ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

Architectural, spatial and composite features of the temples location in Saint-Petersburg and the surrounding counties in the 18th - 1st half of 19th centuries

Vestnik MGSU 3/2014
  • Krylova Severina Vyacheslavovna - Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU) graduate student, assistant, Department of Architectural and Town-planning Heritage, Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU), 4, 2 Krasnoarmeiskaya Str., St. Petersburg, 190005; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 27-35

This article shows the interdependences of territorial distribution of temples and their architectural-spatial and compositional features in St. Petersburg and the counties. The author revealed two different approaches to temple arrangement depending on the type of environment - in urban areas and rural areas. The construction of a temple in St. Petersburg was strictly regulated: its space-planning solution, accommodation, the place assigned for parish church, etc. The article draws attention to the particular choice of solutions, removal of land for construction, and certain architectural features of the temples. The author generally distinguishes four types of space-planning decisions of religious buildings: hall multiplex (The Basilica) in the form of a Latin cross, centric (cross dome as the most common types of churches), combined. In turn, these types of temples were correlated with various types of accommodation identified by the author. Spatial distribution of temples include: a) the location of temples in the natural landscape system and b) with respect to the location of the man-made temples' environment (historical and cultural), in correlation with the buildings and / or communications (land and water communications), c) the formation of a spatially-visual network (system) of the city and surrounding area. For a better understanding of the revealed dependences chronological phase analysis was used, since the time prior to Saint Petersburg construction and till 1850. The periodization of temple architecture development during 1703-1850 was identified. The period before Saint Petersburg was also considered, though less detailed. The stages are minimal chronological segments, within which settlement system was unified by spatial and social characteristics, as well as uniform rules of specific territorial, economic and social development. As chronological boundaries, specific dates of the events were identified, which determined the transition to new stages. This approach allowed to gradually track changes in the methods of selecting and placing three-dimensional solution of various temples. The studies revealed that the temple was a member of the system, which includes urban development, individual settlements and their groups, the natural landscape. They were all interrelated, representing the idea of continuity, harmony with each other and the environment (natural and manmade). Such an organic fusion of church and surroundings have a mutual influence: the temple on the environment and the environment on the object.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.27-35

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