Construction System Safety. Environmental Challenges in Construction. Environmental Geology

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF POOR SPECIFICATION ON BUILDING COLLAPSE IN NIGERIA

Vestnik MGSU 5/2018 Volume 13
  • Adewale Bukola - Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria BukolaPhd Architecture, Lecturer, Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria, Km 10 Idiroko Road, Cannan Land Ota Ogun State, Nigeria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Alalade Gbenga M. - Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria Phd Architecture, Lecturer, Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria, Km 10 Idiroko Road, Cannan Land Ota Ogun State, Nigeria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Akinwande Adeolu - Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria Bsc Architecture, Mr, Post graduate student, Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria, Km 10 Idiroko Road, Cannan Land Ota Ogun State, Nigeria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Daramola Ayotilerewa Adeboye - Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria BTech Architecture, Mr, Post graduate student, Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria, Km 10 Idiroko Road, Cannan Land Ota Ogun State, Nigeria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Joseph Anthonia - Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria Bsc Architecture, Miss, Post graduate student, Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria, Km 10 Idiroko Road, Cannan Land Ota Ogun State, Nigeria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Odili Adaobi - Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria Bsc Architecture, Miss, Post graduate student, Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria, Km 10 Idiroko Road, Cannan Land Ota Ogun State, Nigeria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Odugbesan Ayotunde - Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria Bsc Architecture, Mr, Post graduate student, Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria, Km 10 Idiroko Road, Cannan Land Ota Ogun State, Nigeria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Ogunleye Adeyemi - Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria Bsc Architecture, Mr, Post graduate student, Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria, Km 10 Idiroko Road, Cannan Land Ota Ogun State, Nigeria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Adeleke Joyce - Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria Bsc Architecture, Miss, Post graduate student, Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria, Km 10 Idiroko Road, Cannan Land Ota Ogun State, Nigeria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Oyeyiola Moyosore - Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria Bsc Architecture, Miss, Post graduate student, Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria, Km 10 Idiroko Road, Cannan Land Ota Ogun State, Nigeria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Famurewa Oluwasina - Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria BTech Architecture, Mr, Post graduate student, Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria, Km 10 Idiroko Road, Cannan Land Ota Ogun State, Nigeria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Oladapo Mustapha - Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria Bsc Architecture, Mr, Post graduate student, Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria, Km 10 Idiroko Road, Cannan Land Ota Ogun State, Nigeria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Olumuyiwa Oluwatobi - Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria Bsc Architecture, Mr, Post graduate student, Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria, Km 10 Idiroko Road, Cannan Land Ota Ogun State, Nigeria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Eyiaro Segun - Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria Bsc Architecture, Mr, Post graduate student, Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria, Km 10 Idiroko Road, Cannan Land Ota Ogun State, Nigeria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Oyeshomo Temilade - Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria Bsc Architecture, Miss, Post graduate student, Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria, Km 10 Idiroko Road, Cannan Land Ota Ogun State, Nigeria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Ugah Uzodinma - Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria Bsc Architecture, Mr, Post graduate student, Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria, Km 10 Idiroko Road, Cannan Land Ota Ogun State, Nigeria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Eke Wonders - Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria Bsc Architecture, Mr, Post graduate student, Covenant University Ota Ogun State Nigeria, Km 10 Idiroko Road, Cannan Land Ota Ogun State, Nigeria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 609-623

This paper examines the effects of specification on building collapse in Nigeria. The study became necessary due to the ugly cases of buildings collapsing in the country over the years. In doing so, the study begins with review of relevant literature on the concept of specification, as well as the factors associated with building collapse. The need for specification in building construction projects was enunciated upon. Other factors that culminate in building collapse, such as load types; man-power; technical skills, etc. are discussed herein. The study further examines identifies and documents cases of building collapse in Nigeria to identify the causes and factors responsible for the collapse. Interviews were conducted with practicing professionals in the construction industry. This was done to obtain professional insights and experiences used as part of the data in the research. Findings from this study highlights consequential role of poor specification in causing building collapse, loss of lives and properties. This paper concludes with identifying the relevance of specification in ensuring adherence to appropriate materials and construction methods for structural stability. Recommendations are given to guard against poor specifications that result in the collapse of buildings, properties and ultimately loss of lives.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.5.609-623

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Ecological substantiation of formation of the large city planting system

Vestnik MGSU 8/2018 Volume 13
  • Knyazev Dmitry K. - Volgograd state technical university (VSTU) candidate of technical sciences, associate professor “Ecological building and municipal economy”, Volgograd state technical university (VSTU), 28 V.I. Lenin avenue, Volgograd, 400005, Russian Federation.

Pages 973-983

The subject of the research: the ecological justification of planting a large city in the context of the formation of conditions for its sustainable development. Objectives: to develop a methodology for determining priorities for planting to minimize the risks of damage to the environment and public health. Materials and methods: statistical and cartographic data, full-scale investigations of insolation regime and humidity characteristics, compositional city planning and technogenic nuances that cause the ecology of a million-industrial city (using an example of Volgograd). Research methods - statistical and cartographo-correlation analysis, geoinformation modeling, valuation technique for spread of pollution on the ground. Results: local and summary maps of atmospheric air pollution in Volgograd were built by industrial enterprises with the definition of the boundaries of pollution and the population under the influence; the zones of noise pollution and dispersion of carbon monoxide from motor vehicles (up to 180 m) were estimated, and as well as a higher content of heavy metals in soils near highways with a higher percentage of freight transport in the stream was detected; the oppressed state of the system of urban planting and below the normative provision of the population with plantations of common use were revealed. It has been established that sanitary protection zones do not have the proper density of green mass. Direct correlation between pollution levels and morbidity indicators, as well as inverse relationships between morbidity rates and the degree of planting are revealed. The author’s algorithm for calculating the requirement ratio for planting (KPO) is developed, which allows to assess the ecological picture of the analyzed territory, its potential for living / recreation of the citizens without the risk of causing direct harm or long-term health consequences, and the requirement for operational implementation environmental protection measures in the form of planting. Conclusions: 1) in Volgograd, foci of ecological disadvantage have clearly formed, under unfavorable weather conditions, at least 120,000 people will be exposed; 2) planting is in a depressed state, and the population’s supply of public green spaces is below the standard level by 2.5 times as a whole in the city and 3-4 times in some administrative districts; 3) the revealed correlation links testify to the negative impact of man-made impact factors and the compensation potential of the public access system of urban planting; 4) the developed author’s algorithm for calculating the requirement ratio for planting (KPO) allowed to carry out a comprehensive ecological zoning in Volgograd, to determine the priorities for environmental protection measures and from the ecological point of view to structure the concept of urban planting.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.8.973-983

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Filtration model of the rock foundation of the dam pressure

Vestnik MGSU 10/2018 Volume 13
  • Chernyshev Sergey N. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of engineering research and geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Zommer Tatyana V. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Lecturer, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Zommer Victor L. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Aspirant, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 1251-1259

Introduction. Presented the approach to the create a filtration model of the base of the hydroelectric system, built by mathematical and statistical generalization of the results of mass filtration testing of the rock mass. In the proposed filtration model, the rock base is divided into several engineering-geological design elements with different permeability. Materials and methods. The most common approach to build the model is determine the points of the array hydraulic pumping and injection of water into the well, as well as by calculation, when the filtration coefficient of the array is calculated on the parameters of cracks. Results. One of the advantages of the proposed form of the filtration model of the rocky foundation of the hydroelectric complex is the form and method of its construction by means of mathematical and statistical generalization of the results of mass filtration testing of the rock massif. Conclusions. In of civil engineering the filtration model of the base of the hydraulic unit can be built on the results of the poson filtration testing of drilling wells at certain points of the rock mass. The difficult task of dividing the base massif into zones with different water permeability is solved on the basis of a geological-genetic approach in combination with mathematical and statistical analysis. The practical significance of this filtration model is that it can be used to design reliable hydraulic structures while ensuring stability and minimizing filtration losses.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.10.1251-1259

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Sources and causes of surface water pollution in Hanoi (Vietnam)

Vestnik MGSU 10/2018 Volume 13
  • Nguyen Dinh Dap - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) postgraduate student, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Telichenko Valery I. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Academician of RAACS, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Slesarev Mikhail Yu. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Construction of Heat and Nuclear Power Facilities, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 1234-1242

Introduction. One of the most significant environmental problems facing the Vietnamese city of Hanoi is anthropogenic pollution of surface water, especially in the To Lich river system. Currently, these rivers accept large quantities of wastewater from urban areas and industrial zones, which effluents are not treated prior to discharge into water bodies. The results of the study show that surface water in Hanoi has been contaminated by direct discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater. Considered the To Lich river system, including the To Lich, Lu, Set and Kim Nguu rivers, which receive sewage pollution from urban areas, industrial zones and other sources. Materials and methods. The most common approach to improving the situation is to identify sources of syrface water pollution and assess the quality of To Lich river and its tributaries in order to develop and propose effective and synchronous solurion for the management of water safety and quality in the water bodies of Hanoi city. The water samples were preserved and analysed in the laboratory of Environmental Analysis in accordance with standard Vietnamese methods. For this purpose, analytic apparatus, including Shimadzu AAS 6800 atomic absorption spectrophotometre (Japan), UV-VIS spectrometre, as well as a number of common laboratory instruments and equipment, are used. Results. The results of the study show that surface water in Hanoi has been contaminated by direct discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater. For many years, the rivers have been covered with rubbish, with the water turning black in colour and having an unpleasant smell. The primary cause of the pollution is drainage from many surrounding households discharging waste water directly into the rivers. Conclusions. In order to restore the aqueous ecosystems of Hanoi city, it is necessary to conduct continuous environmental monitoring of changes in the state of water bodies and develop effective and timely solutions for the management of safety and quality of water in the waterways of Hanoi.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.10.1234-1242

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Warehouse premises and tank farms fire safety problem

Vestnik MGSU 10/2018 Volume 13
  • Anisimov Mikhail A - University of Maryland Distinguished University Professor, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
  • Degaev Evgeniy N. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Associate Professor, Department of housing and communal complex, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 1243-1250

Introduction. Presented the approach to studying impact of foaming agent process solution shelf life on the surface activity and fire-extinguishing efficiency of foams. One of the most important problems in construction is to ensure fire safety of construction objects. Fires arising at industrial facilities and construction sites are always catastrophic, both for the economy and for the environment. Storage facilities and tanks in which various types of materials and substances, often toxic and fire-hazardous, can be stored are of particular danger. Addresses the problem of oil product warehouse premises and tank farms fire safety using foam extinguishing system. The problem consists in reduction of foaming agent concentration in the process solution during long-term storage. Concentration reduction is expressed in a surface activity decrease and in violation of spreading coefficient structure, namely, by an increase in surface and interfacial tension. Consequently, the use of foaming agent process solution for extinguishing fire at oil product warehouse premises and tank farms that is not capable of providing required foam expansion ratio and spreading coefficient for successful subsurface suppression of oil products flame. Materials and methods. Four brands of fluorinated foaming agents are tested according to the methods described in GOST R 50588-2012 “Foaming agents for fire extinguishing. General technical requirements and testing methods” and GOST R 53280.2-2010 “Automatic fire extinguishing units. Fire extinguishing agents. Part 2. Foaming agents for subsurface suppression of oil and oil products fires in tanks. General technical requirements and testing methods”. Results. The studies have shown that foam quality determining fire extinguishing capacity of foam extinguishing system changes over foaming agent process solution shelf life and depends on spreading coefficient structure, which is characterized by surface and interfacial tension values for foaming agent process solution. Conclusions. The process solutions made from modern (biologically soft) fluorinated foaming agents decrease in their surface activity over time and become unsuitable for oil products subsurface suppression. To maintain efficiency of the foam extinguishing system used to ensure fire safety of oil product warehouse premises and tank farms, age of the process solution in the circulating pipeline system should not exceed one day.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.10.1243-1250

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Use of reverse osmosis to modify biological wastewater treatment

Vestnik MGSU 10/2018 Volume 13
  • Dabrowski Wojciech - Bialystok University of Technology (BUT) Ph D with habilitation, assistant professor, Bialystok University of Technology (BUT), 45 E Wiejska st., 15-351 Bialystok, Poland.
  • Pervov Alexei G. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Water Supply and Sanitation, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Tikhonov Konstantin V. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) post-graduate student of the Department of Water Supply and Sanitation, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 1220-1233

ABSTRACT Introduction. The article reports on new research into improved reverse osmosis techniques and their expanded application in wastewater treatment practice. The results of experiments aimed at determining the operational characteristics of membrane facilities that treat wastewater are presented. A new method utilising reverse osmosis to decrease concentrate effluents is proposed. Flow diagrams and mass balance equations are used to demonstrate the principles underlying the new techniques. Objectives - development of reverse osmosis techniques as a novel tool for improving and modifying existing biological wastewater treatment schemes; economic evaluation of advantages in combining reverse osmosis with biological treatment processes in wastewater treatment applications; development of the required operational modes for membrane units used to treat wastewater. Materials and methods. A state-of-the-art review describes examples of the application of reverse osmosis in current wastewater treatment practices. Results of experimental research providing data for determining membrane operational parameters are presented. Analysis of results and their discussion are presented. Results. A new membrane technique that provides high product water quality and utilisation of concentrate effluents, as well as efficient removal of ammonia from reject water following sludge dewatering, is proposed. The presented results confirm the economic advantages and efficiencies of reverse osmosis applications in wastewater treatment facilities. Conclusions. The conducted investigations confirmed the high efficiency of the reverse osmosis membrane in removing all major impurities contained in wastewater following sludge digestion and during biological treatment. The use of membrane techniques thus provides efficient and reliable operation of wastewater treatment facilities. Reverse osmosis concentrate effluent can be utilised by blending with sludge or used in fertiliser production.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.10.1220-1233

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Fire hazard of phosphorus-containing hard casting polyurethane foams

Vestnik MGSU 12/2018 Volume 13
  • Ushkov Valentin A. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) , Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Sokoreva Evgeniya V. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) , Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Goryunova Anna V. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) , Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Demjanenko Stanislav A. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) , Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 1524-1532

Introduction. Fire-safe rigid filling polyurethane foams (PUF), meant for low-temperature thermal insulation of pipelines and technological equipment were developed. The effect of concentration of oxyethylated tetraalkylphosphonate pentaerythritol (phostetrol-1) on technological, physico-mechanical and thermal properties, contents of pyrolysis products and main fire hazard indicators of PUFs was explored. The effect of chemical nature and metal compounds concentration of variable valence on fume-generation ability of phosphorous-containing PUFs was examined. Main technological and physico-mechanical properties and fire hazard indicators of developed styrofoams are provided. Materials and methods. Rigid filling PUFs were obtained on the basis of simple oxyethylated polyols and polyisocyanate. Phostetrol-1 was used as a reactive phosphorous-containing compound. As a foaming and hardening catalyst of developed PUF’s a nitrogen-containing polyol (mark Lapromol 294) and dimethylethanolamine was used, and as a foaming agent - mixture of freon - 11 and water. Different metal compounds of variable valence were used to reduce fume-generation ability and toxicity of pyrolysis products of rigid phosphorous-containing PUFs. Thermal properties of examined PUFs were studied with the help of thermoanalytical complex Du PONT 9000. Main technological and physico-mechanical properties and fire hazard indicators of styrofoams were determined under existing GOSTs. Results. The effect of phostetrol-1 concentration in polyester compound on main technological and physico-mechanical properties, contents of pyrolysis products and main fire hazard indicators of rigid filling PUFs was established. It is shown that to obtain moderately flammable PUFs the phosphorous concentration in styrofoam must exceed 2.5 mass. %. The correlation between low-scale evaluation methods of flammability of rigid PUFs was found. The effect of phosphorous concentration on fume-generation ability and contents of pyrolysis products of rigid PUFs was found. The effect of chemical nature and metal compounds concentration of variable valence on fume-generation ability of phosphorous-containing PUFs was examined. It is shown that effective decrease of fume-generation ability and toxicity of pyrolysis products of moderately flammable PUFs occurs when Cu2O or chrome spinels are introduced to the polyester compound. Conclusions. As a result of conducted research it was established that the combined use of phostetrol-1, Cu2O and chrome spinels makes it possible to obtain rigid fire-safe PUFs with high physico-mechanical properties. Fire-safe rigid filling PUFs, developed with the use of raw native materials, are recommended to be used for low-temperature thermal insulation of pipelines and technological equipment.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.12.1524-1532

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Structural and construction design of the system and structures of the supply and distribution of air in the treatment of waste

Vestnik MGSU 1/2019 Volume 14
  • Zelentsov Danila V. - Samara State Technical University (Samara Polytech) Candidate of Engineering Science, Associate Professor, Head of the Heat and Gas Supply and Ventilation Chair, Samara State Technical University (Samara Polytech), 244 Molodogvardeyskaya st., Samara, 443100, Russian Federation.
  • Tupitsyna Olga V. - Samara State Technical University (Samara Polytech) Doctor of Engineering Science, Professor of the Chemical Technology and Industrial Ecology Chair, Samara State Technical University (Samara Polytech), 244 Molodogvardeyskaya st., Samara, 443100, Russian Federation.
  • Chertes Konstantin L. - Samara State Technical University (Samara Polytech) Doctor of Engineering Science, Professor of the Chemical Technology and Industrial Ecology Chair, Samara State Technical University (Samara Polytech), 244 Molodogvardeyskaya st., Samara, 443100, Russian Federation.

Pages 118-125

Introduction. Neutralization methods (including composting) are widely used in the technologies of chemical and biothermal oxidation of organic matter. A promising method of waste management is their biothermal composting using controlled gas flows. The methods of process intensification are described: the introduction of inoculating additives, increasing the homogeneity of the mixture, recycling of composts, natural and forced low-pressure and high-pressure aeration, and several others. One example of the implementation of these technologies is the disposal of oil-contaminated soils. Materials and methods. The description of the implemented complexes of biothermal composting of oil-contaminated soils: functional zoning, design solutions. The main functional zones are shown: input control section, intermediate placement area, continuous forced aeration zone (inoculation), periodic forced aeration zone (stacked cavalier biodegradation), and natural aeration zone without mixing (ripening zone). The main element of the complex is the combined aeration system (forced from blower devices and natural mechanical mixing). The expediency of using high-pressure forced aeration to intensify the composting process is shown. Results. The developed mode of operation of the aeration system of the composted mass is described: the initial process of incomplete oxidation of organic matter in stacks of inoculation with a constant air flow and the final decomposition of organic matter with a periodic air flow. The constructive design of the high-pressure forced aeration system used to intensify the composting process is given. Aerobic biothermal composting is performed in aerated piles, which are formed on sites with a waterproof coating. Aeration, necessary to accelerate the decomposition of organic matter in the composts, is carried out in natural (mixing with a ladle) and artificial (purging) conditions. For purging use a system of perforated pipes and blower station. Describes measures to protect pipelines (ducts) from aggressive environmental exposure and increase their service life, to ensure the efficiency of the aeration system in an emergency. Conclusions. The possibility of practical implementation of gas flow control technology in the design, construction and operation of biothermal treatment of waste is shown. The implementation of the projects described in the article showed the need to create a generalized mathematical model that would describe in general terms the behavior of gas flows in heterophase wastes.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2019.1.118-125

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