 1998 g.) [Problems of Construction Thermal Physics of Microclimate Systems and Energy Saving in Buildings : Collection of Reports of the 3rd Science and Practice Conference (April 23—25, 1998)]. Moscow, GASNTI Publ., 1998, pp. 69—94. (In Russian)
  2. Brodach M.M. VIIKKI — novyy vzglyad na energosberezhenie [VIIKKI — New View on Energy Saving]. AVOK : Ventilyatsiya, otoplenie, konditsionirovanie vozdukha, teplosnabzhenie i stroitel’naya teplofizika [AVOK : Ventilation, Heating, Air Conditioning, Heat Supply and Construction Thermal Physics]. 2002, no. 6, pp. 14—20. (In Russian)
  3. Prokhorov V.I. Oblik energosberezheniya. Aktual’nye problemy stroitel’noy teplofiziki [The Concept of Energy Saving. Current Problems of Construction Thermal Physics]. Akademicheskie chteniya : sbornik dokladov 7-y nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii (18—20 aprelya 2002 g.) [Academic Readings : Collection of the Reports of the 7th Science and Practice Conference (April 18—20, 2002)]. Moscow, 2002, pp. 73—93. (In Russian)
  4. Uvarov A.V., Stavtsev D.A., Kuznetsov D.I. Problemy ekonomii tepla v sisteme ZhKKh [Problems of Heat Saving in Housing and Utilities Infrastructure]. Stroitel’naya fizika v XXI veke : materialy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy konferentsii [Construction Physics in the 21st Century : Materials of Science and Technical Conference]. Moscow, NIISF RAASN Publ., 2006, pp. 212—216. (In Russian)
  5. Gorshkov A.S., Livchak V.I. Istoriya, evolyutsiya i razvitie normativnykh trebovaniy k ograzhdayushchim konstruktsiyam [History, Evolution and Development of the Requirements to Building Envelopes]. Stroitel’stvo unikal’nykh zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Construction of Unique Buildings and Structures]. 2015, no. 3 (30), pp. 7—37. (In Russian)
  6. Energeticheskaya strategiya Rossii na period do 2020 goda [Energy Strategy of Russia for the Period up to 2020]. Moscow, GUIES ; Energiya Publ., 2003, 135 p. (In Russian)
  7. Banhidi L. Teplovoy mikroklimat pomeshcheniy : raschet komfortnykh parametrov po teplooshchushcheniyam cheloveka [Thermal Microclimate of Premises. Calculus of the Comfort Parameters of Human Thermal Feelings]. Translated from English. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1981, 248 p. (In Russian)
  8. Fanger P.O. Thermal Comfort. McGrowHill, 1970, 244 p.
  9. SanPiN 2.1.2.2645-10. Sanitarno-epidemiologicheskie trebovaniya k usloviyam prozhivaniya v zhilykh zdaniyakh i pomeshcheniyakh. Sanitarno-epidemiologicheskie pravila i normativy [Sanitary Rules and Regulations SanPiN 2.1.2.2645-10. Sanitary Epidemiologic Requirements to the Living Conditions in Residential Buildings and Premises. Sanitary Epidemiologic Rules and Norms]. (In Russian)
  10. Andrskevicius R., Bielinskis F. Investigation of Temperature Variations in Heated Rooms. Pap. of 4th conf. of VGTU. 2000, pp. 215—222.
  11. Keller B., Magyari E. A Simple Calculation Method of General Validity for the Design-Parameters of a Room/Building, Minimizing Its Energy and Power Demand for Heating and Cooling in a Given Climate. Zurich, 1998, 57 p.
  12. Samarin O.D. Teplofizika. Energosberezhenie. Energoeffektivnost’ [Thermal Physics. Energy Saving. Energy Efficuency]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2009, 292 p. (Biblioteka nauchnykh proektov i razrabotok MGSU) [Library of Scientific Projects and Developments of MGSU]. (In Russian)
  13. Perekhozhentsev A.G. Metodika rascheta raspredeleniya temperatury v mnogosloynykh ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiyakh zdaniy s uchetom vliyaniya infil’tratsii kholodnogo vozdukha [Methods of Calculating Temperature Distributions in Multilayered Enveloping Structures of Buildings with Account for the Influence of Cold Air Infiltration]. Teoreticheskie osnovy teplosnabzheniya i ventilyatsii : materialy 2-oy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy konferentsii [Theoretical Foundations of Heat Supply and Ventilation : Materials of the 2nd International Science and Technical Conference]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2007. (In Russian)
  14. Jaraminieme E., Juodis E. The Discrepancy between Design Heat Demand and Actual Heat Consumption Due To Air Infiltration. Pap. of Conf. of VGTU. 2008, vol. II, pp. 804—809.
  15. Zhukov A.N. Vliyanie klimaticheskikh osobennostey Volgogradskoy oblasti na temperaturnyy rezhim sovmeshchennykh pokrytiy zdaniy [Influence of the Climatic Features of Volgograd Region on the Temperature Regime of Combined Building Shells]. Tekhnicheskie nauki — ot teorii k praktike : materialy XII Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii (30 iyulya 2012 g.) [Technical Sciences — from Theory to Practice : Materials of the 12th International Science and Practical Conference (July 30, 2012)]. Novosibirsk, 2012, pp. 67—70. (In Russian)
  16. Fokin K.F. Stroitel’naya teplotekhnika ograzhdayushchikh chastey zdaniy [Construction Heat Engineering of Building Envelopes]. 5th edition, revised. Moscow, AVOK-Press Publ., 2006, 250 p. (Tekhnicheskaya biblioteka NP «AVOK») [Technical Library of “AVOK”] (In Russian)
  17. Ramanauskas R. Efficient Use of Rotary Heat Exchangers. Pap. of REHVA’S General Assembly. 2004, pp. 360—366.
  18. GOST 30494—96. Zdaniya zhilye i obshchestvennye. Parametry mikroklimata v pomeshcheniyakh [Russian State Standard GOST 30494—96. Residential and Public Buildings. Microclimatic Parameters in Premises]. Moscow, MNTKS Publ., 1996, 23 p. (In Russian)
  19. Blazi V. Spravochnik proektirovshchika. Stroitel’naya fizika [Reference Book of a Designer. Structural Physics]. Translated from German. Moscow, Tekhnosfera Publ., 2005, 535 p. (Mir stroitel’stva) [The World of Construction] (In Russian)
  20. Petras D., Matej P. The Optimization of the Heat Pump Operation in Low-Temperature Heating Systems. Pap. of REHVA’S General Assembly. 2004, pp. 346—351.
  21. Belyaev N.V., Fursov V.V. O raznoobrazii prichin obrazovaniya povrezhdeniy nesushchikh ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiy [On the Diversity of the Reasons of Damages of Bearing Enveloping Structures]. Vestnik SibADI [SibADI Journal]. 2013, no. 5 (33), pp. 45—51. (In Russian)
  22. Energetika i energosberezhenie: polozhenie na segodnyashniy den’ i puti dal’neyshego razvitiya [Energy Industry and Energy Saving: the Present-Day State and Ways of Future Development]. Energoeffektivnost’: opyt, problemy, resheniya [Energy Efficiency: Experience, Problems, Solutions]. 2007, no. 1—2, pp. 79—94. (In Russian)

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Investigation of rational types of light concrete for external walls in conditions of hot climate

Vestnik MGSU 10/2018 Volume 13
  • Hoshim R. Ruziev - Bukhara Engineering Technology Institute , Bukhara Engineering Technology Institute, 15 K. Murtazaev st., Bukhara, 200100, Uzbekistan.

Pages 1211-1219

Introduction. The paper presents theoretical and experimental studies of the improvement of the structure of lightweight concrete, which provides the maximum value of the attenuation of the amplitude of external air temperature fluctuations during the passage of heat flow through the walls and the reduction of thermal conductivity, the results of the 3-factor experiment on determining the rational structure of claydite concrete and the methods for their processing. To determine the purposeful structure of the composition of lightweight concrete and its thermal conductivity, a complex of research works was carried out at the Central Research Institute for Housing, applied to lightweight concrete for exterior walls. The main optimization criterion was the maximum reduction in thermal conductivity while providing the necessary strength, durability and waterproofness. The purpose of this work is theoretical research and experimental substantiation of methods for improving the structure of lightweight concrete used for a hot climate with improved functional performance. Materials and methods. As material a claydite gravel with bulk density p = 400 kg/m3 of Lianozovsky plant (Moscow) was used, at a ratio of 40 % of the fraction 5-10 mm and 60 % of the fraction 10-20 mm and a Portland cement of the brand “400” of the Voskresensky plant, not plasticized. The water flow rate was varied for 10 seconds, to ensure the mixture to be vibropacked.As a foam generating agent and plasticizer, the “Saponified wood resin” (SDO) was used in a 5 % aqueous solution. The methods were adopted in accordance with the Recommendation on the technology of factory production and quality control of lightweight concrete and large-panel constructions of residential buildings. M. CNIIEP dwelling, 1980. In the department of the lightweight concrete application at CNIIEP of dwelling, a method for the purposeful formation of the structure and composition of lightweight concrete, which provides a set of physic-technical, technological and technical-economic requirements, was developed. Results. Calculations are reduced to obtaining mathematical models of dependence of strength R, density ρ, thermai conductivity λ and other indicators of concrete characteristics from initial factors in the form of regression equations. Based on the equations obtained, it was possible to determine the expedient composition of lightweight concrete, which, in combination with the operational characteristics, provides comparable results of the technical and economic characteristics of a single-layer structure from the projected type of lightweight concrete. Conclusions. 1. An improved composition of the structural and heat insulating lightweight concrete for the load-bearing part of the structure, providing its high thermal stability by chemical additives and low consumption of porous sand, was developed. An algorithm for selecting its composition on computer is made. 2. The conducted researches in the field of design of external enclosing structures for hot climate conditions have shown that: single-layer exterior wall constructions with massiveness of D ≤ 4 provide minimum allowable values of heat flux attenuation and temperature fluctuation amplitude on the inner wall surface.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.10.1211-1219

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