SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

The dependence of sheet erosion velocity on slope angle

Vestnik MGSU 8/2014
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-83-47; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Volodina Lyudmila Aleksandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Urban Development and Environmental Safety, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 153-164

The article presents a method for estimating the erosion velocity on forested natural area. As a research object for testing the methodology the authors selected Neskuchny Garden - a city Park on the Moskva river embankment, named after the cognominal Palace of Catherine's age. Here, an almost horizontal surface III of the Moskva river terrace above the flood-plain is especially remarkable, accentuated by the steep sides of the ravine parallel to St. Andrew's, but short and nameless. The crests of the ravine sides are sharp, which is the evidence of its recent formation, but the old trees on the slopes indicate that it has not been growing for at least 100 years. Earlier Russian researchers defined vertical velocity of sheet erosion for different regions and slopes with different parent (in relation to the soil) rocks. The comparison of the velocities shows that climatic conditions, in the first approximation, do not have a decisive influence on the erosion velocity of silt loam soils. The velocities on the shores of Issyk-Kul lake and in Moscow proved to be the same. But the composition of the parent rocks strongly affects the sheet erosion velocity. Even low-strength rock material reduces the velocity by times. Phytoindication method gives a real, physically explainable sheet erosion velocities. The speed is rather small but it should be considered when designing long-term structures on the slopes composed of dispersive soils. On the slopes composed of rocky soils sheet erosion velocity is so insignificant that it shouldn't be taken into account when designing. However, there may be other geological processes, significantly disturbing the stability of slopes connected with cracks.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.8.153-164

References
  1. Volodina L.A., Chernyshev S.N. Metodika opredeleniya skorosti ploskostnogo smyva dlya proektirovaniya sooruzheniy na sklonakh [Method of Determining the Speed of Washout for Design of Structures on Slopes]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 8, pp. 54—61.
  2. Osipov V.I., Medvedev O.P., editors. Moskva: Geologiya i gorod [Moscow: Geology and the City]. Moscow, 1997, 400 p.
  3. Aleksandrov L.P. Proshloe Neskuchnogo sada. Istoricheskaya spravka [The History of Neskuchny Garden. Historical Information.] Moscow, M. i S. Sabashnikovy Publ., 1923, 58 p.
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  9. Urban Soil Erosion and Sediment Control. Conservation Practices for Protecting and Enhancing Soil and Water Resources in Growing and Changing Communities. 2008. Available at: http://www.conferences.uiuc.edu/ilriver/Documents/Urban_ErosionSediment_Control_2008.pdf. Date of Access: 07.07.2014.
  10. Zemlyanitskiy L.T. Ob erozii pochv v gornykh oblastyakh Yuzhnoy Kirgizii i Uzbekistana [On Soil Erosion in Mountain ous Areas of South Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan]. Eroziya pochv: sbornik [Soil Erosion: Collection of Works]. Moscow, AN SSSR Publ., 1937, pp. 59—67.
  11. Gorelov S.K. Razvitie protsessov poverkhnostnogo smyva i lineynoy erozii v tsentral'nom Kopetdage [Development of the Processes of Surface Runoff and Linear Erosion in Central Kopet Dagh]. Izvestiya ANSSSR. Seriya geograficheskaya [Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of USSR. Geographical Series]. 1974, no. 4, pp. 90—97.
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  13. Pereslegina R.E. Issledovanie ploskostnogo poverkhnostnogo snosa v rayone yugo-zapadnogo poberezh'ya ozera Issyk-Kul' [Study of Planar Surface Drift near the Southwestern Shore of Lake Issyk-Kul]. Geomorfologiya [Geomorphology]. 1990, no. 3, pp. 90—99.
  14. Pereslegina R.E. Otsenka skorosti ploskostnogo snosa po obnazhennym kornyam rasteniy [Estimation of the rate of planar drift According to bare roots of plants]. Geomorfologiya [Geomorphology].1982, no. 2, pp. 79—83.
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Method of determining the speed of sheet washout for design of structures on slopes

Vestnik MGSU 8/2014
  • Volodina Lyudmila Aleksandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Urban Development and Environmental Safety, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-83-47; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 54-61

The authors present the study of sheet washout of soil relevant in the framework of the stability of structures, retaining walls and trays over them, pillars of stairs, power lines and other structures on the slopes. Flushing speed can be approximately defined using phytoindicational way, determining the depth of erosion of the soil near perennial plants, the roots of which are naked. This approach to determining the rate of sheet erosion has been used by many scientists. The techniques offered in their works were created to improve the agricultural use of the lands for the territories of Central Asia. In order to protect the structures in natural areas of Moscow, the authors suggested their methods. It is assumed that the beginning of the erosion process in the measuring point coincides with the beginning of tree growth. At this point its root neck was at the level of the earth. Thus, for the rate of erosion we accepted the height position of root neck of the tree. The measurement should be horizontal to the tree in connection with the retention of soil by the tree and "hill" formation on the top side of the tree and rich soil washout from the bottom side. The average annual rate of erosion can be calculated by determining the age of the tree and by measuring the excess of root neck above the surface of the slope. The age of the tree may be determined by the correlation of age with a diameter of a tree, measured at height of 1.3 m above the ground level. The average annual increase in the diameter of a tree can be defined on the stumps, available in the study area. When calculating the age of trees to clarify the diameters, it is recommended to make allowance for the thickness of the crust. It was noted that the study of the process of sheet washout should be made in condition of stability of influencing factors: climate, topography, geology, soils, vegetation and human activities. In order to validate the approach, the slopes of ravines in the Neskuchny Garden in Moscow were chosen. The selected slopes have similar climatic, geological, geomorphological, soil and phytological signs. This allows the authors to gather material for statistical analysis of the investigated process. In their experiment, the authors used lime trees and maples. Single measurement was made on elms and oaks. As an example, the authors present the results of measurements on site 1, located on the right side of the ravine Neskuchny Garden. A fairly high correlation coefficient (K=0.91) indicates strong linear relationship of flushing depth and the tree diameter and proves the validity of this method for approximate calculation of the depth of sheet washout.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.8.54-61

References
  1. Zemlyanitskiy L.T. Ob erozii pochv v gornykh oblastyakh Yuzhnoy Kirgizii i Uzbekistana [On Soil Erosion in Mountainous Areas of South Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan]. Eroziya pochv: sbornik [Soil Erosion: Collection of Works]. Moscow, AN SSSR Publ., 1937, pp. 59—67.
  2. Gorelov S.K. Razvitie protsessov poverkhnostnogo smyva i lineynoy erozii v Tsentral'nom Kopetdage [Development Processes of Surface Runoff and Linear Erosion in the Central Kopetdagh]. Izvestiya ANSSSR. Seriya geograficheskaya [Proceedings ANSSSR. Geographical Series]. 1974, no. 4, pp. 90—97.
  3. Zharkova Yu.G., Petrov V.N. Opredelenie intensivnosti smyva po obnazhennym chastyam korney rasteniy [Determination of Washout Intensity According to the Exposed Parts of the Roots of Plants]. Eroziya pochv i ruslovye protsessy [Soil Erosion and Channel Processes]. Moscow, 1974, MGU Publ., no. 4, pp. 58—60.
  4. Pereslegina R.E. Issledovanie ploskostnogo poverkhnostnogo snosa v rayone yugozapadnogo poberezh'ya ozera Issyk-Kul' [Study of Planar Surface Drift near the Southwestern Shore of Lake Issyk-Kul]. Geomorfologiya [Geomorphology]. 1990, no. 3, pp. 90—99.
  5. Pereslegina R.E. Otsenka skorosti ploskostnogo snosa po obnazhennym kornyam rasteniy [Estimation of the rate of planar drift According to bare roots of plants]. Geomorfologiya [Geomorphology].1982, no. 2, pp. 79—83.
  6. Ivanov H.N. Osobennosti razvitiya erozionnykh protsessov na otkosakh zemlyanogo polotna avtomobil'nykh dorog [Erosion Processes Development Features on Slopes of Road Beds]. Geomorfologiya [Geomorphology]. 1988, no. 2, pp. 39—43.
  7. Makkaveev N.I., Chalov R.S., editors. Erozionnye protsessy [Erosion Processes]. Moscow, 1984, 256 p.
  8. Urban Soil Erosion and Sediment Control. Conservation Practices for Protecting and Enhancing Soil and Water Resources in Growing and Changing Communities. 2008, 14 p. Available at: http://www.conferences.uiuc.edu/ilriver/Documents/Urban_ErosionSediment_Control_2008.pdf. Date of access: 07.07.2014.
  9. Mirtskhulava Ts.E. Razmyv rusel i metodika otsenki ikh ustoychivosti [Сhannels Scour and Methods of their Sustainability Assessment]. Moscow, 1967, 179 p.
  10. Osipov V.I., Medvedev O.P., editors. Moskva: geologiya i gorod [Moscow: Geology and the City]. Moscow, 1997, 400 p.
  11. Kholyavko V. S., Globa-Mikhaylenko D. A. Dendrologiya i osnovy zelenogo stroitel'stva [Dendrology and Fundamentals of Green Construction]. Moscow, Vysshaya Shkola Publ., 1976. 238 p.
  12. Vorob'ev G.I., editor. Lesnaya entsiklopediya [Forest Encyclopedia]. In two volumes. Moscow, Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya Publ.1985, 563 p.
  13. Ishutin Ya.N., Klyuchnikov M.V. Sposob opredeleniya vozrasta dereva [Method of Determining a Tree Age]. Informlistok Alt.TsNTI [Information Sheet of Altai Center of Scientific and Technical Information]. 2000, no. 02-104-00, 1 p.
  14. Kalliovirta J., Tokola T. Functions for Estimating Stem Diameter and Tree Age Using Tree Height, Crown Width and Existing Stand Database Information. Silva Fennica. 2005, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 227—248.
  15. Leak W.B. Relationships of Tree Age to Diameter in Old-growth Northern Hardwoods and Spruce-fir. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experimental Station. Research Note NE-329, 1985. Available at: http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/newtown_square/publications/research_notes/pdfs/scanned/ne_rn329p.pdf. Date of access: 12.02.2014.

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