Architecture and Urban Planning. Reconstruction and Refurbishment

HISTORIC STONE BUILDINGS OF RYAZAN: COMPOSITIONAL FEATURES OF FACADES

Vestnik MGSU 4/2018 Volume 13
  • Pankratova Anna Alekseevna - Ryazan Institute (branch) of the Moscow Polytechnic University (RI(f) MPU); Department of Design of Buildings and Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Architect, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning; senior lecturer; Postgraduate Student, Ryazan Institute (branch) of the Moscow Polytechnic University (RI(f) MPU); Department of Design of Buildings and Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 9 Lenina sq., Rybnoe, 391110, Ryazan oblast; 26/53 Right-Lybidska str., Ryazan, 390000, Russian Federation; 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 435-445

Subject: with the increasing pace of construction in the city’s historic centers, as the loss of historic buildings continues, the buildings’ significance and integrity of the environment could be compromised. In this article, the problems of preservation and use of historic buildings in modern architecture of the city of Ryazan are considered. Research objectives: the study and identification of compositional features of facades of historic buildings in the city of Ryazan and their comparison with the compositional techniques in the formation of facades of more recent buildings. Materials and methods: through field observations and graph plotting, the author conducts typological and compositional analysis of historic buildings and also analyzes some buildings of the 2000s. Results: we considered buildings of Lenin street, where, closer to the historical center, prevail the buildings of the period of construction of the late 18th - early 20th centuries, and in the opposite direction - the buildings of the Soviet period and contemporary construction. A comparison of the constructions of facades of historic and contemporary buildings shows that the presence of compositional technique system is not a sufficient condition for preservation of integrity and identity of the historical and cultural environment of the city. Important factors are also the scale and magnitude of composition, symmetry, etc. Conclusions: the author reveals the characteristic compositional techniques in the formation of facades of historic buildings. The influence of their practical application in modern construction on architectural integrity and identity of urban environment is noted.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.4.435-445

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CITY PASSENGER TRANSPORT AS A FACTOR OF PLANNING BRIDGEHEAD ROAD JUNCTIONS

Vestnik MGSU 4/2018 Volume 13
  • Storchak Yuriy Anatol'evich - Global Media Group e (GMGe) engineer-town-planner, Global Media Group e (GMGe), 3 Lesi Ukrainki blvd., Kiev, 01023, Ukraine; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 446-458

Subject: bridgehead road transport junctions in cities. Research objectives: estimate, by means of a number of factors, a role of different types of city passenger transport in formation of a transport and transfer component as a part of integral engineering-planning and architectural compositions of bridgehead road transport junctions. Materials and methods: scientific research is based on the contextual, theoretical, empirical and practical analysis of engineering-planning and architectural-constructive design solutions for bridgehead road transport junctions in cities. Results: on the basis of the data obtained as a result of the research, preconditions for emergence and characteristics of these engineering structures, their specifics and typological features were revealed and generalized. Also, the system classifications of the considered objects, which are the structural elements of town-planning frameworks, were created. Conclusions: the new evaluative principles and formulas are introduced. Their practical importance is defined by the author-proposed program modularity of analytical mechanisms, in particular, those ones which realize a trend of renovation of coastal territories.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.3.446-458

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ARCHITECTURAL APPEARANCE OF BUILDINGS IN NIZHNY NOVGOROD ASSOCIATED WITH N.A. DOBROLYUBOV

Vestnik MGSU 4/2018 Volume 13
  • Volkova Elena Mikhailovna - Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNSAGU) Candidate of Architecture, Аssociate Professor, Department of Standardization, Metrology and Control in Technical Systems, Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNSAGU), 65 Il’inskaya str., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 459-471

Subject: this research is relevant because it deals with the issues of historical and architectural heritage of N. Novgorod associated with Nikolai Alexandrovich Dobrolyubov (1836-1861), a literary critic, publicist, democrat, born here in the family of A.I. Dobrolyubov, a priest of the St. Nicholas Church Top-Posadskaya, and until 1853 permanently living in his hometown. He saw Nizhny Novgorod in the era of classicism, during implementation of the “Regulations about the structure of N. Novgorod” when, according to the plan of 1839, the renovation of streets, plazas and embankments was carried out, and Lykov dam (1837-1839) was built near the estate of Dobrolyubov. We examine N. Novgorod churches in the neighborhood of Kremlin, which were admired by N.A. Dobrolyubov: St. Nicholas Church (1741, lost), the Holy Myrrh-bearers Church (1649, exists), and in the Kremlin: the Archangel Michael (17th century, exists), Savior Transfiguration (1830-1834, lost) - it was the tomb of K. Minin. Instead of destroyed temples - elegant vertical dominants of metro-rhythmic compositions, in 1930-1950s the monumental buildings were built, which changed the image of the environment without creating rhythmic accents. The stone-tiered temple of the “ship”-type, Holy Myrrh-bearers Church (1649), surrounded in the 20th century by disharmonious high-rise buildings, has lost the dominant role in metro-rhythmic composition of the city. It was found out that the mansions associated with N.A. Dobrolyubov, including the house of the clergy of St. Nicholas Church, Dobrolubov’s manor, the house of the guardian siblings, have survived without changing their classic appearance. Public buildings of the period of life of N.A. Dobrolyubov, which preserved the original appearance and the style of classicism, include: N. Novgorod Theological Seminary, the house of N. Novgorod Noble Assembly. The monument of N.A. Dobrolyubov (sculptor P.I. Gusev, architect B.S. Nelyubin, 1986), mounted on B. Pokrovskaya, close to the lost St. Nicholas Church, creates a favorable environment for studying the historical heritage of N. Novgorod, which requires a comprehensive approach to its reconstruction and restoration. The scientific novelty of the study is that for the first time, on the basis of a comprehensive review of architectural appearance of buildings associated with life of N.A. Dobrolyubov in N. Novgorod from the viewpoint of systematic approach and by using various methods of analysis, we revealed their special and characteristic features, give recommendations for their reconstruction. Research objectives: reveal the degree of preservation of buildings of Nizhny Novgorod associated with Nizhny Novgorod period of life of N.A. Dobrolyubov, describe the history of their construction, determine their place among the historical and cultural heritage of the city, perform a comprehensive analysis of their architectural appearance, including a space-planning decision, stylistics, decor, the role in the composition of streets, give recommendations for their reconstruction. Materials and methods: the methodological basis of the work is a systematic approach that allows us to consider the main characteristics of architectural appearance of buildings in N. Novgorod, associated with the period of life of famous democrat-nizhegorodets of the mid-19th century. To summarize the materials obtained from archival and literary sources, the bibliographic analysis was used, and for the field surveys - photographic images and grapho-analytical approach. Results: we give a comprehensive review of architectural appearance of buildings in N. Novgorod associated with the period of life of N.A. Dobrolyubov, and introduce the history of their creation, stylistics, space-planning decision, décor into the scientific usage of data on buildings. Recommendations are given for their comprehensive reconstruction in order to increase the tourist, social and investment attractiveness of the capital of N. Novgorod region. Conclusions: the results of the study can form the basis of documents required for creation of restoration projects of buildings related to life of the famous nizhegorodets. Comprehensive approach to reconstruction of historical and architectural heritage of N. Novgorod, associated with the memory of N.A. Dobrolyubov, will contribute to improvement of the quality of social life of local population, and increase the tourist and investment attractiveness of the city and the region.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.4.459-471

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PRINCIPLES OF OVERALL ARCHITECTURAL ORGANIZATION OF SPACE OF ROADSIDE SERVICE FACILITIES IN BELARUS

Vestnik MGSU 5/2018 Volume 13
  • Malkov Igor’ Georgievich - Belarusian State University of Transport (BelSUT) Doctor of Architecture, Professor, Head of Department of Architecture, Academician of the Belarusian Academy of Architecture, Belarusian State University of Transport (BelSUT), 34 Kirova str., Gomel, 246653, Republic of Belarus.
  • Evstratenko Anzhelika Vladimirovna - Belarusian State University of Transport (BelSUT) Master, Assistant of the Department of Architecture, Belarusian State University of Transport (BelSUT), 34 Kirova str., Gomel, 246653, Republic of Belarus; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 568-578

Subject: the structure and architectural-spatial solution of the roadside service facilities along the motor roads of national importance of Belarus in relation to peculiarities of their location and the proposed methods of integration. In this article, methods of integration, into the existing landscape, of roadside service facilities in various parts of the terrain along the highways of national importance in Belarus are presented. The characteristic structure and features of these facilities are determined depending on the proposed methods of integration. Recommendations for their placement and architectural-spatial solution are given. A typical block of premises in the structure of the facilities under consideration was identified. Recommendations on the use of the obtained results are given. Objectives: determination of structure and overall architectural organization of roadside service facilities in Belarus in relation to their placement conditions. Materials and methods: the work was performed by systematization, structural and comparative analysis and generalization of data obtained during field surveys of roadside service facilities, which are located along the motor roads of national importance in Belarus, as well as by interviewing the traffic participants. During the field surveys, photographic and grapho-analytical methods were used. Moreover, a genetic analysis was carried out, a method of theoretical generalization of published materials was applied. Results: the principles and conditions for integration in relation to location of roadside service facilities of Belarus, as well as the structure and some features of the overall architectural solution of the facilities are determined according to the proposed methods. A typical block and an atypical group of premises for the facilities under consideration are identified. Conclusions: the theoretical and methodological foundations of facility placement have been developed, the characteristic structure and features of the overall architectural solution have been revealed, which makes it possible to implement more substantiated and objective solutions with respect to development of the roadside service network. The proposed classification can be used as the basis for architectural-artistic and space-planning solution of the roadside facility. In addition, this concept can be used to develop a list of requirements for appearance of service facilities under construction and for regulation of their architectural and spatial solutions.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.5.568-578

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ESTIMATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF APPLICATION OF MODELS FOR FORECASTING THE LAND DEMAND FOR CONSTRUCTION BY MUNICIPALITIES OF PRC

Vestnik MGSU 6/2018 Volume 13
  • Astaf’ev Sergey Aleksandrovich - Baikal State University (BSU) Doctor of Economical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Economics and Investments and Real Estate Managemen, Baikal State University (BSU), 11 Lenin st., Irkutsk, 664003, Russian Federation.
  • Guo Yi - Baikal State University (BSU) Postgraduate, Department of Economics and Investments and Real Estate Management, Baikal State University (BSU), 11 Lenin st., Irkutsk, 664003, Russian Federation.

Pages 678-685

Subject: economic and mathematical methods for forecast of the development of a city conducted for the purpose of more accurate determination of the need for land resources. Development of a city is related to development of construction branch which, in turn, reflects the state of economy. If construction process is conducted, the new enterprises emerge and taxes come to all types of budget from new urban areas, etc. Therefore, forecasting the need for land resources for construction of residential and nonresidential real estate needs to be carried out more qualitatively and carefully, applying various scientific methods. Research objectives: the study of the theoretical and methodological foundations of forecasting the use of land for city’s development and application of the model for forecasting the growth of the city’s territory to increase the economic efficiency of the municipal budget under conditions of the PRC legislation. Materials and methods: correlation-regression analysis, Markov chains, “gray” Markov chains. Results: on the basis of analysis of various economic-mathematical models, whose application is possible when forecasting the needs of cities in construction of buildings, plants and factories, comparison of several common prediction methods is carried out: correlation-regression analysis and “gray” model (GM (1,1)). Upgrade of the Markov chain model is proposed with allowance for uncertainty factors. On the basis of the dynamics of the Zhangqiu land growth, using the proposed “gray” Markov chains, a forecast was made and its statistical, mathematical and economic significance was confirmed, which makes it possible to propose the application of the proposed model to predict the growth of any cities, including the ones in the Russian Federation. Conclusions: practical application of the proposed mathematical method under conditions of uncertainty of long-term forecasts on the example of forecast of city’s needs in land resources will increase the accuracy and economic efficiency of creation of master plans.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.6.678-685

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The history of the construction and reconstruction of the Yaroslavsky station

Vestnik MGSU 8/2018 Volume 13
  • Posvyatenko Yulia V. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, senior lecturer of the Department of History and Philosophy; ORCID: 0000-0002-1594-6128., Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 912-923

Subject: the subject of this research is the extension of the history of the Yaroslavsky Station building and its interiors’ reconstruction and restoration caused by changes in the cultural and historical development of Russia. Objective: to generalize the scattered data related to the Yaroslavsky station building construction and reconstruction; to find out what the impact of external conditions related to the various periods of development of Russian history and culture on the appearance of the station was; to find actual materials about restorers’ actions in the last decades; to trace the change in the functional peculiarities of the station. Methods: the methodology of the article is based on the principles of objectivity, consistency and historicism. With the help of historical and genetic method, the conditions that gave birth to the need to create the station, the reasons that contributed to the constant changes in the design of the building, its interiors and their content were examined. The functioning of the station building in a capital city was described by systematization of separate materials, generalization and analysis of data from various sources. Results: the main result was the statement that the Yaroslavsky station, being an important public building, retains significant changes in the development of Russian society in its history and appearance and reflects new ideas implemented in construction practice. Significant changes in the appearance and scale of the station building were noted; they occurred after the revolutionary events of 1917, the victory in the Great Patriotic War, the increase in passenger flow in the 1960s and attempts to restore the elements of historical interiors and exteriors of the station of the Shekhtel’s reconstruction time since the 1990s. The actual materials for the reconstruction and restoration of the station building in last decades, the expansion of the functions of the station premises, as well as the prospects for the development of work in this direction were elicited from various sources. Conclusion: the interesting experience of construction and reconstruction of the Yaroslavsky station allows saving and positioning of the most valuable elements of the building, designed by outstanding architects, tracing the nature of the semantic and engineering changes. The materials complement our ideas about the mutual influence of the transport system development and public consciousness on the architecture of the railway stations. The prospects for the preservation of the cultural heritage and the expansion of its functions are shown.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.8.912-923

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Dynamics of the functional-planning development of the Chinese city of Anyang (mid 20th - beginning of the 21st century)

Vestnik MGSU 8/2018 Volume 13
  • Qu Rulan - Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPSUACE) post-graduate student of the Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPSUACE), 4 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya st., St. Petersburg, 190005, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Zavarikhin Svetozar P. - Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPSUACE) Doctor of Architecture, professor of the Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPSUACE), 4 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya st., St. Petersburg, 190005, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 924-934

Dynamics of the functional and planning development of the city of Anyang, the former capital of China, is considered. Based on the analysis of the stages of the city’s development, several master plans and the main historical urban development situations, the logic of the historical development of the functional-planning structure of Anyang is revealed. The identification and consideration of this logic in urban planning policy is one of the important conditions for the sustainable development of any historic city, including Anyang. The unconditional relevance of the topic of the article is also due to the fact that under conditions of the activity of the construction complex that has grown in the last five years, the process of transformation of the historical planning structure has begun, which negatively affects the possibility of preserving the identity of the image of the former capital of China. A high degree of detail in the analysis of interrelated factors in the formation of the city planning structure of Anyang is new in the scientific literature about this city, whose focus is limited to local lore and generalized urban planning aspects. This research approach has made it possible to identify sustainable urban development nodes and development axes, which must be taken into account in the development of modern urban planning documentation. The text and graphical illustrations of the article approve a promising methodical approach to research of the dynamics of development of historical cities. Subject: the main regularities of the interconnected development of the planning structure of Anyang in specific landscape, historical, social and economic conditions. Research objectives: by means of a comparative analysis of the parameters of the original landscape, historical plans and data for the dynamics of economic development, we reveal the main patterns of the development of the planning structure of Anyang. Materials and methods: the nature and parameters of the original landscape were studied using cartographic material by calculating the difference in the altitude of the earth along the latitudinal and meridional directions, and by making sections along the site, including river valleys. All data is in metric system of measurement. With a qualitative assessment of individual sites and zones, we took into account the seasonality, direction and power of the wind according to the data of reference books [1, 2]. The historical and social characteristics of the identified periods of development of Anyang were compiled on the basis of demographic data on the composition and size of population [3, 4], as well as according to the official reports of the governmental structures of Anyang [5, 6]. Stages of economic development of the city were determined on the basis of official sources [7, 8]. A comparative analysis of city plans and master plans was carried out by layer-by-layer overlapping of the developed planning schemes, reduced to the same scale in the metric system of measurement. We particularly focused on separate urban development nodes and directions of highways and roads which steadily maintained their position. Results: the study revealed the main regularities of the interrelated development of the planning structure of Anyang in specific landscape, historical, social and economic conditions. Conclusions: the conducted research made it possible to identify basic regularities of the historical development of the planning structure of Anyang, induced by landscape, historical, social and economic factors, such as the stage-by-stage enrichment of the initially basic orthogonal planning structure by more free layouts and the formation of the cruciform system of the main planning axes.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.8.924-934

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Analysis of heat losses in stoves. The real efficiency of the furnace

Vestnik MGSU 11/2018 Volume 13
  • Shevyakov Vladimir V. - Candidate of Technical Sciences, independent researcher; ORCID 0000-0001-5946-2742..

Pages 1296-1304

Introduction. An approach to the development of recommendations on the choice of operating modes of the furnace and of its design parameters is presented. Efficiency of a household stove is a rather broad concept by which the uniform heating of stove surfaces and heat transfer over time, etc. are understood. The ability of the stove to receive heat from burning wood and transfer heat to the room with minimal losses is the technical characteristics, which we will consider. The operation of any furnace is cyclic. Each cycle consists of two parts: the accumulation of heat (the mode of the furnace, the combustion of wood) and the heat transfer to a heated room (the mode of heat release). The furnace furnace mode is characterized by the efficiency of the furnace. Not all the heat left in the furnace is transferred to the room. Part of the heat goes into the foundation and through the valves in the pipe. The estimation of heat losses and the amount of carbon monoxide in a household oven, recommendations for their reduction are given. Materials and methods. A detailed analysis and assessment of heat losses, an estimate of the amount of carbon monoxide in a household oven, and the development of recommendations for their reduction are given. Results. The results of the study and analysis are used to develop ecommendations on the choice of operating modes of the furnace and the choice of its design parameters. Conclusions. The results of the work can be recommended in the development of domestic stoves.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.11.1296-1304

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Increase of strength of partially destroyed wood of monuments of wooden architecture

Vestnik MGSU 11/2018 Volume 13
  • Pokrovskaya Elena N. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 1305-1314

Introduction. Monuments of wooden architecture - an invaluable part of the national culture, they reflect the originality and independence of the national architecture. The problem of preservation of monuments of wooden architecture with the passage of time is becoming increasingly important. Many monuments were burned; some were destroyed due to the loss of structural strength under the influence of humidity, biodestruction, etc. Materials and methods. The samples of partially destroyed wood of the Anglican Church of the city of Arkhangelsk, built in 1833, were studied. The samples were subjected to surface modification with the formation of a two-layer sandwich coating, the first layer of which was various phosphorus-containing flame retardants, and the second layer - polymer composites. As polymer composites, glue based on epoxy resin and polyurethane composition “Akvidur TT” were used. The reactive organophosphorus compounds, capable of forming covalent bonds with wood polymers in the surface layer of partially destroyed wood, were chosen as flame retardants. Modified samples were subjected to physicochemical studies to determine the strength, fire resistance, hydrophobicity. The strength of the modified samples was compared with the strength of the untreated samples of partially destroyed wood of the Anglican Church of Arkhangelsk. The appearance of covalent bonds between the wood and the modifier was determined by Fourier-transform spectroscopy. Results. Surface modification of the samples of the monument increased the strength of wood by 2-2.5 times, reduced water absorption by 3 times, reduced the loss of mass during combustion according to GOST 27484-87 to 5.0-6.4 %. Conclusions. The study solves the urgent problem of preservation of monuments of wooden architecture by increasing the strength of partially destroyed wood, as well as giving it fire resistance, hydrophobicity and biostability in carrying out restoration work.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.11.1305-1314

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