
Sychkina Evgeniya N. 
Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU)
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Construction Technology and Geotechnics, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomolsky prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation.

Antipov Vadim V. 
Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU)
postgraduate student of Department of Construction Technology and Geotechnics, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomolsky prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation.

Ofrikhter Yan V. 
Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU)
postgraduate student of Department of Construction Technology and Geotechnics, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomolsky prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation.
Introduction. Reviewed the features of the work of the pile on Permian claystones with the help of numerical and field experiments, analytical calculations. Materials and methods. Numerical modeling was performed in the Plaxis 3D and Midas GTS NX software packages. Fullscale tests of driven piles are made in accordance with the requirements of GOST 202762012. The obtained results are compared with the results of analytical calculations according to SP 24.13330.2011. Results. The scientific novelty of the investigation consists in a comparative analysis of the results of numerical modeling of the interaction of a driving pile with claystones with the results of field tests and analytical calculations. Finite element analysis in software package Plaxis 3D using Hardening Soil model shows higher values of settlement (up to 6 times) in relation to stabilized settlement of fullscale pile tests. Calculations in the software package Midas GTS NX showed overestimated values of pile settlements in relation to fullscale pile tests (1324 times). Analytical calculations in accordance with SP 24.13330.2011 also showed overestimated (up to 3 times) values of the maximum pile settlement in relation to the stabilized settlement during fullscale pile tests. Conclusions. The calculations by the finite element method in the package Plaxis 3D and Midas GTS NX, by the analytical method according to SP 24.13330.2011, show overestimated values of settlement in relation to the stabilized settlement of piles on claystones. Using the LinearElastic model for claystones in numerical calculations in Plaxis 3D provides a value close to the settlement of fullscale pile. However, the use of this model is not fully justified for claystones due to the presence of residual deformations and the nonlinear character of pile settlement during loading. Necessary to correct the existing numerical and analytical methods for calculating pile foundations on claystones. It is necessary to continue the work on the further generalization of the experience of arranging piles on weathered claystones in order to evaluate the longterm work of not only a single pile, but also a pile foundation.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2019.2.188198

Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich 
Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU)
Candidate of Technical Sciences, test engineer, Research and Educational Center on "Nanotechnology", Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +74991880400;
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.

Pozdnyakov Mikhail Konstantinovich 
Moscow State University of
Civil Engineering (MGSU)
postgraduate student,
+7 (499)
1880400, Moscow State University of
Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Korolev Evgeniy Valerevich 
Moscow State University of Civil Engineering
(MGSU)
Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Advisor
Russian
Academy of Architectural and Construction Sciences (RAACS), ViceRector for Education, Director,
Research and Educational Centre for Nanotechnologies,
+7 (495)
2874914, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering
(MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation;
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.
In the article, the authors substantiate the employment of the rheological method of identifi cation of the thickness of the bitumen layer formed on the surface of the mineral component. The
analysis of existing methodologies of assessment of the physical and chemical activity of mineral
components in relation to the bitumen has proven the unavailability of any universal methodology to
substantiate the use of mineral fillers to be added to the asphalt concrete. The authors have demonstrated
that identification of thickness considered as a kinetic and an adsorption layer requires
the employment of nothing else but the bitumen. Viscosity measurements of disperse systems composed
of bitumen and mineral components are to be taken at different temperatures.
The filling range of the above systems satisfying the Einstein equation (under 5% by volume)
has also been identified. The nature of dependence between the viscosity fluctuation pattern of the
disperse systems composed of bitumen and the mineral filler, on the one hand, and the degree of filling
and the temperature, on the other hand, has been identified. The nature of dependence between
the viscosity fluctuation of bitumen and the castor oil and their temperature has been identified, as
well. The authors have also calculated the temperature at which the viscosity of bitumen reaches its
minimum value (T = 220 °C). The authors have demonstrated that the mineral components under
research produce only a kinetic layer that turns thinner as the temperature goes up, whereas no
adsorption layer can be identified experimentally through the employment of the rheological method.
Comparison of the data obtained by the authors with the theoretical findings demonstrates
their sufficient convergence, reliable repeatability of the proposed method of identification of thickness
of the structured bitumen, and physical and chemical activity of the mineral component. The
data presented herein have also proven the inexpediency of application of the methodology of
identifi cation of adhesion between bitumen and the mineral filler according to State Standard GOST
1150874*.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2012.11.159  167
References
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 Proshin A.P., Korolev E.V., Boltyshev S.A., Koroleva O.V. Vybor kineticheskoy modeli destruktsii kompozitsionnykh materialov. Parametry protsessa [Selection of a Kinetic Model of Decomposition of Composite Materials. Process Parameters]. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo [News of Institutions of Higher Education. Construction]. 2005, no. 3, pp. 32—36.
 Gar’kina A.I., Danilov A.M., Korolev E.V. Vybor kineticheskoy modeli destruktsii kompozitsionnykh materialov. Parametry protsessa [Selection of a Kinetic Model of Decomposition of Composite Materials. Process Parameters]. Obozrenie prikladnoy i promyshlennoy matematiki [Review of Applied and Industrial Mathematics]. 2008, no. 3, vol. 15, pp. 459—460.
 Bakhrakh G.S. K otsenke tolshchiny adsorbtsionnosol’vatnogo sloya bitumov na poverkhnosti chastits [About the Assessment of Thickness of the Adsorptionsolvate Layer of Bitumen on the Surface of Particles]. Kolloidnyy zhurnal [The Colloid Journal]. 1969, no.1, vol 39, pp. 8—12.
 Rotational viscometer MCR 101. Research and Educational Center for Nanotechnologies. Available at: http://www.nocnt.ru/index.php/ru/oborudovanie/laboratoriyafizikohimicheskihsvoistv/17viskozimetrmcr101. Date of access: 09.25.2012.
 Pokid’ko B.V. Adsorbtsionnoe modifi tsirovanie sloistykh silikatov dlya polucheniya polimersilikatnykh nanokompozitov [Adsorptive Modifi cation of Layered Silicates for Recovery of PolymerSilicate Nanocomposites]. Moscow, 2004, 117 p.
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 Bazhenov Yu.M., Korolev E.V., Evstifeeva I.Yu., Vasil’eva O.G. Nanomodifi tsirovannye korrozionnostoykie sernye stroitel’nye materialy [Nanomodifi ed Corrosionresistant Sulfuric Construction Materials]. Moscow, RGAUMSHA Publ., 2008, 167 p.
 Grushko I.M., Korolev I.V, Borsch I.M., Mishchenko G.M. Dorozhnostroitel’nye materialy [Road Building Materials]. Moscow, Transport Publ., 1991, 357 p.
 Gezentsvey L.B. Asfal’tovyy beton iz aktivirovannykh mineral’nykh materialov [Asphalt Concrete Made of Activated Mineral Materials]. Stroyizdat Publ., 1971, 255 p.
 Gridchin A.M. Osobennosti svoystv poverkhnosti kislykh mineral’nykh materialov dlya asfal’tobetonov [Peculiarities of Surface Properties of Acidic Mineral Materials for Asphalt Concretes]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007, no. 8, pp. 56—57.
 Shlegel’ I.F. Ispol’zovanie legkogo poristogo zapolnitelya v sostave asfal’tobetonov [The Use of the Lightweight Porous Filler in Asphalt Concrete]. Avtomobil’nye dorogi [Motor Roads]. 2008, no. 6, pp. 115—116.
 Zlotarev V.A. Ob otsenke adgezii bituma u poverkhnosti mineral’nogo materiala [Assessment of the Adhesive Strength of Bitumen at the Surface of the Mineral Material]. Avtomobil’nye dorogi [Motor Roads]. 1995, no. 12, pp. 13—15.
 Boguslovskiy A.M. Osnovy reologii asfal’tobetona [Fundamentals of Rheology of Asphalt Concrete]. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola publ., 1972, 200 p.

Buslov Anatoliy Semenovich 
Moscow State Open
University named after V.S. Chernomyrdin (MGOU)
Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Chair, Department of Construction Operations, Beddings and Foundations
+7 (495) 6838797, Moscow State Open
University named after V.S. Chernomyrdin (MGOU), 22 Korchagina st., Moscow, 129626, Russian
Federation;
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.

Kalacheva Elena Nikolaevna 
Ryazanskiy Branch, Moscow State Open University named after V.S. Chernomyrdin
, Ryazanskiy Branch, Moscow State Open University named after V.S. Chernomyrdin, 2a Kolhoznaya St., 390046, Ryazan, Russian Federation.
The authors analyze rheological equations of viscoplastic landslides under natural conditions
and in the presence of a sparse row of piles as an antislide barrier.
Rheology of viscoplastic slides in the presence of buttresses that significantly alter the pattern
and speed of their motion has enjoyed little attention of researchers, although it plays an important
role in the analysis of stabilization of landslide flows. Elements of tensor calculus are used to analyze
the motion of the viscoplastic matter. An exact solution to the problem of gravitational motion
alongside an inclined plane was used as the main one. It is proven that the motion pattern of the
viscoplastic matter contains rigid zones where the flow velocity is equal to zero.
In the event of motion of a layer alongside an inclined surface, the rigid zone moves together
with the viscous surface, and the overall velocity of the viscoplastic flow will be determined by the
rheology of the viscous surface.
This paper provides solutions designated for the identification of rigid zones of cohesive soils,
as well as soils that demonstrate internal friction and cohesion.
The authors have proven that whenever piles are used, the nucleus of the landslide mass is
stabilized.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2012.11.45  54
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