BEDDINGS AND FOUNDATIONS, SUBTERRANEAN STRUCTURES. SOIL MECHANICS

Method of determining the speed of sheet washout for design of structures on slopes

Vestnik MGSU 8/2014
  • Volodina Lyudmila Aleksandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Urban Development and Environmental Safety, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-83-47; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 54-61

The authors present the study of sheet washout of soil relevant in the framework of the stability of structures, retaining walls and trays over them, pillars of stairs, power lines and other structures on the slopes. Flushing speed can be approximately defined using phytoindicational way, determining the depth of erosion of the soil near perennial plants, the roots of which are naked. This approach to determining the rate of sheet erosion has been used by many scientists. The techniques offered in their works were created to improve the agricultural use of the lands for the territories of Central Asia. In order to protect the structures in natural areas of Moscow, the authors suggested their methods. It is assumed that the beginning of the erosion process in the measuring point coincides with the beginning of tree growth. At this point its root neck was at the level of the earth. Thus, for the rate of erosion we accepted the height position of root neck of the tree. The measurement should be horizontal to the tree in connection with the retention of soil by the tree and "hill" formation on the top side of the tree and rich soil washout from the bottom side. The average annual rate of erosion can be calculated by determining the age of the tree and by measuring the excess of root neck above the surface of the slope. The age of the tree may be determined by the correlation of age with a diameter of a tree, measured at height of 1.3 m above the ground level. The average annual increase in the diameter of a tree can be defined on the stumps, available in the study area. When calculating the age of trees to clarify the diameters, it is recommended to make allowance for the thickness of the crust. It was noted that the study of the process of sheet washout should be made in condition of stability of influencing factors: climate, topography, geology, soils, vegetation and human activities. In order to validate the approach, the slopes of ravines in the Neskuchny Garden in Moscow were chosen. The selected slopes have similar climatic, geological, geomorphological, soil and phytological signs. This allows the authors to gather material for statistical analysis of the investigated process. In their experiment, the authors used lime trees and maples. Single measurement was made on elms and oaks. As an example, the authors present the results of measurements on site 1, located on the right side of the ravine Neskuchny Garden. A fairly high correlation coefficient (K=0.91) indicates strong linear relationship of flushing depth and the tree diameter and proves the validity of this method for approximate calculation of the depth of sheet washout.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.8.54-61

References
  1. Zemlyanitskiy L.T. Ob erozii pochv v gornykh oblastyakh Yuzhnoy Kirgizii i Uzbekistana [On Soil Erosion in Mountainous Areas of South Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan]. Eroziya pochv: sbornik [Soil Erosion: Collection of Works]. Moscow, AN SSSR Publ., 1937, pp. 59—67.
  2. Gorelov S.K. Razvitie protsessov poverkhnostnogo smyva i lineynoy erozii v Tsentral'nom Kopetdage [Development Processes of Surface Runoff and Linear Erosion in the Central Kopetdagh]. Izvestiya ANSSSR. Seriya geograficheskaya [Proceedings ANSSSR. Geographical Series]. 1974, no. 4, pp. 90—97.
  3. Zharkova Yu.G., Petrov V.N. Opredelenie intensivnosti smyva po obnazhennym chastyam korney rasteniy [Determination of Washout Intensity According to the Exposed Parts of the Roots of Plants]. Eroziya pochv i ruslovye protsessy [Soil Erosion and Channel Processes]. Moscow, 1974, MGU Publ., no. 4, pp. 58—60.
  4. Pereslegina R.E. Issledovanie ploskostnogo poverkhnostnogo snosa v rayone yugozapadnogo poberezh'ya ozera Issyk-Kul' [Study of Planar Surface Drift near the Southwestern Shore of Lake Issyk-Kul]. Geomorfologiya [Geomorphology]. 1990, no. 3, pp. 90—99.
  5. Pereslegina R.E. Otsenka skorosti ploskostnogo snosa po obnazhennym kornyam rasteniy [Estimation of the rate of planar drift According to bare roots of plants]. Geomorfologiya [Geomorphology].1982, no. 2, pp. 79—83.
  6. Ivanov H.N. Osobennosti razvitiya erozionnykh protsessov na otkosakh zemlyanogo polotna avtomobil'nykh dorog [Erosion Processes Development Features on Slopes of Road Beds]. Geomorfologiya [Geomorphology]. 1988, no. 2, pp. 39—43.
  7. Makkaveev N.I., Chalov R.S., editors. Erozionnye protsessy [Erosion Processes]. Moscow, 1984, 256 p.
  8. Urban Soil Erosion and Sediment Control. Conservation Practices for Protecting and Enhancing Soil and Water Resources in Growing and Changing Communities. 2008, 14 p. Available at: http://www.conferences.uiuc.edu/ilriver/Documents/Urban_ErosionSediment_Control_2008.pdf. Date of access: 07.07.2014.
  9. Mirtskhulava Ts.E. Razmyv rusel i metodika otsenki ikh ustoychivosti [Сhannels Scour and Methods of their Sustainability Assessment]. Moscow, 1967, 179 p.
  10. Osipov V.I., Medvedev O.P., editors. Moskva: geologiya i gorod [Moscow: Geology and the City]. Moscow, 1997, 400 p.
  11. Kholyavko V. S., Globa-Mikhaylenko D. A. Dendrologiya i osnovy zelenogo stroitel'stva [Dendrology and Fundamentals of Green Construction]. Moscow, Vysshaya Shkola Publ., 1976. 238 p.
  12. Vorob'ev G.I., editor. Lesnaya entsiklopediya [Forest Encyclopedia]. In two volumes. Moscow, Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya Publ.1985, 563 p.
  13. Ishutin Ya.N., Klyuchnikov M.V. Sposob opredeleniya vozrasta dereva [Method of Determining a Tree Age]. Informlistok Alt.TsNTI [Information Sheet of Altai Center of Scientific and Technical Information]. 2000, no. 02-104-00, 1 p.
  14. Kalliovirta J., Tokola T. Functions for Estimating Stem Diameter and Tree Age Using Tree Height, Crown Width and Existing Stand Database Information. Silva Fennica. 2005, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 227—248.
  15. Leak W.B. Relationships of Tree Age to Diameter in Old-growth Northern Hardwoods and Spruce-fir. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experimental Station. Research Note NE-329, 1985. Available at: http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/newtown_square/publications/research_notes/pdfs/scanned/ne_rn329p.pdf. Date of access: 12.02.2014.

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Influence of properties of river soils on river bed movement

Vestnik MGSU 9/2012
  • Volgina Lyudmila Vsevolodovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor 8 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 14-18, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Tarasov Vsevolod Konstantinovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor; +7 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 14-18, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Zommer Tatyana Valentinovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Director, Laboratory of Hydraulics 8 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 14-18, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 83 - 88

The authors consider the problem of conveyance of non-spherical solid particles in an open
rectangular channel. The process of glass container manufacturing is accompanied by formation of
waste glass at 1150...1350 °С. As a result, hot glass mass flows into cold water and transforms into
glass granules. Granules are used in the production of glass, and they can be loaded back into the
industrial furnace.
At this stage, there arises a problem of conveyance of waste glass granules into the gallery,
in the direction of the furnace. The pipeline-based method requires an engine, which will increase
the cost of glass containers. Hydraulic transportation of waste glass is a cheaper method. In this
connection, there is a practical problem of identifying the slope angle sufficient for the transportation
of waste glass in an open rectangular channel. Thus, we must determine the hydraulic characteristics
of the two-phase flow to solve the problem.
A laboratory research of the particle size distribution pattern was conducted in 2011 at the
glass factory in operation in the Tula region. The shape of particles and the condition of the glass surface affect the parameters of their hydraulic transportation. These characteristics are taken into
account when calculating the formula and introducing the correction coefficient.
The problem of determining the slope of the open channel needed to transport waste glass into
the glass melting furnace can be formulated as follows. What should be the angle of the bottom of
the channel for hydraulic transport of waste glass, when the particle speed reaches its critical value?
The input data are as follows: channel length - 70 meters, cross-section area - 1.4 m2. Hydraulic
transport of waste glass is produced under the influence of gravity, due to the difference in the height
of the upper and lower points of transportation.
Chezy coefficient helps determine the appropriate slope of the bottom of the channel. As
a result of the calculation of the angle of inclination of the bottom of the channel, the difference
between the upper and lower points was 2.17 m, the particle size of glass 4.76...17.97 mm, the
channel length - 70 m, height - 1 m, width - 1.4 m.
The benefits of free flow hydraulic transport include small operating costs. The main
disadvantage of hydraulic transport is the need for a substantial difference in the heights of upper
and lower points.
As a result, the authors have worked out their recommendations concerning the
transportation of y solid particles of waste glass.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.9.83 - 88

References
  1. Tarasov V.K., Kharin A.I., Gusak L.N. Dvukhfaznye potoki v napornom gidrotransporte [Two-phase Flows in Pressurized Hydraulic Transport]. Moscow, MISI Publ., 1987, 108 p.
  2. Puchkov L.A., Mikheev O.V. Gidrotransportnye sistemy gornodobyvayushchikh predpriyatiy [Hydraulic Transportation Systems of Mining Enterprises]. Moscow, MGK Association Publ., 2008.
  3. Nurok G.A., Bruyanin Yu.V., Lyashkevich V.V. Gidrotransport gornykh porod [Hydraulic Transportation of the Rock]. Moscow, MGI Publ., 1974.
  4. Yufin A.P. Gidromekhanizatsiya [Hydraulic Mechanization]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1974.
  5. Laufer J. The Structure of Turbulence in Developed Flow. NACA Rep., 1954.
  6. Tarasov V.K., Volgina L.V. Opredelenie gidravlicheskoy krupnosti chastits, forma kotorykh otlichaetsya ot sharoobraznoy [Identification of Hydraulic Fineness of Particles the Shape of Which Is Non-spherical]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 8, pp. 111—115.
  7. Androsov A.A. Nadezhnost’ tekhnicheskikh system [Reliability of Process Systems]. Rostov-Don, DGTU Publ., 2000. 169 p.
  8. Tikhontsov A.M., Tantsura A.I. Raschet parametrov gidrotransporta struzhki [Calculation of Parameters of Hydraulic Transportation of Cutting Chips]. Pridneprovskiy nauchnyy vestnik [Pridneprovskiy Scientific Bulletin]. 2006, no. 4.
  9. Blyuss B.A., Semenenko E.V., Shurygin V.D. Gidrotekhnicheskie sistemy tekhnologii dobychi i pererabotki titan-tsirkonovogo syr’ya [Hydraulic Engineering Systems of Extraction and Processing of Raw Titanium and Zircon]. Naukoviy visnik NGU [NGU Scientific Bulletin]. 2011, no. 2, pp. 86—89.
  10. Makharadze L.I., Gochitashvili T.Sh., Kril’ S.I. Truboprovodnyy transport tverdykh sypuchikh materialov [Pipeline Transportation of Granular Solid Materials]. Tbilisi, Metsnieerba Publ., 2006.

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STUDY OF THE LANDSLIDE PROCESS BY THE CORRELATION ANALYSIS METHOD USING RANDOM FUNCTIONS

Vestnik MGSU 8/2017 Volume 12
  • Simonyan Vladimir Victorovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Institute of Environmental Engineering and Mechanization, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Nikolaeva Galina Alexandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) student, Institute of Environmental Engineering and Mechanization, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 846-853

Subject of research is the analysis of the dynamics of landslide processes on the example of Karamyshevskiy slope in Moscow. Objectives are to show that the method of correlation analysis using random functions can be used to analyze the dynamics of landslide processes along with other methods. The magnitude of the displacements of landslide points of Karamyshevskiy landslide, obtained from the data of geodetic monitoring (a total of 8 cycles of observations) serve as source material. Plans of isolines in space were constructed on the basis of these displacements. Applying the method of correlation analysis and having the necessary computational calculations, the estimates of the mathematical expectation for random variables, estimation of variance and correlation moments and estimating the standard deviations obtained normalized autocorrelation function, which is approximated by exponential function, were obtained. For clarity, the illustrations are given with isolines of displacements, the random graph function, the graph of the normalized autocorrelation function and the graph of the approximating function. The obtained exponential function allows to make some conclusions about landslide processes in Keramicheskiy slope: landslide displacement is continuing and will continue in the future. It is necessary to takes measures for engineering protection; approximation of the normalized correlation function of the form ρ = 0.9986е-3Е-04x allow to apply this approach to expectation values of the displacements of the landslide points. The study of landslide process at Karamyshevskiy slope by the method of correlation analysis using the random functions shows that this method can be used in the analysis of slope stability along with other methods. The method can be recommended for the analysis of the dynamics of landslides and other landslide slopes.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.8.846-853

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