ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

RECONSTRUCTION OF MOSCOW AFTER THE 1812 FIRE OF MOSCOW: NEW LOOK OF THE CITY

Vestnik MGSU 6/2012
  • Molokova Tat'yana Alekseevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Lecturer, Chair, Department of History and Culturology, +7 (499) 183-21-29, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

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considered in the article. The author analyzes the influence of the 1812 Patriotic War on the political and cultural life of Russia, as there had been a rise of national consciousness in Russia in the first decades of the 19th century related to the victory over Napoleon. The author drives particular attention to the historic fact that Moscow suffered a lot more than other Russian cities in the War of 1812; the city was completely destroyed by the fire. The author provides statistical data related to the city as of the autumn of 1812. Moscow reconstruction plan proposed by Mr. Gestle, architect, and the procedure of "Commissioning of Structures", drafted under the guidance of O.I. Bove, architect, are analyzed in detail. The author also covers the personal contribution made by O.I. Bove, his associates D.I. Zhilyardi and A.G. Grigor'ev, into the reconstruction of the city centre.
The article features the town-planning policy of 1820-1830 and patterns of late classicism in the Moscow architecture.
The article is dedicated to the year of the Russian history and one of its major events, the anniversary of the victory in the Patriotic War of 1812.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.6.17 - 22

References
  1. Gol’denberg P.I. Staraya Moskva [Old Moscow]. Moscow, Publishing House of the USSR Academy of Architecture, 1947, p. 57.
  2. Pokrovskaya Z.K. Osip Bove [Osip Bove]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1999, p. 103.
  3. Almazova N.M., Molokova T.A., Frolov V.P., Pavlinov V.V. Pamyatniki arkhitektury. Inzhenernye obsledovaniya [Architectural Monuments. Engineering Examinations]. Moscow, ASV Publ., no. 1, 2003, p. 89.
  4. Sytin P.V. Iz istorii moskovskikh ulits [Abstracts from the History of Moscow Streets]. Moskovskiy Rabochiy Publ., 1958, p. 110.
  5. Budylina M.V. Planirovka i zastroyka Moskvy posle pozhara 1812 goda [Planning and Building of Moscow after the Fire of 1812]. Moscow, Arhitekturnoe Nasledstvo [Architectural Heritage]. Gosstroyizdat Publ., 1951, no. 1, p. 157.
  6. Ikonnikov A.V. Tysyacha let russkoy arkhitektury [One Thousand Years of Russian Architecture]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1990, p. 311.

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MONUMENTS TO THE PATRIOTIC WAR OF 1812

Vestnik MGSU 6/2012
  • Frolov Vladimir Pavlovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

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The article covers a relevant historical and cultural problem of elaboration and maintenance of monuments of the military glory of 1812. The author considers various architectural and sculptural monuments illustrating heroic events of Patriotic war of 1812, built in the two Russian capitals - Moscow and Saint Petersburg in different historical periods, and also in primordial Russian towns, such as Smolensk, Vyazma, and Maloyaroslavets. Architectural and composition-related features of this or that monument erected against the background of historic events of the war of 1812 are analyzed in detail. The author demonstrates the links between architecture and sculpture within the framework of town-planning solutions implemented in the pieces that have found their places in the towns enlisted above.
The value of symbols of the Victory and Glory of the Russian army and the Russian people is marked. The names of the most famous heroes of this war, starting from a field marshal and ending with a soldier are inscribed.
By addressing the historical and cultural heritage of Russia, the author informs readers about the most significant events of the war. The author mentions an acute problem of the modernity, that is, preservation and restoration of monuments, and shares his view point.
The value of the historic and cultural heritage of Russia for military and patriotic education is emphasized. The article is prepared within the framework of the year of the Russian history.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.6.23 - 28

References
  1. Smirnov A.A. Moskva – geroyam 1812 goda [Moscow Contribution Addressed to the Heroes of 1812]. Moscow, Moskovskiy Rabochiy Publ., 1977, p. 148.
  2. Molokova T.A., Frolov V.P. Pamyatniki kul’tury Moskvy: iz proshlogo v budushchee [Monuments of Culture of Moscow: from the Past into the Future]. Moscow, ASV Publ., p. 85.
  3. Ashik V.A. Pamyatniki i medali v pamjyat’ boevyh podvigov russkoy armii 1812 g. [Monuments and Medals Commemorating the Fighting Feats of the Russian Army in 1812]. St.Petersburg, 1913, p. 144.
  4. Piliyavskiy V.I. Russkie triumfal’nye pamyatniki [Monuments to the Russian Triumph]. Leningrad, Stroyizdat Publ., 1960, p. 56.
  5. Kirichenko E.I. Hram Hrista Spasitelya v Moskve [Church of the Christ the Savior in Moscow]. Moscow, Planeta Publ., 1992, p. 260.
  6. Pamyatniki arhitektury Leningrady [Architectural Monuments of Leningrad]. Leningrad, Stroyizdat Publ., 1976, p. 150.

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MAIN PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH OF THE OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE OF BUILDERS IN PRE-MONGOLIAN RUS

Vestnik MGSU 6/2012
  • Gatsunaev Konstantin Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associated Professor, Department of History and Culturology, +7 (499) 183-21-29, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 150 - 154

The subject matter of the article is the construction industry in the years of pre-Mongolian Rus. The complexity and diversity of the construction process reflect some peculiarities of the social life in ancient Rus. Therefore, the study of the construction industry reveals particular technological advancements as well as the professional and social organization of crafts in ancient Rus. In the article, the organization of the building process is considered as an integrated process.
A considerable amount of information can be obtained from ancient sources, such as monuments, although they do not constitute any accurate evidence of the construction process. We may identify the number of the so-called "artels" (construction gangs), as well as trace their routes from one construction centre to another. By the commencement of the Mongolian invasion, construction gangs had already established close connections with the prince in power, and their routes were always determined by dynastic relationships of princes. Their work was strongly influenced by Byzantine and West European countries. Therefore, the analysis of the whole construction industry is a vital constituent of the study of the history and culture of ancient Russians.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.6.150 - 154

References
  1. Rappoport P.A. Stroitel’noe proizvodstvo Drevney Rusi (X—XIII vv.) [Construction Process in Ancient Rus (X—XIII cent.)]. St.Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 1994, 159 p.
  2. Rappoport P.A. Drevnerusskaya arkhitektura [Ancient Russian Architecture]. St.Petersburg, Stroyizdat Publ., 1993, 286 p.
  3. Viktorov A. Kamenolomni Drevney Rusi [Stone Quarries of Ancient Rus]. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo Moskvy [Architecture and Construction of Moscow], 1987, no. 8, pp. 25—28.
  4. Komech A.I. Drevnerusskoe zodchestvo kontsa X — nach. XII v.: Vizantiyskoe nasledie i stanovlenie samostoyatel’noy traditsii [Ancient Russian Architecture of the Late 10th – Early 12th Centuries. Byzantine Heritage and Conception of Independent Traditions]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1987, 319 p.
  5. Kievo-Pecherskiy paterik. Pamyatniki literatury Drevney Rusi: XII vek [Kiyevo-Pechrky Paterikon. Literary Monuments of Ancient Rus; 12th Century]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1980, 424 p.
  6. Komech A.I. Arkhitektura Vladimira 1150—1180-kh gg. Khudozhestvennaya priroda i genezis «russkoy romaniki» [The Architecture of Vladimir of 1150—1180. Artistic Nature and Genesis of the Russian Romanticism]. Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo. Rus’ i strany vizantiyskogo mira. XII vek [Ancient Russian Art. Rus and Byzantine Countries. 12th Century]. St.Petersburg, 2002, pp. 231—254.

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