SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

The aspects of fire safety at landfills

Vestnik MGSU 1/2014
  • Aleshina Tat'yana Anatol'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sci- ences, Associate Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 119-124

Starting with 2008 and till 2013 there have been alarm messages about fires occurring at landfill places in Russia. Landfill fires are especially dangerous as they emit dangerous fumes from the combustion of the wide range of materials within the landfill. Subsurface landfill fires, unlike typical fires, cannot be put out with water. The article includes the analysis of the sources and causes of conflagrations at landfills. There maintains the necessity to eliminate the reasons, which cause the fires. There are quantification indices of environmental, social and economic effects of fires at landfills all over Russia. Surface fires generally burn at relatively low temperatures and are characterized by the emission of dense white smoke and the products of incomplete combustion. The smoke includes irritating agents, such as organic acids and other compounds. Higher temperature fires can cause the breakdown of volatile compounds, which emit dense black smoke. Surface fires are classified as either accidental or deliberate. For the ecologic security there is a need in the execution of proper hygienic requirements to the content of the places as well as international recommendations. In addition to the burning and explosion hazards posed by landfill fires, smoke and other by-products of landfill fires also present a health risk to firefighters and others exposed to them. Smoke from landfill fires generally contains particulate matter (the products of incomplete combustion of the fuel source), which can aggravate pre-existing pulmo- nary conditions or cause respiratory distress and damage ecosystem. The monitoring of conducting preventive inflamings and transition to alternative, environment friendly methods of waste disposal is needed.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.1.119-124

References
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  2. Strategiya sotsial'no-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya Moskovskoy oblasti. Ministerstvo ekonomiki Moskovskoy oblasti, 4 avgusta 2012 g. Administratsiya gorodskogo okruga Reutov [Strategy of Socio-Economic Development of Moscow Region. Ministry of Economy of the Moscow Region, August 4, 2012. Regional Government of Reutov]. Available at: http://www.reutov.net. Date of access: 12.11.2013.
  3. SP 2.1.7.1038—01. Gigienicheskie trebovaniya k ustroystvu i soderzhaniyu poligonov dlya tverdykh bytovykh otkhodov [Regulations 2.1.7.1038—01. Sanitary Requirements to Arrangement and Maintenance of Solid Domestic Waste at Landfills].
  4. V Podmoskov'e gorit svalka bytovykh otkhodov. 20 avgusta 2010 g. [A Landfill Burns In Moscow Region. August 20, 2010]. RIA Novosti. Available at: http://ria.ru/. Date of access: 12.11.2013.
  5. Ryabov Yu.V. Razrabotka universal'noy metodiki rascheta ekologicheskogo riska vozniknoveniya pozhara na nesanktsionirovannykh svalkakh [Development of Universal Methods for Calculating Environmental Risk at Unauthorized Landfills]. Saint Petersburg, Sankt-Peterburgskiy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy tsentr ekologicheskoy bezopasnosti RAN Publ., 2011, p. 3.
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  10. Chura N.N. O terminologii i osnovnykh ponyatiyakh bezopasnosti (na primere stat'i Yayli E.A. «Kontseptsiya riska dlya upravleniya urovnem ekologicheskoy bezopasnosti na urbanizirovannykh territoriyakh», opublikovannoy v zhurnale «Bezopasnost' zhiznedeyatel'nosti». 2009, ¹ 5) [On Terminology and Basic Concepts of Security (on the Example of the Article Yayli E.A. "Risk Concepts for Controlling the Level of Environmental Security on Urbanized Territories", Published in the Journal Life Safety. 2009, no.5]. Bezopasnost' zhiznedeyatel'nosti [Life Safety]. 2009, no. 10, pp. 46—48.

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Principles of managing ecologically safe architectural reconstruction of the territories affected by waste disposal of different genesis

Vestnik MGSU 7/2014
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Vorontsov Evgeniy Anatol'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Tupitsyna Ol'ga Vladimirovna - Samara State Technical University (SSTU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Docent, Associate Professor, Department of Chemical Technologies and Industrial Ecology, Samara State Technical University (SSTU), 244 Molodogvardeiskay str., Samara, 443100, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sukhonosova Anna Nikolaevna - Samara State Technical University (SSTU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Senior Lecturer, Department of Chemical Technologies and Industrial Ecology, Samara State Technical University (SSTU), 244 Molodogvardeiskay str., Samara, 443100, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Savel'ev Aleksey Aleksandrovich - Samara State Technical University (SSTU) postgraduate student, Department of Chemical Technologies and Industrial Ecology, Samara State Technical University (SSTU), 244 Molodogvardeiskay str., Samara, 443100, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Grishin Boris Mikhaylovich - Penza State University of Architecture and Construction (PSUAC) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Water Supply, Water Disposal and Hydrotechnics, Penza State University of Architecture and Construction (PSUAC), 28 Germana Titova str., Penza, 440028, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Chertes Konstantin L'vovich - Samara State Technical University (SSTU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Chemical Technologies and Industrial Ecology, Samara State Technical University (SSTU), 244 Molodogvardeiskay str., Samara, 443100, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 110-132

Russia as well as the majority of the countries of the world is a highly urbanized country (according to expert opinion 70 % of the country population are citizens). The situation is worsening by the fact that in Russia, as well as in the majority of European countries, USA and Canada, great territories not occupied with agriculture are almost fully littered with industrial and consumer waste - including from solid municipal waste to highly toxic and radioactive. Generally about 9 bln tones of waste are accumulated in Russia, which includes 1.5 bln tones of dangerous waste. Basing on the analysis of more than 100 waste disposal objects in Samara region the authors showed that within its boundaries 17 landfills are situated, which after deactivation are potentially suitable as donors of recultivation materials: secondary mineral soils and soil substitutes. Moreover the separate remediated territories of can serve as sets for constructing waste neutralization complexes. The ideas presented in this work were used for estimating the state and justifying the methods of landfill recultivation in Zhigulevsk (Samara region).

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.110-132

References
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  5. Yazhlev I.K. Ekologicheskoe ozdorovlenie zagryaznennykh proizvodstvennykh i gorodskikh territoriy: monografiya [Ecological Remediation of the Polluted Industrial and Urban Territories. Monograph]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2012, 272 p.
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  7. Telichenko V.I., Potapov A.D., Shcherbina E.V. Nadezhnoe i effektivnoe stroitel'stvo na tekhnogenno zagryaznennykh territoriyakh [Sustainable and Efficient Construction on Technogenic Polluted Territories]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 1997, no. 8, pp. 31—32.
  8. Shcherbina E.V. Ekologicheskaya bezopasnost' mest razmeshcheniya otkhodov s pozitsiy ustoychivosti geotekhnicheskikh sistem [Ecological Safety of Landfills in Terms of Stability of Geotechnical Systems]. Sovremennye metody proektirovaniya, tekhnicheskoy ekspluatatsii i rekonstruktsii zdaniy i sooruzheniy: sbornik trudov MGSU [Contemporary Methods of Design, Technical Operation and Reconstruction of Buildings and Structures: Collection of Works of MGSU]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2005, pp. 109—112.
  9. Shcherbina E.V., Alekseev A.A. Razrabotka effektivnykh prirodookhrannykh konstruktsiy i tekhnologiy na osnove geokompozitsionnykh sistem [Development of Efficient Environment-oriented Structures and Technologies Basing on Geocompositional Systems]. Nauchno-tekhnicheskie innovatsii v stroitel'stve: sbornik dokladov [Scientific and Technical Innovations in Construction: Collection of Papers]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2004, pp. 92—96.
  10. Potapov A.D., Pupyrev E.I., Potapov P.A. Metody lokalizatsii i obrabotki fil'trata poligonov zakhoroneniya tverdykh bytovykh otkhodov [Localization and Processing Methods for Filtrate of Municipal Solid Waste Landfills]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2004, 167 p.
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  13. Bykov D.E, Chertes K.L., Tupitsyna O.V. Rekul'tivatsiya massivov organo-mineral'nykh otkhodov [Recultivation of Organic Mineral Waste Soils]. Samara, SamGTU Publ., 2007, 118 p.
  14. Dudler I.V., Lyarskiy S.P., Vorontsov E.A., Shul'gin P.Yu. Kriterii neobkhodimosti, prioritety i printsipy predproektnykh inzhenerno-geologicheskikh izyskaniy [Necessity Criteria, Prioroties and Principles of Pre-design Engineering Geological Investigations]. Rol' inzhenernoy geologii i izyskaniy na predproektnykh etapakh stroitel'nogo osvoeniya territoriy: Sergeevskie chteniya [The Role of Engineering Geology and Investigations on Pre-Design Stages of Construction Development of the Territory: Sergeev Readings]. Moscow, RUDN Publ., 2012, no. 142, pp. 337—341.
  15. Vorontsov E.A. Sposob kolichestvennoy otsenki inzhenerno-geologicheskoy informatsii i primery ego ispol'zovaniya [Quantitive Estimation of Ehgineering Geological Information and Examples of its Use]. Denisovskie chteniya : sb. materialov [Denisov Readings: Collection of Works]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2000, vol. 1, pp. 94—105.
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NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR CLARIFICATION OF INTENSELY COLORED FILTRATES OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS CONCURRENTLY WITH THEIR DECONTAMINATION USING LIMEMILK AND CALCIUM SALTS

Vestnik MGSU 8/2013
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Konygin Aleksandr Aleksandrovich - ECOTECH-MOSCOW Limited Liability Company principal specialist, ECOTECH-MOSCOW Limited Liability Company, 6/8 B. Pionerskaya st., Moscow, 115054, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 116-122

The authors studied the effect of the process parameters (pH, concentration of Ca2+) on precipitation of humic acids contained in the filtrate of solid waste in the process of its decontamination using lime. The content of contaminants in the filtrate was monitored through the employment of well-known methodologies using methods of optical molecular and atomic spectroscopy; pH values were monitored through the employment of the potentiometric method. In some cases, chemical oxygen demand was measured to identify changes of the content of organic substances in the solution. Concentration of humic substances was identified by measuring the absorption spectra in the UV and in the visible range and by applying the calibration curve. Samples of humic and fulvic acids produced by Ecoanalitika Open Joint Stock Company were used for benchmarking purposes.The optimal amount of lime milk for the purpose of precipitation of humic substances in the filtrate is equal to 24 g/l. It is proven that any further increase of the lime milk flow is limited by the increase of the residual calcium concentration in the purified solution. Consumption of lime milk in the course of clarification of filtrates may be reduced by sharing it with calcium salts. By adding 10% of calcium chloride to the lime milk content, lime milk consumption may be reduced by 50%.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.8.116-122

References
  1. Konygin A.A., Skvortsov L.S., Seliverstov A.F. Ochistka fil'trata poligonov zakhoroneniya tverdykh bytovykh otkhodov [Treatment of Filtrate of Waste Landfills]. Vodosnabzhenie i kanalizatsiya [Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal]. 2010, no. 1–2, pp. 124—127.
  2. Goncharuk V.V., Shkavro Z.N., Kucheruk D.D. Kompleksnaya ochistka stochnykh vod svalok tverdykh bytovykh otkhodov [Integrated wastewater treatment of municipal solid waste landfills]. Khimiya i tekhnologiya vody [Chemistry and Technology of Water]. 2007, vol. 29, no. 1, p. 55—66.
  3. Wilson A.L. J. Analytical Aspects of Chemically Modified Electrodes: Classification, Critical Evaluation and Recommendations. Appl. Chem. 1960, vol. 10, 377 p.
  4. Potapov P.A., Pupyrev E.I., Potapov A.D. Metody lokalizatsii i obrabotka fil'trata poligonov zakhoroneniya tverdykh bytovykh otkhodov [Methods of Containment and Processing of the Filtrate of Solid Waste Landfills]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2004, 168 p.
  5. Stir E., Fisher M. Posobie spetsialista po ochistke stokov [Manual for Wastemater Treatment Specialists]. Warsaw, Zaydel'-Pzhivetski publ., 2002, 406 p.

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THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF RETIREMENT PROGRAMS FOR OLD DUMPS

Vestnik MGSU 8/2016
  • Slyusar’ Natal’ya Nikolaevna - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Protection, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomol’skiy prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 88-99

Though the technologies of waste recycling and disposal are continuously developing, waste storage on dumps and landfills still remains one of the most popular storage methods. There are twice more illegal dumps than legal ones. Waste dumps have negative effect on the environment and attract insects, rodents and stray animals. The analysis of data on beginning of operation of municipal solid waste disposals showed that the majority of them are on the stage biogas emission and filtrate formation. The paper presents a method for environmental risk assessment for old dumps and landfills. The assessment method is based on point scoring according to a group of criteria and takes into account the objects’ sites, geological and hydrological conditions, technical facilities. The method allows ranking dumps’ sites basing on the priority for dump closing and it can be used for the development of regional programs for closing old dumps and operating municipal landfills.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.8.88-99

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The present-day geo-ecological status of landfills in the Moscow region and solutions to the problem in question

Vestnik MGSU 9/2012
  • Aleshina Tatyana Anatolevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU); Department of Engineering Geology and Geo-ecology Candidate of Technical Sciences, Senior Lecturer, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU); Department of Engineering Geology and Geo-ecology, 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolayevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 185 - 190

The authors consider the negative impact of landfills of solid domestic waste in the Moscow
region. Municipal solid waste consists of everyday items that are discarded by the public. The composition
of the municipal waste does not vary in the regions, although its amount changes significantly as the time progresses.
In the article, the authors analyze the waste accumulation rate growth per Russian inhabitant.
Today, the disposal of waste at landfills is the ultimate fate of all solid wastes in Russia. The biggest
operating landfills are concentrated in the Moscow region. Modern landfills can be dangerous to the
environment and to the public health and safety. They produce various chemical, thermal, mechanical,
bacterial and even radioactive impacts. The authors have compiled a scheme of geo-ecological
impact of the landfill gas onto the biosphere. Different types of pollution in the areas of concentration for the solid domestic waste have a negative effect onto each environment component. The authors
provide the values of norms of payment and conversion factors for air emissions of landfills. They
are low, and they do not cover the cost of damage onto the environment. There is a need to find
ways of using the municipal solid waste in Russia for energy generation purposes.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.9.185 - 190

References
  1. Popel’ O.S. Vozobnovlyaemye istochniki energii v Rossii: problemy i perspektivy. XVIII Mendeleevskiy s”ezd po obshchey i prikladnoy khimii [Renewable energy sources in Russia: problems and prospects. Mendeleev Congress of general and applied chemistry]. Moscow, 2007, vol. 3, p. 146.
  2. Postanovlenie Pravitel’stva g. Moskvy no. 9-PP ot 15 yanvarya 2008 g. «Ob utverzhdenii norm nakopleniya tverdykh bytovykh otkhodov i krupnogabaritnogo musora». [Resolution of the Government of Moscow ¹ 9-PP of 15.01.2008 «On approval of norms of accumulation of waste»].
  3. Project of the Regional Target Program «Handling of Waste in the Moscow Region 2006—2015». March 2th, 2005, no. 6/131.
  4. Federal Law «On Industrial and Consumer Wastes», 1998.
  5. Tverdye bytovye otkhody [Solid Domestic Waste]. Scientific Practical Journal, no. 10 (64), 2011.
  6. Aleshina T.A. Geoekologicheskoe modelirovanie vozdeystviy biogaza poligonov TBO na okruzhayushchuyu sredu [Geo-ecological Modeling of the Landfill Gas Impact onto the Environment]. MGSU Publ., 2011.
  7. Federal Law «On Environmental Protection», 2002.
  8. Petrova T.V. Pravovye problemy ekonomicheskogo mekhanizma okruzhayushchey sredy [Legal Problems of the Economic Mechanism of the Environment]. Moscow, Zertsalo Publ., 2000.
  9. Postanovlenie Pravitel’stva Moskvy ot 28 aprelya 2001 g. ¹131/16 «Ob indeksatsii platy za zagryaznenie okruzhayushchey sredy na territorii Moskovskoy oblasti». [Resolution of the Government of Moscow of 28.04.2001 no. 131/16 «Indexation of payment for the abuse of the environment in the Moscow region»].
  10. P’yankova E.D. Otsenka i minimizatsiya vozdeystviya na okruzhayushchuyu sredu poligonov TBO [Assessment and Mitigation of Impacts of Landfills onto the Environment]. St.Petersburg, 2007.

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