ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

PLANS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNDERGROUND SPACE OF MOSCOW

Vestnik MGSU 1/2013
  • Belyaev Valeriy L’vovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Building Design and Urban Development, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye Shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 35-46

Cities tend to widely employ their underground space whenever selection of the model of compact spatial development is under discussion. There’s been growth in the complexity of approaches (“underground cities” of Canada and Japan), their planning, validity, consistency of implementation (master plans of underground areas of cities in Finland, the Netherlands, China, Singapore, etc.).Moscow still lags behind in terms of the scale and complexity of its “Urban Underground Space”, although the city has everything in place to transfer its engineering and transportation facilities, social, scientific and industrial infrastructure under the ground. Initial steps have already been made (The Concept for the Underground Space Development and Principal Trends for the Underground Development of Moscow, parts of the City Master Plan for the period up to 2025 provide for the planned goals in the underground development of each functional area).However, new political and economic realities require a systemic consideration of the problem and improvement of conceptual approaches, as the underground space is an integral part of the developed area. In this regard, substantial reform of the public administration in this area is necessary, first of all, in the field of spatial planning, as well as coordination of the underground planning with the adjacent sectors of the economic activity, adequate development of the system of legal, information and other types of support, urban regulation and engineering research, primarily on the federal level. Successful fundraising needs an adequate mechanism of assessment of the social and economic efficiency of development of the underground space of cities.Even if new territories are annexed to Moscow, the issue of underground development remains of vital importance. This is a rare opportunity to address the ambitious task of creating a unique comfortable environment for Muscovites to assure the sustainable development of the territory according to the Urban Planning Code of the Russian Federation. Therefore, any amendment into the Master Plan of the city needs a differentiated assessment of expediency of any underground construction project in each area under consideration, including the assessment of planning options and further selection of the most reasonable ones.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.1.35-46

References
  1. Osnovopolagayushchie printsipy ustoychivogo prostranstvennogo razvitiya Evropeyskogo kontinenta [Founding Principles for Sustainable Development of the European Continent]. Available at: http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/heritage/cemat/VersionPrincipes/Russe.pdf. Date of access: 29.10.2012.
  2. Korotaev V.P. Moskva: gradostroitel’nyy potentsial podzemnogo prostranstva [Moscow: Urban Development Potential of the Underground Space]. Grado: zhurnal o gradostroitel’stve i arkhitekture [Grado: Magazine of Urban Development and Architecture]. 2011, no. 2, pp. 71—81.
  3. Belyaev V.L. Osnovy podzemnogo gradoustroystva [Fundamentals of the Underground Development of Cities]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2012, 198 ð.
  4. Postanovlenie Pravitel’stva Moskvy ot 19.11.2009 no. 1049-PP «O gorodskoy programme podgotovki k kompleksnomu gradostroitel’nomu osvoeniyu podzemnogo prostranstva goroda Moskvy na period 2009—2011 gg.». [Resolution of the Government of Moscow of 19.11.2009 no. 1049-pp “On the Urban Programme for the Integrated Development of the Urban Underground Space of the City of Moscow for the Period between 2009 and 2011].
  5. Zakon RSFSR ot 21.02.1992 N 2395-1 «O nedrakh» [Law of the Russian Federal Soviet Socialist Republic of 21.02.1992 no. 2395-1 «On Subsoils»]. Available at: http://www.consultant.ru/popular/nedr/. Date of access: 29.10.2012.
  6. Zakon goroda Moskvy «O General’nom plane goroda Moskvy» [Moscow City Law “On the Master Plan of the City of Moscow]. Available at: http://www. mka.mos.ru/mka/mka.nsf/va_WebPages/Genplan_2010-17zmRus. Date of access: 29.10.2012.
  7. Postanovlenie Pravitel’stva Moskvy ot 03.10.2011 ¹ 460-PP «Ob utverzhdenii Gosudarstvennoy programmy goroda Moskvy «Gradostroitel’naya politika» na 2012—2016 gg.» [Resolution of the Government of Moscow of 03.10.2011 no. 460-pp “On Approval of the State Urban Programme of Moscow “Urban Policy” for 2012-2016]. Available at: http://www.http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=MLAW;n=134756. Date of access: 29.10.2012.
  8. Gradostroitel’nyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Urban Planning Code of the Russian Federation]. Available at: http://www. base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;(n)= 12279. Date of access: 29.10.2012.

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EXPERT ANALYSIS APPROACH TO THE SITING OF MINING ENTERPRISES (EXEMPLIFIED BY KLEN GOLD AND SILVER DEPOSIT)

Vestnik MGSU 1/2013
  • Bryukhan Fedor Fedorovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) +7 (495) 922-83-19, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Lebedev Viktor Vadimovich - OOO Regional’naya Gornorudnaya Kompaniya Project Manager, OOO Regional’naya Gornorudnaya Kompaniya, Building 1, 4 Sadovnicheskaya St., Moscow, 115035, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 47-58

Any selection of sites to accommodate mining enterprises (ME) shall inflict a minimal damage to the environment and humans. Consideration of environmental effects caused by various factors of anthropogenic impacts and development of environmental protection plans involve the assessment of their significance.The authors explain the methodology of substantiation of optimal siting of mining enterprises exemplified by Klen gold and silver deposit in Bilibin region of Chukot Autonomous District. Ranking of impacts produced by various factors serves as the basis for the procedure of the site selection. SWOT analysis of these factors must be completed. The factors of pollution and violation of the geological environment, pollution of surface waters and the water intake, atmospheric pollution, impacts produced on flora and fauna, and physical effects are discussed.A ranking pattern must be customized for each mining enterprise due to the wide variety of features that mining enterprises demonstrate (production patterns and technologies, master plans, natural and anthropogenic conditions).

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.1.47-58

References
  1. Bryukhan' A.F., Bryukhan' F.F., Potapov A.D. Inzhenerno-ekologicheskie izyskaniya dlya stroitel'stva teplovykh elektrostantsiy [Engineering and Ecological Surveying for Construction of Thermal Power Plants]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010, 192 p.
  2. Bryukhan' F.F., Lebedev V.V. Otsenka khimicheskogo zagryazneniya pochv, gruntov i donnykh otlozheniy na zoloto-serebryanom mestorozhdenii «Klen» [Assessment of the Chemical Pollution of Soils, Ground and Bottom Sediments at Klen Gold and Silver Deposit]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 5, pp. 150—155.
  3. Lebedev V.V. Skhema ranzhirovaniya faktorov tekhnogennogo vozdeystviya gornorudnykh predpriyatiy na okruzhayushchuyu sredu i cheloveka [Pattern of Ranking of Factors of Anthropogenic Impacts Produced by Mining Enterprises on the Environment and Humans]. Vestnik MGOU. Ser. «Estestvennye nauki» [Proceedings of Moscow State Open University. Natural Sciences Series]. 2012, no. 4, pp. 110—117.
  4. SNiP 11-01—95. Instruktsiya o poryadke razrabotki, soglasovaniya, utverzhdeniya i sostave proektnoy dokumentatsii na stroitel'stvo predpriyatiy, zdaniy i sooruzheniy. [Instructions for the Procedure of Development, Coordination, Approval and Composition of the Project Documentation Package Required for the Construction of Enterprises, Buildings and Structures]. Moscow, Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation, 1995, 17 p.
  5. SNiP 11-02—96. Inzhenernye izyskaniya dlya stroitel'stva. Osnovnye polozheniya. [Construction Norms and Rules 11-02—96. Engineering Surveys for Construction Purposes. Basic Provisions]. Moscow, Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation, 1997, 44 p.
  6. SP 11-102—97. Inzhenerno-ekologicheskie izyskaniya dlya stroitel'stva [Construction Rules 11-102—97. Engineering and Environmental Surveys for Construction Purposes]. Moscow, PNIIIS Publ., 1997, 41 p.
  7. Dibb S., Simkin L. The Market Segmentation Workbook: Target Marketing for Marketing Managers. London, Cengage Learning EMEA, 1996, 219 p.

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URBAN PLANNING IN THE SPATIOTEMPORAL DOMAIN (PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECT)

Vestnik MGSU 1/2013
  • Skvortsova Lyudmila Mikhaylovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe Shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 59-65

The author proposes a historical and philosophical approach to the problem of correlation between the life activity and the urban environment. Urban planning and development demonstrate different features in different historical epochs. Intensive growth of cities and their population cause us to use philosophical terms, such as motion, time and space. These are the basic terms of the town planning practice.In the ancient world, urban planning absorbed philosophical ideas and ideas of the nascent science. Aristotle defines motion as transition from possibility to reality. Architectural and engineering solutions integrate the notion of space into the town planning and demonstrate aspiration into the future and its desired perfection.Architecture is most philosophical constituent of the town planning practice. Architecture implements the ideas of town planning through the principles of steadiness, statics, tectonics, representation of structures in artistic figures, and constituent elements of motion as a conception of time.Motion and duration of events and phenomena are the measure of time. Mathematics concretizes the essence of space, defines spatial notions of point, line, segment, plane, and volume.The end of the 20th century brought abrupt changes in town planning. It depended on intensive advancements in science and technology, spontaneous expansion of cities and emergence of new spatial forms for the humankind. In modern architecture, there is a need for new methods of town building. Spiritual values became relevant. Now the urban environment is to embody new values. There is a need for special qualities of the urban building: the urban environment should take account of psychosocial, visual and behavioral aspects of perception of spatial objects. The most important factor is the human one. These ideas constitute the spirit of time; they must have some aesthetic content, so that people could be proud of their houses, localities and towns. The works ofEuropean architect James Frazer serve as the example of this point of view.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.1.59-65

References
  1. Kositskiy Ya.V., Blagovidova N.G. Osnovy teorii planirovki i zastroyki gorodov [Fundamentals of the Theory of Planning and Development of Cities]. Moscow, Arkhitektura-S Publ., 2007, 76 p.
  2. Nizhnikov S.A. Istoriya fi losofi i [History of Philosophy]. Moscow, INFRA-Ì Publ., 2012, 336 p.
  3. Markov V.V. Zabota o sebe v antichnoy fi losofi i. Filosofskaya antropologiya [Self-regard in Ancient Philosophy. Philosophical Anthropology]. St.Petersburg, Piter Publ., 2008, 352 p.
  4. Aristotel’. Politika. Metafi zika. Analitika [Politics. Metaphysics. Analytics]. Moscow, Eksmo Publ., St.Petersburg, Midgrad Publ., 2008, 960 p.
  5. Popov N.A. Sushchnost’ vremeni i otnositel’nost’ [The Essence of Time and Relativity]. Moscow, Knizhnyy Dom Publ., Librokom Publ., 2009, 316 p.
  6. Leon-Battista Al’berti. Desyat’ knig o zodchestve [Ten Books on Architecture]. Moscow, Vsesoyuznaya Akademiya Arkhitektury [All-Soviet Academy of Architecture]. 1935, 391 p.
  7. Azarenkova Z.V. Transportnaya sostavlyayushchaya sotsial’nykh standartov kachestva zhizni v gradostroitel’stve [Transport Constituent of Social Standards of the Quality of Life in Urban Development]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Residential Housing Construction]. 2011, no. 8, pp. 49—50.
  8. Karabushchenko P.L. Ideya lichnosti v razvitii cheloveka [The Idea of Personality in Development of Man]. Vestnik Rossiyskogo filosofskogo obshchestva [Bulletin of the Russian Philosophical Society]. 2012, no. 2(62), pp. 60—66.
  9. Il’ichev V.A., Karimov A.M., Kolgunov V.I., Aleksashina V.V., Bakaeva N.V., Kobeleva S.A. Prilozhenie k proektu doktriny gradostroitel’stva i rasseleniya [Annex to Draft Doctrine of Urban Development and Settlement]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Residential Housing Construction]. 2012, no. 1, pp. 2—10.
  10. Volynkov V.E. Evolyutsiya kak strategiya proektirovaniya i dizayna v nelineynoy arkhitekture [Evolution as a Strategy of Planning and Design in the Nonlinear Architecture]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Residential Housing Construction]. 2011, no. 10, pp. 2—6.

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PHENOMENON OF «SITE» AND «NON-SITE» IN THE POST-INDUSTRIAL CITY

Vestnik MGSU 1/2013
  • Skopina Maria Valentinovna - Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU) Candidate of Architectural Sciences, Senior Lecturer; +7 (831) 430-54-92, Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU), 65 Il’inskaya St., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 66-71

In the first part of the article, notions of «τόπος» and «hora» are opposed as the archetypes of «the place». For example, a more exact size of a place (the size that appeals to the characteristics of “topos”) can be defined using cartographical terms measured a priori or through the connection with other places. As for the size of “hora”, it is characterized by a certain degree of relativity. In the second part of the article, subjective and objective connections of a person and a place are analyzed. Etienne Souriau`s point of view is cited as an example. According to his opinion, a certain part of the space can represent a place on condition that it is the subject of cognition. Also, Georges Perec`s view is considered, according to which a measurable size of a place doesn`t always coincide with a perceptional, tangible size (which is a characteristic of “hora”). A similar reflection can be found in Martin Heidegger`s, Maurice Merleau-Ponty`s, Georges Didi-Huberman`s researches. Positions of representatives of the humanistic geography are studied. They believe that a place has a size of “hora”, not a topographical size. That is, a place is determined not through geographical coordinates (a position in space) but through the meaning which people attribute to a certain part of space.The third part of the article has the author’s reflections about the fact that the 20th century brought the notion of «non-place» as opposed to the notion of «place». This term was introduced by French anthropologist Marc Augé. The notion of «non-place» is opposed to the notion of «anthropological place» (lieu antropologique), that is opposed to the place which has anthropological characteristics. «Non-places» are spaces without their own sense and purpose. They give rise to new scales of communication, relations and movements in the post-industrial society.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.1.66-71

References
  1. Rey-Debove J. and Rey A., editors. Le nouveau petit Robert. Paris, Dictionnaire Le Robert, 2000, 2949 p.
  2. Berque A. Les raisons du paysage. Paris, Hazan Publ., 1995, 192 p.
  3. Souriau Å., Souriau A. Vocabulaire d’esth?tique. Paris, PUF Publ., 2010, 1472 p.
  4. Malnic E. Folies de jardin. Paris, Ch?ne Publ., 1996, 143 p.
  5. Yi-Fu Tuan. Espace et lieu; la perspective de l’exp?rience. Paris, Infolio Publ., 220 ð.
  6. Martin Heidegger. Stroit’, zhit’, myslit’. [To Building, to Live, to Deliberate]. Essais et conf?rences (1958). Traduit de l’allemand par Andr? Pr?au. Gallimard Publ., Paris, 2003, pp. 182—183.
  7. Merleau-Ponty M. L’oeil et l’esprit. Paris, Gallimard, 2007, 93 p.
  8. Aug? Ì. Non-lieux, introduction ? une antropologie de la surmodernit?. Paris, Seuil Publ., 1992, 155 p.

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The order of an architectural column in the eraof elizabethan baroque (1742—1762) in St. Petersburg

Vestnik MGSU 3/2013
  • Voznyak Ekaterina Ryurikovna - Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPSUACE) Candidate of Architectural Sciences, Associate Professor, Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPSUACE), 4 2-ya Krasnoarmeyskaya St., St.Petersburg, 190005, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-15

The author discusses structural principles of the column order attributed to Elizabethan Baroque Style and uses St. Petersburg monuments as examples. The article has drawings of columns and architectural details of the Baroque style buildings in St. Petersburg. The author identifies their specific stylistic features and compares them with classical architectural forms.The column order of the Elizabethan Baroque style is built according to classical rules, although it has substantial deviations. Back then, only three types of orders were used: a Doric order, an Ionic order and a composite order. Order profiles and capitals were changed in the era of Elizabethan baroque style; therefore, Ionian and composite capitals of the Elizabethan Baroque style differ from those of Vignola and Palladio. Necks of capitals were smooth or had flutes. The Elizabethan Ionic order is based on a subset of Ionic capitals, typical for the era of late Renaissance. Creative ideas and skills of architects developed an own language of architectural forms, typical for this style.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.3.7-15

References
  1. Dzhakomo Barotstsio Da Vin’ola. Pravilo pyati orderov [Rules of Five Orders]. Moscow, Arkhitektura-S Publ., 2005, 168 p.
  2. Blinova E.K. Inoskazatel’nye simvoly rastitel’nykh motivov v ordernykh kompozitsiyakh arkhitektury Peterburga [Allegorical Symbols of Vegetative Motives in Order Compositions of St.Petersburg Architectural Monuments]. Arkhitekton: izvestiya vuzov. [Architecton: News of Institutions of Higher Education]. June 2011, no. 34. Available at: archvuz.ru/numbers/2011_2/018.
  3. Gans Blyum. V-Colvmnae ili opisanie i primenenie pyati orderov [V-Colvmnae or Description and Application of Five Orders]. Moscow, Vsesoyuznaya Akademiya arkhitektury publ., 1936, 112 p.

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The architectural sketch

Vestnik MGSU 3/2013
  • Kozhevnikov Aleksandr Mikhaylovich - Firma GIPROKON L-D Limited Liability Company member, Moscow Architects' Union, lecturer, Department of Rural Architecture, Firma GIPROKON L-D Limited Liability Company, 7 Gilyarovskogo St., Moscow, 129090, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 16-25

The contribution of architectural sketching skills into the classical architectural education is unusually valuable, as this is the way future architects articulate and communicate their ideas to others.The author discusses the features of architectural sketching. He also analyzes methods of finding architectural forms, their crystallization and formation. Basic methods of contemporary architectural sketching include graphics, model-based and virtual techniques.Graphics is simple and widely used; it has numerous strengths and weaknesses. This method employs the whole range of graphic and pictorial techniques. This article contains a classification of graphic methods of sketching. The classification is built around the sketching instrument (a slate pencil, a brush, etc.).Model sketching provides a sense of touch and generates certain textures. Therefore, model sketching is a highly intuitive and convenient tool employed at initial stages of design.A virtual method integrates the notions of “lines” and “volumes” into shapes having real physical properties.Each sketching method is self-contained. Skillful application of all the above methods of architectural sketching is the keystone to further successful design.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.3.16-25

References
  1. Barkhin B.G. Metodika arkhitekturnogo proektirovaniya [Methodology of Architectural Design]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1982, p. 35.
  2. Yung K.G. Arkhetip i simvol [ Archetype and Symbol]. Moscow, Renessans Publ., 1991, p. 173.
  3. Dutsev M. Avtorskie metody v arkhitekture. Ot eskiza k proizvedeniyu [Personal Methods in Architecture. From the Sketch to the Work of Art]. Available at: http://www.archiludi.ru/?p=1161. Date of access: 12.01.13.
  4. Maksimov O.G. Risunok v professii arkhitektora [A Drawing in the Profession of an Architect]. Moscow, Stroyizdat publ., 1999, p. 389.
  5. Zaytsev K.G. Grafika i arkhitekturnoe tvorchestvo [Graphics and Art of Architecture]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1979, p. 21.
  6. Revyakin P.P. Tekhnika akvarel’noy zhivopisi [Watercolour Painting Techniques]. Moscow, Gos. Izd-vo literatury po str., arkhit. i stroit. materialam publ., 1959, p. 67.
  7. Stepanov A.V. Ob”emno-prostranstvennaya kompozitsiya [Three-dimensional Composition]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1993, p. 217.
  8. Stasyuk N.G., Kiseleva T.Yu., Orlova I.G. Osnovy arkhitekturnoy kompozitsii [Fundamentals of Architectural Composition]. Moscow, Dograf Publ., 2001, p. 6.
  9. Peter Zellner. Hybrid New Forms in Digital Architecture Space. Thames & Hudson, 1999, p. 72.
  10. Altunyan A.O. Arkhitekturnyy nabrosok v postdigital’nuyu epokhu [An Architectural Sketch in the Post-digital Era]. Arkhitektura i sovremennye informatsionnye tekhnologii (AMIT) [Architecture and Advanced Information Technologies (AMIT)]. 2011, no. 1(14). Available at: http://marhi.ru/AMIT/2011/1kvart11/altunian/abstract.php/ Date of access: 12.01.13.

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Besieged nature

Vestnik MGSU 3/2013
  • Tkachev Valentin Nikitovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Architecture, Professor, Department of Design of Buildings and Town Planning, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 26-33

The history and present-day problems accompanying the relationship between Man and the human habitat are considered in the article. Understanding of the role of Nature in the human life is demonstrated by the architectural morphogenesis.K. Marx identified the two ways of consumption of natural resources. According to the first one, people enjoyed natural benefits as they were. The second one contemplated transformation, physical and chemical treatment of natural resources.Predominance of the consumer-style attitude to Nature means transition to the phase of transformation of natural resources into the forms suitable for consumption.The history of the relationship between Nature and Man is composed of the following phases:Man as the slave of Nature; Man as the student of Nature; Man as the lord of Nature;Man as the destroyer of Nature and a parasite consuming its resources; Man as the repentant sinner failing to take any effort to repay the debt.The educational phase of the architecture means identification of structural features of natural materials integrated into tectonic systems of structures. The second wave of imitation of Nature, or mimesis, had an esthetic orientation and was typical for early cultures. Separation of structural and ornamental features of a wall marked the third wave of assimilation of Nature in the architecture of Europe starting from the Renaissance and through the era of the bourgeois pragmatism. However, it was the design of wide-span structures that served as the prerequisite of technological borrowings from the phenomena of the wildlife (skeletons, webs, folds), or the third wave of assimilations. The idea of architecture as the subject having the properties of a living organism marked the fifth wave of appeal to the wildlife, its transient forms and changing organisms.The understanding of the ecological responsibility of Man embedded in the architecture contemplated the sixth wave of the human activities. What will be the seventh wave of relationship between Nature and Man?

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.3.26-33

References
  1. Marx K. Formy, predshestvuyushchie kapitalisticheskomu proizvodstvu [Pre-capitalist Modes of Production]. Moscow, Politizdat Publ., 1940, 52 p.
  2. Potapov A.D. Ekologiya [Ecology]. Moscow, Vyssh. shk. publ., 2004, 528 p.
  3. Tasalov V.I. Ocherk esteticheskikh idey arkhitektury kapitalisticheskogo obshchestva [Essay of Esthetic Ideas of the Architecture Typical for the Capitalist Society]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1979, 336 p.
  4. Shuazi O. Istoriya arkhitektury [History of Architecture]. Moscow, AN SSSR Publ., vol. 1, 1935, 575 p.
  5. Haeckel E. Kunstformen und Natur. Leipzig und Wien, 1899.
  6. Ryabushin A., Dvorzhak K. Prognostika v arkhitekture i gradostroitel’stve [Prognostics in Architecture and Urban Planning]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1983, 184 p.
  7. Tkachev V.N. Veduty [Architectural Views]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2012, 291 p.
  8. Ragon M. Goroda budushchego [Towns of the Future]. Moscow, MIR Publ., 1969, 296 p.
  9. Vuek Ya. Mify i utopii arkhitektury xx veka [Myths and Utopias of the Architecture of the 20th Century]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1990, 288 p.
  10. Lebedev Yu.S. Arkhitekturnaya bionika [Architectural Bionics]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1990, 268 p.

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Megalopolis as the mirrorof the soul

Vestnik MGSU 3/2013
  • Frolov Aleksandr Viktorovich - Moscow State University (MSU) Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Senior Lecturer; +7 (495) 939-14-21, Moscow State University (MSU), 27-4 Lomonosovskiy prospekt, Room G-324, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sukhodol’skaya Natal’ya Pavlovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Department Manager (Engineer), Department of Philosophy; +7 (499) 183-24-10, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 34-40

The article focuses on some civilization-related factors determining the life of a contemporary megalopolis and influencing the structure of the human soul. The system of global capitalism appears to be the most important factor producing a strong impact onto the urban population. The present-day megalopolis operates as an economic centre having pragmatic rhythms and spaces. «Homo economicus» is a relevant definition of the present-day man.This state of affairs reflects the structure of the human soul and its needs. It is overcrowded with sensual stimuli and temptations producing misbalance and stress. Two phenomenological distinctions are employed to analyze the experience of urban residents: noise vs. silence and motion vs. quietness. Noise and motion constitute the background of the human experience here; silence and quietness are local and volatile. On the contrary, outside of the city, silence is the background of the experience, and any motion vanishes in the realm of quietness. Nature is calm, and we need its calmness to give some rest to our senses. The effect of permanent haste typical for the lifestyle in big cities makes people unconscious of themselves. They lose their lifetime to implement their basic functions like eating/working/sleeping. Any higher incomes and comfort don’t make people happier; therefore, they have to look for alternative lifestyles (e.g. “downshifting”). Some people are not eager to be part of the global economy, but they have no opportunity to get out of the urban space. They need some remedy to resist the urban attack. That remedy could be a kind of a psychological technique reducing the effect of aggression. In this respect, the practice of hesychia deriving from the Christian ascetical tradition seems to be useful for an urban resident allowing him/her to attain the state of inner silence. This technique may be employed as a way to survive in the urban haste.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.3.34-40

References
  1. Devis M. Planeta trushchob [Planet of Slums]. Logos [Logos]. 2008, no. 3(66), pp. 108—129.
  2. Gorodskoe naselenie: aglomeratsii [Urban Population: Agglomerations]. Available at: http://www.citypopulation.de/world/Agglomerations.html. Date of access: September 09, 2012.
  3. Frolov A.V., Sukhodol’skaya N.P. K fenomenologii gorodskogo prostranstva [On Phenomenology of the Urban Space]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, vol. 3, pp. 394—399.
  4. Mezentsev S.D. Sovremennoe gradostroitel’stvo: dolzhnoe i sushchee, idealy i real’nost’ [Urban Planning Today: What Is Due and What Is Available. Ideals and Reality]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 4, vol. 3, pp. 389—393.
  5. Merleau-Ponty M. Fenomenologiya vospriyatiya [Phenomenology of Perception]. St.Petersburg, 1999.
  6. Soyya E. Kak pisat’ o gorode s tochki zreniya prostranstva [Writing about the City from the Viewpoint of Space]. Logos [Logos]. 2008, no. 3(66), pp. 130—140.
  7. Lavrinets E. Chtenie gorodskogo prostranstva: predvaritel’nye zametki [Reading the Urban Space: Preliminary Notes]. Topos. Filosofsko-kul’turologicheskiy zhurnal [Topos. Journal of Philosophy and Culture Studies]. 2004, no. 2(9), pp. 82—89.
  8. Sennet R. Kapitalizm v bol’shom gorode: globalizatsiya, gibkost’ i bezrazlichie [Capitalism in the Big City: Globalization, Flexibility and Indifference]. Logos [Logos]. 2008, no. 3(66), pp. 95—107.
  9. Bikbov A. Moskva/Parizh: prostranstvennye struktury i telesnye skhemy [Moscow/Paris: Spatial Structures and Corporal Patterns]. Logos [Logos]. 2002, no. 3(34), pp. 1—24.
  10. Khoruzhiy S.S. Fenomenologiya askezy [Phenomenology of Asceticism]. Moscow, 1998.

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LIGHTHOUSE OF АLEXANDRIA,ONE OF THE SEVEN WONDERS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD

Vestnik MGSU 4/2013
  • Polyakov Evgeniy Nikolaevich - Tomsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (TGASU) Сandidate of Architecture, Associate Professor, Department of Theory and History of Architecture, Tomsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (TGASU), 2 Solyanaya sq., Tomsk, 634003, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-13

The article represents a brief overview of design and construction of Pharos of Alexandria. The author speaks about the establishment of the city by Alexander the Great, its economy and culture. The lighthouse occupied a special position in the city. The tower was constructed in the extreme eastern section of the Pharos island, and it was connected to the coastline by a huge dam. Construction works were completed in 280 B.C.Lighthouse of Alexandria was the highest ancient structure, except for Great Pyramids in Giza. It was a three-storey tower made of marble blocks. The lighthouse served as a fortress and protected the harbor. A detailed description of the functional design of the lighthouse, composition of its facades, peculiarities of its sculptural decorations are available now, and the same about the mechanism of delivery of fuel needed for the flashlight on the tower top. The author also discusses the technical problems of its maintenance and the most probable reasons for its destruction (earthquakes, etc.).Many ancient authors, including Strabo and Suetonius, mentioned this tower in their works. This architectural piece had a lot of second-rate «imitations» in Ancient Greece and Rome.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.4.7-13

References
  1. Strabo. Geografiya v 17 knigakh [17 Books of Geography]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1964, 941 p.
  2. Zubov V.P., Petrovskiy F.A. Arkhitektura antichnogo mira. Materialy i dokumenty po istorii arkhitektury. [Architecture of the Ancient World. Works and Documents on History of Architecture]. Moscow, Akademii arkhitektury SSSR publ., 1940, 519 p.
  3. Neykhardt A.A., Shishova I.A. Sem’ chudes drevney Oykumeny [Seven Wonders of Ancient Oecumene]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1990,128 p.
  4. Suetonius. Zhizn’ dvenadtsati tsezarey [Lives of Twelve Caesars]. Moscow, Pravda Publ., 1991, 512 p.

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GRAFFITI IN THE PRESENT-DAY CITY

Vestnik MGSU 4/2013
  • Tkachev Valentin Nikitovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Architecture, Professor, Department of Design of Buildings and Town Planning, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 14- 21

Graffiti is a specific phenomenon of the modern city originating from social upheavals and economic inequality as a movement of protest. As a practice, graffiti goes down into the ancient times as a means of information-intensive wall paintings and a system of alerts in the criminal environment of the US cities; later it converted into the criminal entertainment for the urban youth. Availability of high-quality paints, felt-tip pens, aerosols has contributed to the rapid development of this kind of street art, and it has a global scale now. In Russia, there is a movement of Martinez (graffiti writers) that emerged in the aftermath of disintegration of the USSR and further painful economic reforms in the country. Graffiti as an art has reached certain aesthetic heights, while as a social phenomenon it personifies both spiritual and moral degradation of the urban community. The author considers potential prospects of its legalization and consolidation with the mainstream art.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.4.14- 21

References
  1. Hansen R.F. The Creative Revolution and the Politics. Underground Production (Sw.). No. 27, 2005, pp. 12—14.
  2. Almqvist B., Hagelin E. Writers United. The Story about WUFC — a Swedish Graffiti Crew. Sweden, 2005, Introduction, p. 6.
  3. Kostikov V. Narod u teatral’nogo pod”ezda [The Folk at the Theatre Porch]. AiF Newspaper, 2007, no. 6, p. 5.
  4. Tkachev V.N. Ot petroglifov do graffiti [From Petroglyphs to Graffiti]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2010, 106 p.
  5. CODE RED Graffiti Magazine. 2006, no. 2-3, 170 p.
  6. Galutstsi F. Pikasso [Picasso]. Moscow – St.Petersburg, Belyy gorod publ., 1998, 63 p.
  7. Alekseev V. Art-prostranstvo [Space of Art]. Art Best-seller. 2007, no. 1, pp. 5—7.
  8. Pompei: sginuvshiy gorod. Ischeznuvshie tsivilizatsii. [Pompei: the City That Has Vanished. Civilizations That Have Disappeared]. Moscow, Terra Publ., 1997, 168 p.
  9. Efimov A.V. Koloristika goroda [Urban Colouristics]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1990, 272 p.
  10. Benoit F. Beaute de Lyon et du Beaujolais. Geneve-Paris, Minerva publ., 1992, p. 15, 17.

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DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARD HOUSING IN SOVIET RUSSIAFROM 1917 TILL 1940

Vestnik MGSU 4/2013
  • Shagov Nikolay Vasil’evich - Tomsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (TGASU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Theory and History of Architecture, Tomsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (TGASU), 2 Solyanaya Square, Tomsk, 634003, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Verevkina Irina Dmitrievna - Tomsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (TGASU) postgraduate student; Department of Theory and History of Architecture; +7 (3822)65-86-10, Tomsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (TGASU), 2 Solyanaya Square, Tomsk, 634003, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Koksharova Elizaveta Andreevna - Tomsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (TGASU) student; Department of Theory and History of Architecture; +7 (3822) 65-86-10., Tomsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (TGASU), 2 Solyanaya Square, Tomsk, 634003, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 22-31

In the paper, the co-authors discuss the historical background of the housing problem in Russia and ways of its resolution. Many architects resolved this problem through extensive application of standard projects to residential housing buildings. Samples of initial standard designs recommended for large-scale construction in the country are provided in the paper.Construction of residential housing was one of the most rapidly developing trends in the architecture in the USSR and other countries in the 20th century. Social needs determined the trends for development of housing designs. The needs were met by taking account of basic economic and political conditions specified by the Soviet government. The basic social problem of housing was resolved on the nationwide scale. The challenge of providing housing to almost all households in Soviet Russia was the first experience of this kind in the history of architecture. The above mentioned challenge involved a continuous search for rational housing designs. Slogans of the 20ies read as “A new type of residential housing to the socialist country. The new socialist society needs new forms and types of housing meeting new requirements applied to households”.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.4.22-31

References
  1. Khiger R.Ya. Proektirovanie zhilishch 1917—1933 [Design of Residential Buildings in 1917—1933]. Moscow, 1935, pp. 6—7.
  2. Sergeev D.D., Tonskiy D.G. Industrializatsiya zhilishchno-grazhdanskogo stroitel’stva v SSSR [Industrialization of Residential Housing Construction in the USSR]. Moscow, 1979.
  3. Lebedeva G., Borisovskiy G.B. Poiski novykh tipov zhilishcha v sovetskoy arkhitekture 20-kh godov [Search for New Types of Residential Houses in the Soviet Architecture of the 20ies]. Voprosy sovetskoy arkhitektury [Issues of the Soviet Architecture]. Moscow, 1962, collection no. 1, pp. 230—262.
  4. Ivanitskiy A.P. Konkurs proektov pokazatel’nykh domov dlya rabochikh kvartir v Moskve [Contest of Designs of Model Blocks of Flats for Workers in Moscow]. Arkhitektura [Architecture]. 1923, no. 3, pp. 35.
  5. Khan-Magomedov S.O. Khrushchevskiy utilitarizm: plyusy i minusy [Chruschev’s Utilitarianism: Pluses and Minuses]. Academia [The Academy]. 2006, no. 4. Available at: http://www.niitag.ru/info/doc/?89. Date of access: 05.12.12.
  6. Ginzburg M.Ya. Problemy tipizatsii zhil’ya RSFSR [Problems of Standardization of Residential Housing in RSFSR]. Sovremennaya arkhitektura [Contemporary Architecture]. Moscow, 1929, no. 1, pp. 4—8.
  7. Kanysheva E.V., Bondarenko I.A. Orsk i Magnitogorsk: nasledie «sotsgorodov» kontsa 1920-kh — pervoy poloviny 1930-kh godov na Yuzhnom Urale [Orsk and Magnitogorsk: “Socialist Town” Heritage of Late 20ies - Early 30ies in Southern Urals]. Arkhitekturnoe nasledstvo [Architectural Heritage]. 2010, no. 52, pp. 311—338.
  8. Zhuravkov Yu.M. Rol’ Kuznetskogo metallurgicheskogo kombinata v formirovanii gradostroitel’noy struktury g. Novokuznetska (1930—1950-e gody) [Role of Kuznetsk Smelter in Formation of the Urban Planning Structure of Novokuznetsk (1930—1950)]. Retrospektivnaya khudozhestvennaya vystavka «65 let KMK». Materialy BTI. [Restrospective Exhibition of Arts. BTI Materials]. 1997, no. 5, pp. 22—26.
  9. Meerovich M.G. Na ostrie skhvatki titanov. Chast’ 2. Giprogor i standartproekt [On the Verge of the Battle of Titans. Part. 2. Design Institutes and Standard Designs]. Sovremennaya arkhitektura [Contemporary Architecture]. Novosibirsk, 2012, p. 164.
  10. Khazanova V.E. Sovetskaya arkhitektura pervykh let Oktyabrya 1917—1925 [Soviet Architecture in the Years Immediately Following the Revolution: 1917—1925]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1970, p. 113.
  11. Verevkina I.D. Standart massovoy zhiloy yacheyki i osnovnye ego sostavlyayushchie [Standard of a Widely Used Living Unit and Its Principal Components]. Vestnik TGASU [Proceedings of Tomsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 2(35), pp. 43—50.

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RESTORATION OF THE ROUND LOCOMOTIVE DEPOT, A MOSCOW LANDMARK

Vestnik MGSU 5/2013
  • Perunov Aleksandr Sergeevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Testing of Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kunin Yuriy Saulovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Testing of Structures; +7 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 1331, 1150., Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kotov Vyacheslav Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Director, Laboratory of Examination and Testing of Structures at Department of Testing of Structures; +7 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 1331, 1150., Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 21-28

Nikolaev railway depot is one of the first locomotive depots in Russia. It is a monument of cultural heritage, and it belongs to a group of buildings of the Leningrad Railroad Station in Moscow. The depot was designed by renowned architects K.A. Ton andR.A. Zhelyazevich in 1951. The depot building is round; it consists of 22 sections. The bearing structures of the building, its columns, arches and vaults are made of masonry. The depot building was remodeled several times, following changes in its intended use. Therefore, the original look of the building has lost its initial splendour. Now its structures are badly damaged, and the bearing capacity of its masonry columns and arches has changed for the worse. Its reconstruction will be accompanied by the restoration of its original exterior. Its reconstruction must be accompanied by the comprehensive monitoring of the stress-strain state of its surviving structures. The renovation must be based on the structural analysis of changes of its properties and damages. Currently, the engineering staff of our university is monitoring the strained state of the building to give advice in the course of its further restoration.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.5.21-28

References
  1. Slavina T.A., Ton K. Zodchie nashego goroda [Architects of Our City]. Leningrad, Lenizdat Publ., 1982, 152 p.
  2. Ivashko Yu.V. Problemy restavratsii pamyatnikov arkhitektury i restavratsionnye tekhnologii [Problems of Restoration of Landmarks and Restoration Technologies]. Budmayster. 2003, no. 4, pp. 22—24.
  3. Binney M., Pearce D. Railway Architecture. Londres, SAVE Britain’s Heritage, Orbis, 1979.
  4. Betjeman J. London’s Historic Railway Stations. Londres, John Murray (Publishers) Ltd., 1972.
  5. Jensen O. The American Heritage History of Railroads in America. Outlet, 1993.
  6. Heald B.D. A History of the Boston & Maine Railroad: Exploring New Hampshire’s Rugged Heart by Rail. The History Press, 2007.
  7. Schivelbusch W. The Railway Journey: the Industrialization of Time and Space in the 19th Century. University of California Press, 1986.
  8. Wi?licki A. Building and Construction of the 18th and 19th Century. History and Technology, an International Journal. 1991, vol. 7, no. 3-4, pp. 321—341.

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REGIONAL TRANSPORT INTERCHANGE HUBS AND THEIRPLANNING CONCEPTS (ON AN EXAMPLE OF МATSUMOYO, JAPAN)

Vestnik MGSU 6/2013
  • Vlasov Denis Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) +7 (499) 188-94-54, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 21-28

The article deals with the planning concept of transport interchange hubs providing trans-regional bus transportation. According to the ever growing passenger traffic and the number of spatial planning documents, trans-regional bus route networks develop very rapidly in Russia. The findings of the poll of passengers demonstrate their high loyalty to trans-regional bus transportation networks due to their convenient arrangement and little time expenditures (compared to other means of transport). However, little attention is driven by specialized domestic sources to the planning concepts of transport interchange hubs having bus terminals within their structure; the regulatory documentation is missing. One of feasible ways to resolve the issue is to study the international practice of design and construction of transport interchange hubs having bus terminals as the key points providing trans-regional bus transportation.In this article, the transport interchange hub of Matsumoto, Japan, serves as the sample. The author considers its composition and functional site division. The author also performs a detailed analysis of the main elements of the hub, including the design of its pedestrian routes ensuring its functional and spatial unity. Moreover, the author considers the planning structure of a bus terminal and arrangement of retail trade facilities and service areas inside it.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.6.21-28

References
  1. Khertseg K. Proektirovanie i stroitel’stvo avtobusnykh i zheleznodorozhnykh stantsiy [Design and Construction of Bus and Railroad Stations]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1985, 318 p.
  2. Gol’denberg Yu.A. Avtovokzaly i passazhirskie avtostantsii [Bus Terminals and Stations]. Moscow, Transport Publ., 1971, 160 p.
  3. Posobie po proektirovaniya avtovokzalov i passazhirskikh avtostantsiy [Guide for Design of Bus Terminals and Bus Stations]. Moscow, Minavtotrans RSFSR Publ., 1988, 39 p.
  4. Serebrov B.F. Proektirovanie avtovokzalov [Design of Bus Terminals]. Novosibirsk, NGAKhA Publ., 2003, 159 p.
  5. Official website of Matsumoto. Available at: https://www.city.matsumoto.nagano.jp/ Date of access: 09.02.2013.
  6. Official website of Eastern railroad, Japan. Available at: http://www.jreast.co.jp/ Date of access: 09.02.2013.

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PRINCIPLES OF ARRANGEMENT OF MAIN STREETSIN THE PRESENT-DAY URBAN ENVIRONMENT

Vestnik MGSU 6/2013
  • Kuznetsova Yana Agzamovna - Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SGASU) 194 Molodogvardeyskaya st., Samara, 443001, Russian Federation; +7 (846) 242-52-21., Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SGASU), ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 29-34

The author focuses on the issues of arrangement and positioning of main streets in the urban structure. Principles of organization of main streets, identified on the basis of Russian and foreign examples and differentiated with respect to central, middle and peripheral areas of the city, are analyzed in detail. The aforementioned principles, specified by the author, are considered as a means for (1) the revival of the urban social activity, and (2) the increase of the attractiveness of near-highway areas for pedestrians. Each of the above principles is implemented in varied areas of cities; however the most frequently used principles are: pedestrian accessibility, urban space unity, priority of pedestrians, subordination of new structures to the architectural heritage in the central areas of cities;easy transport accessibility, anthropocentricity, functional intensity, comfortable urban environment in the middle areas of cities;traffic safety, aesthetic quality of the urban environment, intensive use of the underground space in peripheral areas of cities.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.6.29-34

References
  1. Glazychev V.L. Urbanistika [City Studies]. Moscow, Evropa Publ., 2008, 200 p.
  2. James M. Daisa ITE Committee Report. Summary Context Sensitive Solutions in Designing Major Urban Thoroughfares for Walkable Communities: an ITE proposed recommended practice. West Washington, DC, 2005, 215 p.
  3. Bunin A.V., Savarenskaya T.F. Istoriya gradostroitel’nogo iskusstva [History of Art of Urban Planning]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1979, 412 p.
  4. Babkov V.F. Sovremennye avtomobil’nye magistrali [Contemporary Highways]. Transport Publ., 1974, 208 p.
  5. Baranova T.V., Kosenkova N.A. Synthetic image of orthodox architecture in the Middle Volga. Sacred architecture in shaping the identity of place. Politechnika Lubelska. Lublin, 2006. Pð. 149—157.
  6. Saryev M.B., Koval’ M.V., Lakhmanyuk V.B., Satyshev S.N. Proektirovanie v sfere organizatsii dorozhnogo dvizheniya — zarubezhnyy opyt [Road Traffic Design: International Experience]. Molodoy uchenyy [Young scientist] 2011, no. 4, vol. 3, pp. 107—109.
  7. Vuchik V.R. Transport v gorodakh udobnykh dlya zhizni [Transports in the Cities That Are Comfortable for Living]. Moscow, Territoriya budushchego publ., 2011, 576 p.
  8. Community Design Collaborative. Commercial Corridors. Revitalizing urban neighborhoods through innovative design. Philadelphia LISC. Available at http://cdesignc.org/p_4119c.htm. Date of access: April 6, 2013.
  9. Ikonnikov A.V. Formirovanie gorodskoy sredy [Formation of the Urban Environment]. Moscow, Znanie Publ., 1973, 64 p., 16 p. (Exhibit).
  10. Design Walkable Urban Thoroughfares: A Context Sensitive Approach. Institute of Transportation Engineers, West Washington, DC 20005, 215 p.

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V.I. MUKHINA’S SCULPTURE «WORKER AND COLLECTIVEFARM GIRL»: CONSTRUCTION ASPECTS OF CREATION AND RECONSTRUCTION

Vestnik MGSU 6/2013
  • Molokova Tat’yana Alekseevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Chair, Department of History and Culture Studies; +7 (499) 183-21-29., Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 35-41

The article covers the problems of reconstruction of the famous sculptural group designed by V.I. Mukhina «Worker and Collective Farm Girl», created in the 1930s for the Soviet pavilion of the universal exposition in Paris in 1937. The author considers the structural and cultural features of the monument and drives attention to the synthesis of architecture and sculpture in the pavilion designed by B.M. Iofan.The author also emphasizes some constructive features of the sculpture such as the scarf which is an important compositional and constructive element, and describes the process of preparation of the sculpture to construction in Paris and assembly in Moscow after The Paris World Exposition. The author touches the problem of the sculpture installation in Soviet period. The author performs a comparative analysis of the sculpture before and after its reconstruction and covers the aspects of construction works, including the construction of a new modern pavilion, or a pedestal for the sculpture.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.6.35-41

References
  1. Voronov N.V. Rabochiy i kolkhoznitsa [Worker and Collective Farmer Girl]. Moscow, Moskovski Rabochi Publ., 1990, p. 78.
  2. Samin D.K. Samye znamenitye zodchie Rossii [The Most Famous Architects of Russia]. Moscow, Veche Publ., 2004, 43 p.
  3. Kostina O. «Rabochiy i kolkhoznitsa». Skul’ptura i vremya [Worker and Collective Farmer Girl. Sculpture and Time]. Moscow, Sovetski Khudozhnik Publ., 1987, 100 p.
  4. Gur’yanova I. Kolkhoznitsa — eto ya [I Am the Collective Farm Girl]. Moskovskie vedomosti [Moscow Chronicles]. No. 10(158), March 20, 2000, p. 3.
  5. Moskovskiy Gosudarstvennyy Stroitel’nyy Universitet: istoriya i sovremennost’ [Moscow State University of Civil Engineering: History and Present Days]. Moscow, 2001, ASV Publ., pp. 130—131.
  6. Molokova T.A., Frolov V.P. Pamyatniki kul’tury Moskvy: iz proshlogo v budushchee [Landmarks of Moscow Culture: from the Past into the Future]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010, 121 p.
  7. Moskovskoe nasledie [Moscow Legacy]. 2009, no. 9, p. 46.

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RUSSIAN PAVILIONS AT UNIVERSAL EXPOSITIONS:CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECTURE

Vestnik MGSU 6/2013
  • Frolov Vladimir Pavlovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 42-49

Russia was a regular participant of the World Expos and an organizer of several international exhibitions in Moscow, St.Petersburg and other Russian cities. The value of the Russia’s contribution into the history of the World Expos is substantial and versatile. Russia’s participation in the Universal Expositions produced a strong impact on the development of the exhibition economy, architecture, construction machinery, engineering, and urban development. In its turn, urbanization produced its impact on the development of Expos. Major Russian architects, sculptors and designers created exceptional and original works in a variety of styles; they employed versatile construction methods and techniques. Trade fairs served as the venues for experimental buildings constructed in furtherance of the most advanced designs and technology-related inventions. Russia’s participation in the construction of pavilions at the World Exhibitions gave way to a unique architectural trend, whereby three-dimensional solutions, the architecture of pavilions, landscape products, landscapes and even music got together in the organic unity. This artificial artistic medium represents a new type of the architectural ensemble.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.6.42-49

References
  1. Mezenin V.K. Parad vsemirnykh vystavok [Parade of Universal Expositions]. Moscow, Znanie Publ., 1990, 31 p.
  2. Mel’nikov N.P. Chudesa vystavki v Chikago [Miracles of the Chicago Expo]. Odessa, 1993, 24 p.
  3. Orlov M.A. Vsemirnaya parizhskaya vystavka 1900 g. v illyustratsiyakh i opisaniyakh [Paris World Exposition 1900 in Illustrations and Descriptions]. St.Petersburg, Tipografiya brat. Panteleevykh Publ., 1900, 43 p.
  4. Kirichenko E.I. F. Shekhtel’ [Shekhtel]. Moscow, Moskovskiy rabochiy publ., 1973, 25 p.
  5. Kaufman S.A. V.A. Shchuko [Shchuko]. Moscow, 1946, 47 p.
  6. Ovchinnikova N.P. Sovetskie pavil’ony na mezhdunarodnykh vystavkakh [Soviet Pavilions at International Exhibitions]. Moscow, Znanie Publ., 1980, 52 p.
  7. Ching F.D.K. Vsemirnaya istoriya arkhitektury [Global History of Architecture]. Moscow, AST Publ., 2007, 681 p.
  8. Shpakov V.N. Istoriya vsemirnykh vystavok [History of World Expositions]. Moscow, AST Publ., 2008, 281 p.
  9. Navlitskaya G.B. Osaka [Osaka]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1983, 37 p.

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Formation of a new south-western direction in development of Yerevan city centre: consistency of architectural planning solutions

Vestnik MGSU 7/2013
  • Aloyan Artem Al’bertovich - Yerevan State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (EGUAS) Candidate of Architectural Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Theory of Architecture, Restoration and Restructuring of Historical and Architectural Heritage, Fine Arts and History, Yerevan State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (EGUAS), 105 Teryana st., Yerevan, 0009, Republic of Armenia.

Pages 7-14

The author discusses the problem of consistency between the existing architectural environment and new architectural planning solutions in the south-western part of the Yerevan city centre.The article is based on the analysis and systematization of spatial planning, architectural, design, historical, and literary sources covering Yerevan and its architecture. Business districts of urban centres are also taken into account.The author analyzes the features of formation and development of the centre of Yerevan and interrelation between planning solutions and concepts at different stages of its master plan development. A detailed analysis of spatial planning solutions applicable to the south-western part of the city center as a territory full of cultural and historical landmarks is provided in the article.This area has the size of dozens of square kilometers, and it is composed of the main urban design dominants, such as the historical nucleus with the ensembles of citywide importance and monuments of the so-called Tamanian period, the Republic square, lake Yerevan, and Paskevich hill.Numerous historical settlements, such as the Urartian fortress, Karmir Blur, Shengavit, Yerevan fortress, old Nork and others are situated here. The area has historical gardens (Dalma, Sardur gardens), beautiful panoramic view sites as the best viewpoints for the visual perception of Ararat mountain, and natural landscapes.The importance of consistency of spatial planning policies of the urban development documentation such as the Master plan of Yerevan is emphasized. The analysis and substantiation of the value of the area is considered. Research-backed proposals are provided in terms of the optimization of architectural planning solutions.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.7.7-14

References
  1. Gasparyan M.A. Analiz razvitiya kompozitsii general’nogo plana Erevana [Analysis of Development of the Composition of the Yerevan Master Plan]. Arkhitektura, gradostroitel’stvo, stroitel’stvo. Sb. nauchnykh trudov. [Architecture, Urban Planning, Construction. Collection of Research Works]. Yerevan, 2003, EASI Publ., vol. 1, pp. 19—20.
  2. Gasparyan M.A. Arkhitektura Erevana XIX — nachala XX veka [The Architecture of Yerevan in Late 19th — Early 20th Century]. Yerevan, 2008, Ushardzan Publ., 262 p.
  3. Dolukhanyan L.K. Arkhitektura Sovetskoy Armenii: 20-e gody [Architecture of Soviet Armenia: the 20ies]. Erevan, Sovetakan grokh publ., 1980, 84 p.
  4. Khalpakhchyan O.Kh. Arkhitekturnye ansambli Armenii [Architectural Ensembles of Armenia]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1980, 480 p.
  5. Arutyunyan V.M. Kamennaya letopis’ armyanskogo naroda [Stone Chronicles of the Armenian People]. Erevan, 1985, Sovetakan grokh publ., 200 p.
  6. Asratyan M. Armyanskaya arkhitektura rannego khristianstva [Armenian Architecture of Early Christianity]. Moscow, 2000, Inkombuk publ., 400 p.
  7. Yastrebova N. A. Sovremennyy gorod: osnovnye tendentsii i varianty vozmozhnogo razvitiya [Contemporary City: Core Trends and Options for Potential Development]. Vestnik Volgogr. gos. arkhit.-stroit. un-ta. Ser.: Str-vo i arkhit. [Vestnik VolgGASU. Series: Construction and Architecture]. 2012, no. 27(46), pp. 129—136.
  8. Puchkov M.V. Dekonstruktsiya i rekonstruktsiya urbanizirovannykh territoriy [Deconstruction and Reconstruction of Urbanized Territories]. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. [Academy. Architecture and Construction]. 2009, no. 3, pp. 57—60.
  9. Dobritsyna I.A. Transnatsional’nyy kapitalizm i arkhitektura global’nykh gorodov [Transnational Capitalism and Architecture of Global Cities]. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo Moskvy [Moscow Architecture and Construction]. 2010, vol. 551, no. 3, pp. 11—20.
  10. Safaryan Yu., Aloyan A., Aloyan K. K probleme formirovaniya gradostroitel’noy strategii Armenii na sovremennom etape [On the Problem of Formation of the Present-day Urban Strategy of Armenia]. Sb. nauchnykh trudov EGUAS [Collection of research Works of the Yerevan State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering]. Erevan, 2008, vol. II (32), pp. 3—5.
  11. Rogers R., Gumuchdjian P. Cities for a Small Planet. London, Faber and Faber, 1997, 180 p.
  12. Safaryan Yu.A., Gasparyan M.A., Aloyan A.A. The master plan of Yerevan Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Contemporary Problems in Architecture and Construction “Architecture and Urban Construction on the Low-carbon Strategies”. Beijing, China, November 20—24, 2011, pp. 1–30—1-35.

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Historyand reconstruction of the convent of Martha and Mary

Vestnik MGSU 7/2013
  • Kotova Elena Vasil’evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) engineer, Laboratory for Examination and Reconstruction of Buildings and Structures, Department of Testing of Structures; +7 (495) 287-49-14 (ext. 13-31), Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kunin Yuriy Saulovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Testing of Structures; +7 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 1331, 1150., Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kotov Viktor Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) sector leader, Laboratory for Examination and Reconstruc- tion of Buildings and Structures, Department of Testing of Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 15-21

The article deals with the methods of restoration of large buildings of Orthodox churches in Russia. Practical solutions, described in the article, are applicable to the majority of church buildings partly demolished or rearranged during the Soviet era. The authors describe the restoration works performed at the convent of Martha and Mary as a good example of this practice. The article is focused on the general issues that complicate the restoration process, including lack of any uniform restoration solutions, lack of global cultural legacy protection programs, and the poor technical condition of restored buildings.The authors provide an overview of the restoration project that involved restoration and renovation of the New Jerusalem monastery building and Znamenskaya church building in Kholmy village. The solution was to have several subcontractors involved into the design and construction process. Department of reconstruction and structural inspection (ORZS) of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) was responsible for the supervision over the process of restoration and the work quality control. This article highlights the growing demand for the restoration control, especially if versatile assignments associated with foundations, structural, mechanical and finishing works are performed by different contractors. Special attention is driven to advanced waterproofing solutions applicable to underground structures, as leaks damage unique wall paintings. The authors raise the issues of research into the international experience of reconstruction and restoration of architectural monuments, methods of boosting religious tourism and respect for the history of Russia.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.7.15-21

References
  1. Sayt Marfo-Mariinskoy obiteli [Website of the Convent of Martha and Mary]. Available at: http://www.mmom.ru. Date of access: 15.04.2013.
  2. Ivanova E.V., Gorinov M.M., Sharipov A.M. Marfo-Mariinskaya obitel’ miloserdiya k 100-letiyu sozdaniya Obiteli [Convent of Martha and Mary’s Mercy. On the Occasion of the Convent’s Centenary]. Moscow, Belyy gorod publ., 2009, 494 p.
  3. Shargunov A. Podvizhniki Marfo-Mariinskoy obiteli miloserdiya [Hermits of the Convent of Martha and Mary’s Mercy]. Moskovskoe podvor’ye Svyato-Troitskoy Sergievoy Lavry publ., 2001, 144 p.
  4. Mikhaylovskiy E.V. Restavratsiya pamyatnikov arkhitektury. Moskva. [Restoration of Architectural Monuments. Moscow]. Izdatel’stvo literatury po stroitel’stvu publ., 1971, 96 p.
  5. Smirnova L.M. Metody sovremennoy restavratsii [Methods for Contemporary Restoration]. Available at: http://icon-art.narod.ru/artikle22.html. Date of access: 12.04.2013.
  6. Otchet po inzhenerno-tekhnicheskomu obsledovaniyu kripty Marfo-Mariinskoy obiteli. OOO «Tekhorgstroy». [Report on the Engineering Examination of the Undercroft of the Convent of Martha and Mary]. Tekhorgstroy Open Joint Stock Company, 2012.
  7. Banister Fletcher. A History of Architecture. Architectural Press, 1996, 1801 p.
  8. Erlande-Brandenbourg. The Cathedral: The Social and Architectural Dynamics of Construction. Cambridge Studies in the History of Architecture. Cambridge University Press, 2009, 382 p.
  9. Kotov V.I., Kunin Yu.S. Kompleksnoe obsledovanie pamyatnikov arkhitektury dlya razrabotki proekta restavratsii [Comprehensive Examination of Architectural Monuments with a View to Development of the Restoration Design]. Obsledovanie, ispytanie, monitoring i raschet stroitel’nykh konstruktsiy zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Examination, Testing, Monitoring and Analysis of Structural Units of Buildings and Structures]. 2010, MGSU Publ., pp. 93—96.
  10. Kotov V.I., Kunin Yu.S., Kotova E.V. Obsledovanie, vosstanovlenie, remont i usilenie svodov i arok zdaniy Novo-Ierusalimskogo monastyrya [Examination, Restoration, Renovation and Strengthening of Domes and Arches of Buildings of the New Jerusalem Monastery]. Obsledovanie, ispytanie, monitoring i raschet stroitel’nykh konstruktsiy zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Examination, Testing, Monitoring and Analysis of Structural Units of Buildings and Structures]. 2011, MGSU Publ., pp. 97—100.
  11. Fedotova L.A. Religioznyy turizm kak put’ vozrozhdeniya istoriko-kul’turnogo naslediya [Religious Tourism as the Way towards Revival of Historic and Cultural Legacy]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2012, no 9, pp. 41—42.

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АRCHITECTURAL RUINS PHENOMENON

Vestnik MGSU 8/2013
  • Fedorov Viktor Vladimirovich - Tver Technical University (TSTU) Doctor of Culturology, Professor, chair, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tver Technical University (TSTU), 22 Naberezhnaya Af. Nikitins, Tver, 170026, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Skibina Elena Vladimirovna - Tver State Technical University (TvGTU) assistant lecturer, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tver State Technical University (TvGTU), office 322, 22 nab. Af. Nikitina, Tver, 170026, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-13

Modern academic research has a large area of behaviorist and environmental studies focusing on the spatial factor employed to explain the reality. The concept of understanding ruins as monuments of the past dates back to the days of the Renaissance. Exposed to destruction in the past ages, they have acquired numerous meanings, thus, becoming a source of ideas about the past. It is appropriate to speak about “historic” and “modern” ruins. In the first case, the time distance between the moments of construction and perception of ruins is quite large. In the second case, ruins comprise the outcome of inaccurate design, construction or maintenance of buildings, natural disasters or wars. They also have a symbolic and semantic content. The interest in the phenomenon of ruins has brought forth the notion of«false ruins» (in landscape parks) and «future ruins» (paintings and fiction). The spatial and time scale of the urban environment (including ruins) generates a powerful symbolic content. Ruins often symbolize a pathological state of the society that strives to minimize the presence of such objects in the everyday life. Developing culture prefers creative motives and tends to replace destructive ones. Since the 1980s, the phenomenon of architectural ruins has been rapidly expanding its presence in the virtual space due to:1) the complexity of visual assessments because of the lack of familiar structural elements to be employed to estimate the size of buildings; 2) the violation of the balance of space, mass, shape, typical of architectural creations; 3) the dominance of the deaf mass (remains of columns, walls, etc.); 4) the lack of spatial reference, volume, symmetry, reinforcing irrationality in perception of ruins (the loss of the original image destroys the unity of form and content); 5) the loss of opinions on the functional purpose of buildings; 6) exclusive picturesque ruins; 7) background lighting, colour and texture of surfaces.The complexity of experiences related to the perception of ruins is determined by many circumstances. Special attention should be paid to: a) the presentation of ruins as a particular case of the architectural sphere; 2) the development of typology of ruins, important for the understanding of the phenomenon as a whole; 3) the study of particular architectural ruins in the virtual reality; 4) the objective of identifying the potential impact that the phenomenon of architectural ruins may produce on the mankind.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.8.7-13

References
  1. Kiyanenko K.V. Arkhitekturnaya nauka v SShA: «EDRA» i chelovekoorientirovannye issledovaniya [Architectural Science in the United States: EDRA and Human Oriented Researches]. Academia [Academy]. Moscow, 2011, no. 1, pp. 38—43.
  2. Nowak M. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation. Science. 2006, vol. 314, pp. 1560—1563.
  3. O'Connell K. Tactical Urbanism Has Caught On in a Big Way. Architect, July 2013, pp. 38—40.
  4. Ukhnalev A.E. Ruiny. Vremya. Arkhitektura [Ruins. Time. Architecture] Arkhitekturnyy vestnik [Architectural Herald]. 1997, no. 4, pp. 61—63.
  5. Jodidio Ph. Architecture Now. London, Taschen, 2005, 447 p.
  6. Zenkin S.N. Frantsuzskiy romantizm i ideya kul'tury (aspekty problemy) [French Romanticism and Idea of Culture (Problem Aspects)]. Moscow, RGGU Publ., 2001, pp. 32—39.
  7. Sardarov A. Ruiny kak arkhitekturno-khudozhestvennoe yavlenie [Ruins as Architectural and Artistic Phenomenon]. Arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo [Architecture and Construction]. 2010, no. 5 (216). Available at: http://ais.by/story/11799. Date of access: 29.07.2013.
  8. Shpeer A. Vospominaniya [Memoirs]. Moscow, Zaharov publ., 2010. 688 p.
  9. Mitin I. Neskol'ko zamechaniy o ruinakh [Some Remarks on Ruins]. Available at: http://os.colta.ru/art/projects. Date of access: 24.05.2011.
  10. Morris U. Iskusstvo i zhizn' [Art and Life]. Moscow, 1973, 324 p.
  11. Shenle A. Apologiya ruiny v filosofii istorii [Apology of Ruin in Philosophy of History]. Available at: http://magazines.russ.ru/nlo/2009/95. Date of access: 14.02.2012.
  12. Losev A.F. Problema simvola i realisticheskoe iskusstvo [The Problem of Symbol and Realistic Art]. Moscow, 1995, 446 p.

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Anatomy of architectural critiсizm: the voice of the people

Vestnik MGSU 10/2013
  • Tkachev Valentin Nikitovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Architecture, Professor, Department of Design of Buildings and Town Planning, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-13

The author examines destructive and creative opportunities of criticism. The criticism of experience and creative ideas in the architecture lead to the progress in the compositional harmonization of buildings and to the optimization of building technologies.In general, the historical aspect of the mechanism of criticism kept the profession in tone; in respect of the aromorphosis it filtered the quality of architectural solutions.In earlier societies, criticism used to be syncretical. Later, there could be distinguished social, professional and administrative criticism.Social criticism is concentrated on human vital requirements to the living environment. Its subjects are: protests against annoying unauthorized buildings and advertising, protection of historical monuments and green belts, protests against migration and migrant workers, and improvement of the living conditions.General environmental positions are divided into retro resistance, modernization and compromise.In the article, a historical overview of social criticism is given with specific examples of its influence on architecture.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.10.7-13

References
  1. Severtsov A.N. Morfologicheskie zakonomernosti evolyutsii [Morphological Regularities of Evolution]. Moscow-Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1939, 610 p.
  2. Pasternak B.L. Doktor Zhivago [Doctor Zhivago] Moscow, Azbuka Publ., World's classic Series, 2013, 608 p.
  3. Bol'shaya detskaya entsiklopediya. Iskusstvo epokhi Renessansa [Great Children's Encyclopedia. Art in the Epoch of the Renaissance]. Moscow, Russian encyclopedic partnership, 2001, 575 p.
  4. Raum G.S., Zeit, Architektur. Die Entstehung einer neuen Tradition. Otto Maier Verlag, Ravensburg, 1965, 460 p.
  5. Nervi P.L. Critica delle strutture. Casabella, Milano, 1959, I, no. 223.
  6. Tasalov V.I. Ocherk esteticheskikh idey arkhitektury kapitalisticheskogo obshchestva [Essay on aesthetic ideas of the Architecture of Capitalist Society]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1979, 335 p.
  7. Ikonnikov A.V. Arkhitektura Moskvy XX veka [Moscow Architecture of the 20ieth Century]. Moscow, Moskovskiy rabochiy Publ., 1984, 222 p.
  8. Marcus Vitruvius Pollio. De Architectura. Leningrad, OGIZ, 1936, 342 p.
  9. Burov A.K. Ob arkhitekture [On Architecture]. Moscow, Gosstroyizdat Publ., 1960, 147 p.
  10. Mastera sovetskoy arkhitektury ob arkhitekture [Adepts of Soviet architecture about the architecture]. T. I. M. Iskusstvo, 1975, 544 p.
  11. Yung K.-G. Arkhetip i simvol [Archetype and Symbol]. Moscow, Renaissance, 1991, 300 p.
  12. Gazprom sity — administrativnyy delovoy tsentr v S.Peterburg. Konkurs proektov [Gazprom-city — Administrative Business Center in Saint Petersburg. Contest of Design]. Zodchiy. 21 vek [The Architect. 21st Century]. 2007, no. 1, pp. 34—47.

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