ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

Social, ethnical, cultural and confessional features of architectural heritage of monasteries

Vestnik MGSU 6/2014
  • Frolov Vladimir Pavlovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 35-43

Monasteries, their activity and lifestyle have always played an important role in the culture of various nations. Monasteries are objects of cultural heritage. Their architecture is connected with national features on a nation, particular canons of Christian (orthodox, catholic), Buddhistic or other religion. The article describes ancient monasteries in Russia amid the global development, historical national characteristics monasteries are analyzed, as well as architectural ensembles, reflecting the function and role of monasteries in public life, showing their spiritual and cultural heritage, monastic tradition, the historical value of the monastic landscape and its conservation conditions, the inclusion of the monasteries in the world cultural heritage is noted.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.6.35-43

References
  1. Bol'shaya illyustrirovannaya entsiklopediya [Big Illustrated Encyclopedia]. In 32 volumes. Moscow, AST, Astrel' Publ., 2010, vol. 18, p. 143.
  2. Komech A.I. Russkie monastyri. Istoriya i kul'tura X—XVII stoletiya [Russian Monasteries. History and Culture of X—XVII Centuries]. Moscow, Art-BMB Publ., 2001, p. 21.
  3. Klyuchevskiy V.O. Skazanie inostrantsev o Moskovskom gosudarstve [Legend of Foreigners about Muscovy]. Moscow, Prometey Publ., 1991, p. 167.
  4. Antonova L.V., Titova T.V. Arkhitekturnye shedevry Rossii [Architectural Masterpieces of Russia]. Moscow, Dom Slavyanskoy Knigi Publ., 2009, p. 44.
  5. Bryusova V.G. Ipat'evskiy monastyr' [Ipatiev Monastery]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1981, p. 27.
  6. Likhachev D.S., Savitskaya O.D. Arkhitekturno-khudozhestvennye pamyatniki [Solovetskikh ostrovov [Architectural and Artistic Monuments of the Solovetsky Islands]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1980, p. 32.
  7. Skopin V.V., Shchennikova L.A. Arkhitekturno-khudozhestvennyy ansambl' Solovetskogo monastyrya [Architectural Ensemble of the Solovetsky Monastery]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1981, p. 53.
  8. Molokova T.A. Svyatitel' Filipp — patriot i stroitel' pravoslavnoy Rossii [St Philip — Patriot and Builder of Russian Orthodox]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2006, pp. 18, 20.
  9. Burov V.A. Istoriya keleynoy zastroyki Solovetskogo monastyrya XV—XIX vekov: monografiya [Exclusionary Story Building Solovetsky Monastery XV—XIX Centuries]. Institute of Archeology of Russian Academy of Sciences, Solovki State Historical, Architectural and Natural Museum-Reserve, Arkhangel'sk, 2011, p. 26.
  10. Maksakovskiy V.P. Vsemirnoe kul'turnoe nasledie [World Cultural Heritage]. Moscow, Eko-pros Publ., 2000, p. 381.
  11. Arenkova Yu.I., Mekhova G.I. Donskoy monastyr' [Don Monastery]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1970, p. 67.
  12. Petrova E.N. Russkie monastyri. Iskusstvo i traditsii [Russian Monasteries. Art and Traditions]. Saint Petersburg, Palace Edition, 1997, p. 112.
  13. Chelnokov A. Pokrovskiy stavropigial'nyy zhenskiy monastyr' u Pokrovskoy zastavy [Intercession Pokrovsky Monastery]. Moscow, Pokrovskiy stavropigial'nyy zhenskiy monastyr' Publ., 2010, p. 57.
  14. Shchenkov A.S., editor. Arkhitekturnoe nasledie na rubezhe XX—XXI vekov: Problemy restavratsii i okhrany naslediya [Architectural Heritage in 20—21st Centuries. Moscow, KRASAND Publ., 2010, p. 51.
  15. Pokrovskaya E.N., Koval'chuk Yu.L. Biokorroziya, sokhranenie pamyatnikov istorii i arkhitektury [Biocorrosion, Preservation of Historical Monuments and Architecture. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2013, p. 28, 57.

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PERIPTERY: THE MEANING OF THE WORD

Vestnik MGSU 8/2012
  • Churakov Sergey Konstantinovich - Moscow Architectural Institute Associated Professor, Department of Soviet and Modern Foreign Architecture 8 (495) 62 1-40-85, Moscow Architectural Institute, Rozhdestvenka St., Moscow, 107031, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 46 - 53

The author analyzes the origin and the history of the periptery, examines into the etymology of
this word, and traces its roots in Minoan and Mycenaean cultures.
The history of classical architecture is full of myths. One of them is related to the origin of
periptery, the main type of a classical antique temple. Traditionally, it dates back to the samples
of the 7th-4th centuries B.C., although it is obvious that this type of temples has a longer history.
The term "periptery" is said to originate from an ancient cult established prior to the construction
of the Greek Pantheon. It is composed of the two Greek words: "peri" - around, near,
and "pteron" - a side wing, a side colonnade or an outhouse. As a result, the initial defi nition is
formed - "winged from all sides", while all present-day sources (e.g. Encyclopedia Britannica) use
a much simpler translation - "rectangular building with a colonnade on all four sides".
However, speaking about the drama of post and lintel elements in the Order System, it is not
apparent why, for example, the Temple of Poseidon at Paestum or the Parthenon can be called
"winged", particularly, the Temple of Poseidon, with its ponderous Doric Order. And strictly speaking,
so sensual a tune is typical for the Hellenistic period.
The "winged" theme has nothing to do with the forms of the Periptery or its proportions. Minoan
and Mycenaean temples are a lot older than the Greek ones, therefore, the "winged" may
mean natural encircling of the temple with The Sacred Bird images. These birds were the permanent
"characters" of the Mysteries throughout the Mediterranean region and Ancient East. In the
Sumerian-Acadian culture, the word "fortune" was depicted as a hieroglyph that looked like a bird,
and fortune "management" was one of the functions of the supreme deity.
One of the translations of the word "pteron" is not just a "wing", but also a "winged creature" (a
bird, a griffi n, a sphinx). Polybius (201 - 122 B.C.) used "periptery" in the meaning of "surrounded
by columns", but much later Plutarch (46 - 127 A.D.) named it "a side colonnade" and "a side building".
Practically, the name of one of the temple elements was applied to the whole structure, which
indicated a special role of this "side colonnade", as the main visual sign of the temple being attributed
to the Supreme Deity. The classical form of the Periptery had two essential elements; they were
the two sculptures of birds on top of the columns that surrounded it on three sides, and proto-ionic
columns in front of the main Facade and in the cella (as in a temple in Neandria). Later, the main Facade
evolved as a column portico with a pediment, and on each of its corner akroterion - a sphinx
or a griffin - was placed, while the whole structure was crowned by an antefix formed as a palmette.
This is our reconstruction of the evolution of this type of temple in the course of 600 years, from
the 16th century B.C. through the 10th century B.C.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.8.46 - 53

References
  1. Losev A.F. Istoriya antichnoy estetiki [History of Ancient Aesthetics]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1979, 727 p.
  2. D’yakonov I.M. Arkhaicheskie mify Vostoka i Zapada [Archaic Myths of East and West]. Moscow, Editorial URSS Publ., 2004, 248 p.
  3. Kifi shin A.G., Akimova L.I., editor. Vvedenie v khram. Opyt rekonstruktsii shumero-vavilonskogo mifo-rituala [Introduction into the Temple. Practical Reconstruction of Mythological Rituals of Shumerians and Babylonians]. Moscow, 1998, pp. 27—49.

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