Reliable and adequateengineering surveys for construction: the rule of two D

Vestnik MGSU 1/2014
  • Rakitina Natal'ya Nikolaevna - Mosgorgeotrest geologist, Geologic Supervi- sion Services, Mosgorgeotrest, 11 Leningradskiy Prospekt, Moscow, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 90-97

In the article the current state of quality supply of engineering surveys for construction is discussed. The main criteria for improving the design quality of buildings and structures for industrial, civil and other purposes is the reliability and adequacy of the results of engineering-geological surveys. The authors show the examples of inadequate study of engineering-geological conditions in the design of structures that led to emergency situations. Consideration of the reasons of accidents in structures showed that they are caused by lack of research conducted, the underestimation of the complexity of geological conditions. In the process of conducting geotechnical investigations the works were focused directly in the enclosure of a designed building, and the features of geological and hydrogeological conditions of the off-site were much more complex. In the process of construction during the sinking of the pit activation suffusion processes occurred, which led to an accident. Underestimation of the use of these geological funds in this example shows that even in the presence of fund materials, which are currently almost not increased, errors may occur due to the notorious savings for research. The requirements to ensuring the reliability and adequacy of engineering-geological surveys, which the authors call "The Rule of two D" (in Russian — Reliability and Adequacy), lie in the existing legal acts. The practice of fulfilling requirements to a large extend shows that the desire to save money at the stage of design and exploration works results in additional costs for additional design, recovery from accidents and works on a new project. The authors critically evaluated the development of engineering and geotechnical engineering instead of geological survey, which is not methodologically and theoretically substantiated and leads to the excluding from engineering surveys the consideration of the off-site geotechnical conditions directly below the designed structure. The authors give the recommendations for improving the examination quality of the results of surveys and recommendations on obligatory increase of geological funds.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.1.90-97

References
  1. Osipov V.I., Medvedev O.P., editors. Moskva. Geologiya i gorod [Moscow. Geology and the City]. Moscow, Moskovskie uchebniki i kartolitografiya Publ., 1997, 400 p.
  2. Platov N.A., Potapov A.D., Lavrova N.A., Potapov I.A., Kalashnikov M.A. Inzhenernogeologicheskie izyskaniya v slozhnykh usloviyakh [Geotechnical Investigations in Complicated Conditions]. Moscow, MGSU Publ, 2011, 130 p.
  3. Bryukhan' A.F., Bryukhan' F.F., Potapov A.D. Inzhenerno-ekologicheskie izyskaniya dlya stroitel'stva TES [Engineering and Ecological Studies for the Construction of Thermal Power Plants]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2008, 193 p.
  4. Potapov A.D. Geotekhnika, est' li povod dlya diskussii [Geotechnics, is There a Reason for Debate]. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. 2009, no. 11, pp. 15—19.
  5. Kashperyuk P.I., Potapov A.D. Predmet geotekhniki — osnovaniya sooruzheniy?! [Is the Base of Structures the Subject of Geotechnics?!]. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. 2010, no. 1, pp. 12—15.
  6. Kalashnikov M.A., Kashperyuk P.I., Potapov I.A., Khomenko V.P., Potapov A.D. K voprosu o neobkhodimosti modernizatsii normativnykh dokumentov po inzhenerno-geologicheskim izyskaniyam v rayonakh rasprostraneniya karstovykh i suffozionnykh protsessov [On the Question of the Need of Normative Documents Modernization on Engineering and Geological Surveys in the Areas of Karst and Suffusion Processes]. Inzhenernye izyskaniya [Engineering Surveys]. 2010, no. 10, pp. 8—10.
  7. Ziangirov R.S., Potapov A.D. Eshche raz o pravil'nom ponimanii terminov «geotekhnika» i «inzhenerno-geotekhnicheskie izyskaniya» [Once More on the Correct Definition of the Terms "Geotechnics" and "Engineering and Geotechnical Surveys]. Inzhenernye izyskaniya [Engineering Surveys]. 2012, no. 9, pp. 9—12.

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EVALUATION OF SUBSOIL RESOURCES, LAND RESOURCES AND SOILS IN THE COURSE OF ENGINEERING AND ECOLOGICAL SURVEYS AT THE DESIGN STAGE OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

Vestnik MGSU 2/2012
  • Platov Nikolaj Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Jaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Academic Secretary of the Academic Council 8 (499) 183-15-87, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Jaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Lavrusevich Andrej Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Associated Professor, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Jaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Lavrova Natal'ja Mihajlovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) postgraduate student, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Jaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kurbatova Anna Sergeevna - Urban Environment Research and Design Institute - UERDI Doctor of Geographical Sciences, Professor, Deputy Director, Urban Environment Research and Design Institute - UERDI, Building 1, 19 Bol'shoj Suharevskij pereulok, 127051, Moscow, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 77 - 83

Effective environmental legislative acts, industrial regulations and Construction Standards and Norms do not comprise a consistent system governing rational use of natural resources. Inconsistency of regulatory acts, unavailability of a single approach or a methodological background backing the development of new and the update of effective regulatory documents causes inconsistency of engineering and ecological information. The inconsistency prevents any competent application and correlation of the information about the condition and properties of the ground and soils. The main objective of an engineering survey is the supply of trustworthy information to teams of designers. The quality of the engineering and ecological information stands behind the safety of buildings and structures. The quality of any environment-related information and data concerning any environmental protection measures is consequent to the quality of regulatory documents. In addition to their role in the built environment, resources of the lithosphere serve as the basis for the development of almost all branches of industry and other types of human activities. Effective legal and regulatory documents ignore the fact that subsoil resources serve as the material and physical basis of the living environment on Earth. Foundations of the Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics on Subsoil Resources served as the basis for their protection. The successor legislation includes in excess of 40 regulatory documents that govern the extraction of natural resources and losses that accompany the exploitation of their deposits. The principal acts include the Unified Rules Governing Protection of Subsoil Resources in the course of Development of Deposits of Solid Mineral Resources (1985) and other acts approved by the Principal State Technical Supervision Committee; the above Unified Rules have not undergone any substantial changes since the days of the USSR. The exception is the Subsoil Resources Law, although it has no state standards of protection of natural resources. The paper argues that an integrated approach is required to assure the protection of subsoil resources by taking account of diverse features of subsoil resources, land resources and soils.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.2.77 - 83

References
  1. Platov N.A. Osnovy inzhenernoj geologii [Engineering Geology Foundations]. Moscow, INFRA, 2011, 126 p.
  2. Platov N.A., Potapov A.N., Lavrova N.A. and others. Inzhenerno-geologicheskie izyskanija v slozhnyh uslovijah [Engineering and Geological Surveys in the Complex Environment]. 2011, 130 p.
  3. Osnovy zakonodatel'stva Sojuza SSR i sojuznyh respublik o nedrah. Iz zakona Sojuza Sovetskih Respublik, 9 ijulja 1975 g. Ob ohrane okruzhajuschej sredy [Foundations of the Subsoil Legislation of the Union of SSR and the Union Republics. Extract from the Law of Soviet Republics, July 09, 1975 On the Protection of the Environment]. Moscow, Politehnicheskaja literatura, 1979.
  4. Edinye pravila ohrany nedr pri razrabotke mestorozhdenij tverdyh poleznyh iskopaemyh [Unified Rules of Protection of Subsoils in the Course of Development of Deposits of Hard Natural Resources]. Moscow, Gosgortehnadzor SSSR, 1985.
  5. SN 522—79. Instrukcija po proektirovaniju, stroitel'stvu i jekspluatacii gidrotehnicheskih sooruzhenij na podrabatyvaemyh gornymi rabotami territorijah [SN 522-79. Instructions for Designing, Construction and Operation of Hydraulic Structures in the Areas of Mining Operations]. Moscow, Gosstroj SSSR, 1979.
  6. SNiP 2.06.14—85. Zaschita gornyh vyrabotok ot podzemnyh i poverhnostnyh vod [Construction Norms and Rules 2.06.14-85. Protection of Mine Openings from Subterranean and Surface Waters]. Moscow, CITP Gosstroja SSSR, 1985. Update 2008-10-01.
  7. SNiP II-94—80. Podzemnye gornye vyrabotki [Construction Norms and Rules II-94-80. Subterranean Mining Openings]. Moscow, Strojizdat, 1982.
  8. SNiP 2.06.15—85. Inzhenernaja zaschita territorii ot zatoplenija i podtoplenija [Construction Norms and Rules 2.06.15—85. Engineering Protection of Territories from Flooding and Impoundment]. Moscow, Gosstroj SSSR, 1986.
  9. GOST 17.0.01—76 (ST SJeV 1364—78). Sistema standartov v oblasti ohrany pri-rody i uluchshenija ispol'zovanija prirodnyh resursov. Osnovnye polozhenija [State Standard 17.0.01-76 (Standard of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance 1364-78). System of Standards of Nature Protection and Improvement of Use of Natural Resources]. Moscow, izdatelstvo Standartov, 1979.
  10. GOST 17.5.1.01—83 (ST SJeV 3848—82). Sistema standartov v oblasti ohrany prirody i uluchshenija ispol'zovanija prirodnyh resursov. Osnovnye polozhenija [State Standard 17.5.1.01—83 (Standard of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance 3848—82). Reclaiming of Lands. Terms and Definitions]. Moscow, izdatelstvo Standartov, 2002.
  11. Lavrusevich A.A. Nekotorye osobennosti inzhenerno-geologicheskih izyskanij na territorijah porazhennyh lessovympsevdokarstom [Some Peculiarities of Engineering and Geological Surveys of Areas Affected by Loessial Pseudokarst]. Inzhenernye izyskanija, 2010, Issue # 10, pp. 20—23.

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Geological background of the estimation of natural stresses in soil body

Vestnik MGSU 1/2015
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 44-53

Initial and boundary conditions are always given for solving the problem of calculating the interaction of tunnels and other underground structures with soil and rocks. The same conditions are set for calculating the surface buildings. These initial data for calculation are divided into three groups: 1) the geometrical shape of the layers of rocks (geological structure); 2) the parameters of the strength and compressibility of rocks; 3) compressive stresses in the array. These data all over the world are set with engineering surveys. In engineering surveys there are good methods of determining the source of the data 1 and 2. But there is no available methodology for determining the natural stress state. Therefore, compressive and tensile stresses are usually determined by mathematical modeling. The calculation of the compressive stresses is done on the basis of the following hypotheses: compressive stresses are created by the weight of rocks; they go down in proportion to the density of rocks; the main normal stress is has a vertical direction; normal stress in horizontal direction is smaller. The value of the horizontal stress is was calculated using Poisson’s ratio. This hypothesis of the nineteenth century was used another 50 years ago, when it was not known exactly about the movement of the continents and when compressive stresses in the earth’s crust have not yet been measured. Today a universal application of this hypothesis is not correct. Now the application of this hypothesis in many cases is not correct. In this research paper an attempt is made to specify the area, in which the above hypothesis can be used. This is done on the basis of current scientific evidence. Abroad this way of calculating tunnels and other underground structures and bases of buildings should be done taking into account the real field of natural stresses. The geological characteristics of the location of the axes of stresses in soil body are based on the study of fractures. Also the article shows the influence of the surface topography of the territory on stress in soil. In order to draw conclusions the author uses his observations of the construction in Siberia and Mongolia, as well as publications of other scientists. The author notes that in engineering surveys for construction of tunnels, high-rise dams, high rise buildings there is no good method of determining the natural stresses in rocks and soils, which is equal in accuracy to the methods of construction of geological sections and methods for determining the estimated characteristics of the soil. This gap needs to be filled. The possible direction of work is: to combine the methods of direct measurements of compressive stresses with indirect geophysical methods and computer modeling.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.1.44-53

References
  1. Suppe J. Fluid Overpressures and Strength of the Sedimentary Upper Crust. Journal of Structural Geology. December 2014, vol. 69, part B, pp. 481—492. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2014.07.009.
  2. Nesterenko G.T., Barkovskiy V.M. O vozmozhnosti otsenki napryazhennogo sostoyaniya zemnoy kory po naturnym izmereniyam napryazheniy v shakhtakh i rudnikakh [On the Possibility of Estimating the Stress State of the Crust in Situ Measurements of Stress in Mines]. Napryazhennoe sostoyanie zemnoy kory : sbornik trudov [Stress State of the Earth Crust : Collection of Works]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1973, pp. 12—20. (In Russian)
  3. Kutepov V.M. Zakonomernosti v raspredelenii estestvennykh napryazheniy v massivakh skal’nykh treshchinovatykh porod sklonov rechnykh dolin [Regularities in the Distribution of Natural Stresses in the Hard Fractured Rocks of the Slopes of River Valleys]. Napryazhennoe sostoyanie zemnoy kory : sbornik trudov [Stress State of the Earth Crust : Collection of Works]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1973, pp. 135—147. (In Russian)
  4. Kropotkin P.N. Tektonicheskie napryazheniya v zemnoy kore po dannym neposredstvennykh izmereniy [Tectonic Stresses in the Earth’s Crust According to Direct Measurements]. Napryazhennoe sostoyanie zemnoy kory : sbornik trudov [Stress State of the Earth Crust : Collection of Works]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1973, pp. 21—31. (In Russian)
  5. Pashkin E.M., Kagan A.A., Krivonogova N.F. Terminologicheskiy slovar’-spravochnik po inzhenernoy geologii [Terminological Dictionary on Engineering Geology]. Moscow, KDU Publ., 2011, 950 p. (In Russian)
  6. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Akhpatelov D.M. Napryazhennoe sostoyanie gornykh massivov v pole gravitatsii [Stress State of Mountain Ranges in the Field of Gravity]. DAN SSSR [Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences]. 1975, vol. 220, no. 2, pp. 1675—1679. (In Russian)
  7. Kalinin E.V., Panas’yan L.L., Shirokov V.N., Artamonova N.B. Modelirovanie poley napryazheniy v inzhenerno-geologicheskikh massivakh [Modeling Stress Fields in Engineering Geological Bodies]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 2003, 261 p. (In Russian)
  8. Wan Guillong. Modeling Field Tectonic Stresses the East Wing Tectonic Belt Badahan in Northern China Tektonic Era. Dixue gionyuan = Earth Sci. Front. 2012, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 194—199. Chinese. CV Eng.
  9. Xia C., Gui Y., Wang W., Du S. Numerical Method for Estimating Void Spaces of Rock Joints and the Evolution of Void Spaces under Different Contact States. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering. December 2014, vol. 11, no. 6, article number 065004. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-2132/11/6/065004.
  10. Osipov V.I., Medvedev O.P., editors. Moskva. Geologiya i gorod [Geology and a City]. Moscow, Moskovskie uchebniki i kartolitografiya Publ., 1997, 400 p. (In Russian)
  11. Chernyshev S.N. Treshchiny gornykh porod [Rock Fractures]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1983, 240 p. (In Russian)
  12. Chernyshev S.N., Dearman W.R. Rock Fractures. Butterworth-Heinemann, London, UK, 1991, 272 p.
  13. Haines S., Marone C., Saffer D. Frictional Properties of Low-Angle Normal Fault Gouges and Implications for Low-Angle Normal Fault Slip. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. December 2014, vol. 408, pp. 57—65. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.09.034.
  14. Konyarova L.P. Opyt obobshcheniya massovykh opredeleniy pokazateley vodopronitsaemosti treshchinovatykh skal’nykh porod [Statistical Summary of Mass Estimations of the Permeability of Fractured Rocks]. Inzhenerno-geologicheskie svoystva gornykh porod i metody ikh izucheniya : sbornik trudov [Engineering and Geological Properties of Rocks and Methods of Their Research : Collection of Works]. Moscow, AN SSSR Publ., 1962. (In Russian)
  15. Beloyy L.D., editor. Otsenka tochnosti opredeleniya vodopronitsaemosti gornykh porod [Estimating Determination Accuracy of Rock Permeability]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1971, 150 p. (In Russian)

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Improving the efficiency of urban planning activity as a result of implementing working plans of build-up areas

Vestnik MGSU 2/2016
  • Zhukhovitskiy Grigoriy Mikhaylovich - LLC Company Credo-Dialogue full member, International Transport Academy, Honorary Road Builder of CIS, chairman, Department of Information Technologies in the Construction and Territorial Management of the Federal Intersectoral Board of All-Russian Public Organization “Business Russia”, Chairman of the Management Board, LLC Company Credo-Dialogue, 71-8 Izmaylovskoe shosse, Moscow, 105187, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Karpov Aleksandr Aleksandrovich - LLC Company Credo-Dialogue Development Director, development manager of the software CREDO of engineering-geological aim, LLC Company Credo-Dialogue, 71-8 Izmaylovskoe shosse, Moscow, 105187, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 186-193

In the process of state structure transformation in the Russian Federation in 1990-2010s the legal base was greatly changed. In the process of these changes the issues of topographic plans of the territories indented for building and inter-settlement territories were almost withdrawn from legal and normative-technical regulation. As a result the legal status of city geological services and the accumulated materials the same as the whole activity on topographic plans’ maintenance is now out of the unified legal and normative framework. At the same time old technologies of creating and updating topographic plans is now beneath criticism in terms of effectiveness and quality of the obtained results. The authors consider the problem of creating, updating and use of topographic plans of urban settlements. Brief historical background of the topic is given, the existing information technologies and suggestions on the changes in the regulatory framework of urban development activity are described.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.2.186-193

References
  1. Vasil’ev I.V., Korobov A.V., Pobedinskiy G.G., Pridankin A.B. Topografo-geodezicheskoe i kartograficheskoe obespechenie Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Sostoyanie i perspektivy razvitiya otrasli geodezii i kartografii [Topographic-Geodesic and Cartographic Support of the Russian Federation. State and Development Prospects of the Geodetic Branch and Cartography]. Geodeziya i kartografiya [Geodesy and Cartography]. 2014, no. 12, pp. 2—11. (In Russian)
  2. Kontseptsiya razvitiya otrasli geodezii i kartografii do 2020 g. Utverzhdena Rasporyazheniem Pravitel’stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 17.12.2010 g. № 2378-r [The Concept of Geodesy and Cartography Development up to 2020. Approved by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation from 17.12.2010 g. № 2378-r]. (In Russian)
  3. Brovko E.A. Gosudarstvennyy topograficheskiy monitoring: sovremennoe reshenie problemy aktualizatsii prostranstvennykh dannykh [State Topographic Monitoring: Modern Solution to the Problem of Updating Spatial Data]. Geodeziya i kartografiya [Geodesy and Cartography]. 2012, no. 2, pp. 38—46. (In Russian)
  4. Lamert D.A., Portnov A.M. Sovremennye zadachi gosudarstvennogo geodezicheskogo nadzora v strukture territorial’nykh organov Rosreestra [Contemporary Tasks of State Geodesic Control in the Structure of Territorial Bodies of Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography]. Interekspo Geo-Sibir’ : sbornik statey po materialam Mezhdunarodnogo nauchnogo kongressa [Interexpo Geo-Siberia : Collection of the Articles of the International Scientific Congress]. Novosibirsk, 2011, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 11—16. (In Russian)
  5. Obidenko V.I., Nefedov S.N. Avtomatizatsiya deyatel’nosti territorial’nykh organov gosudarstvennogo geodezicheskogo nadzora. Na puti k postroeniyu informatsionnogo obshchestva [Automation of Territorial Bodies’ Activity of the State Geodesic Control. On the Way to Building Information Society]. Geodeziya i kartografiya [Geodesy and Cartography]. 2009, no. 9, pp. 51—57. (In Russian)
  6. Novoselov D.B., Zvyagintsev E.A. Sozdanie i vedenie tsifrovogo dezhurnogo plana territoriy promyshlennykh predpriyatiy [Creation and Maintenance of Digital Working Plan of Industrial Enterprises’ Territories]. Interekspo Geo-Sibir’ : sbornik statey po materialam Mezhdunarodnogo nauchnogo kongressa [Interexpo Geo-Siberia : Collection of the Articles of the International Scientific Congress]. Novosibirsk, 2012, vol. 1, no. 1—2, pp. 37—41. (In Russian)
  7. Kolobov R.V. Novye tekhnologii vedeniya dezhurnogo plana goroda [New Technologies of Keeping Working City Plan]. Stroykompleks Srednego Urala [Stroykomplex of Middle Ural]. 2010, no. 12 (December). (In Russian)
  8. Silyakova L.V. Tekhnologiya vedeniya tsifrovogo topograficheskogo plana Nizhnego Novgoroda [Technology of Keeping Digital Topographic Plan of Nizhny Novgorod]. Avtomatizirovannye tekhnologii izyskaniy i proektirovaniya [Automated Technologies of Research and Design]. 2011, no. 4 (43), pp. 65—68. (In Russian)
  9. Kontseptsiya sozdaniya i vedeniya topografo-geodezicheskogo monitoringa territoriy poseleniy [Concept of Creating and Maintaining Topographic-Geodesic Monitoring of the Territories of Settlements]. Geoprofi [Geoprofi]. 2013, no. 2, pp. 10—14. (In Russian)

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