ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

Social, ethnical, cultural and confessional features of architectural heritage of monasteries

Vestnik MGSU 6/2014
  • Frolov Vladimir Pavlovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 35-43

Monasteries, their activity and lifestyle have always played an important role in the culture of various nations. Monasteries are objects of cultural heritage. Their architecture is connected with national features on a nation, particular canons of Christian (orthodox, catholic), Buddhistic or other religion. The article describes ancient monasteries in Russia amid the global development, historical national characteristics monasteries are analyzed, as well as architectural ensembles, reflecting the function and role of monasteries in public life, showing their spiritual and cultural heritage, monastic tradition, the historical value of the monastic landscape and its conservation conditions, the inclusion of the monasteries in the world cultural heritage is noted.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.6.35-43

References
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  2. Komech A.I. Russkie monastyri. Istoriya i kul'tura X—XVII stoletiya [Russian Monasteries. History and Culture of X—XVII Centuries]. Moscow, Art-BMB Publ., 2001, p. 21.
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  5. Bryusova V.G. Ipat'evskiy monastyr' [Ipatiev Monastery]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1981, p. 27.
  6. Likhachev D.S., Savitskaya O.D. Arkhitekturno-khudozhestvennye pamyatniki [Solovetskikh ostrovov [Architectural and Artistic Monuments of the Solovetsky Islands]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1980, p. 32.
  7. Skopin V.V., Shchennikova L.A. Arkhitekturno-khudozhestvennyy ansambl' Solovetskogo monastyrya [Architectural Ensemble of the Solovetsky Monastery]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1981, p. 53.
  8. Molokova T.A. Svyatitel' Filipp — patriot i stroitel' pravoslavnoy Rossii [St Philip — Patriot and Builder of Russian Orthodox]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2006, pp. 18, 20.
  9. Burov V.A. Istoriya keleynoy zastroyki Solovetskogo monastyrya XV—XIX vekov: monografiya [Exclusionary Story Building Solovetsky Monastery XV—XIX Centuries]. Institute of Archeology of Russian Academy of Sciences, Solovki State Historical, Architectural and Natural Museum-Reserve, Arkhangel'sk, 2011, p. 26.
  10. Maksakovskiy V.P. Vsemirnoe kul'turnoe nasledie [World Cultural Heritage]. Moscow, Eko-pros Publ., 2000, p. 381.
  11. Arenkova Yu.I., Mekhova G.I. Donskoy monastyr' [Don Monastery]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1970, p. 67.
  12. Petrova E.N. Russkie monastyri. Iskusstvo i traditsii [Russian Monasteries. Art and Traditions]. Saint Petersburg, Palace Edition, 1997, p. 112.
  13. Chelnokov A. Pokrovskiy stavropigial'nyy zhenskiy monastyr' u Pokrovskoy zastavy [Intercession Pokrovsky Monastery]. Moscow, Pokrovskiy stavropigial'nyy zhenskiy monastyr' Publ., 2010, p. 57.
  14. Shchenkov A.S., editor. Arkhitekturnoe nasledie na rubezhe XX—XXI vekov: Problemy restavratsii i okhrany naslediya [Architectural Heritage in 20—21st Centuries. Moscow, KRASAND Publ., 2010, p. 51.
  15. Pokrovskaya E.N., Koval'chuk Yu.L. Biokorroziya, sokhranenie pamyatnikov istorii i arkhitektury [Biocorrosion, Preservation of Historical Monuments and Architecture. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2013, p. 28, 57.

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Structural value of Yerevan streets

Vestnik MGSU 4/2015
  • Avetisyan Arsen Grantovich - National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA) postgraduate student, Department of Theory of Architecture, Restoration and Reconstruction of Historical-Architectural Heritage, Fine Arts and History, National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA), 105 Teryan str., Yerevan, 0010, Republic of Armenia; +3 (749) 373-39-85; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-14

The absence of the methods of urban analysis in the process of urban development of Yerevan is the reason of urban planning activities that tend to decrease the urban value of Yerevan territories. Meanwhile the studies in the sphere of urban planning and urban analysis prove the dependence of the life in the city on its structure and distribution of the functions. The mentioned issue highlights the importance of urban analysis. The paper discusses space syntax, which is one of the initial methods of urban analysis. The basic concept of Space syntax is based on the assumption that urban fabric can be presented and studied as a power graph. The method provides the measures that evaluate the land use, traffic and pedestrian movement, land value and even carbon emissions. The paper discusses also recent attempts of integration of space syntax method into GIS environment. GIS databases provide researchers with vast amount of urban data. Analyses presented in the current paper were performed on the basis of the open street map, which was imported from the GIS environment. With the application of space syntax methods analysis of connectivity, integration choice (betweenness) and depth from the city center were performed to evaluate the structural value of Yerevan streets. Municipal regions of Yerevan were classified by the level of their accessibility and by their distances from the city center on the base of the results of depth measures from the city center. Evaluation of the street network aims to define the most integrated and centrally positioned parts of the city. These areas can be locations for the organization of sub centers of Yerevan in the municipal regions.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.4.7-14

References
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  14. SP 42.13330.2011. Gradostroitel’stvo. Planirovka i zastroyka gorodskikh i sel’skikh poseleniy. Aktualizirovannaya redaktsiya SNiP 2.07.01—89* [Requirements SP 42.13330.2011. Urban Development. Planning and Building in Urban and Rural Settlements. Advanced Edition of Construction Norms SNiP 2.07.01—89*]. Elektronnyy fond pravovoy i normativno-tekhnicheskoy dokumentatsii [Electronic Fund of Legislative and Normative-Technical Documentation]. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200084712/. Date of access: 25.02.2015. (In Russian)
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Interpretation features of classical orders of Vincenzo Brenna in the architecture of St. Petersburg of the late 18th century

Vestnik MGSU 4/2015
  • Voznyak Ekaterina Ryurikovna - Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPSUACE) Candidate of Architecture, Associate Professor, Department of Architectural and Town-Planning Heritage, Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPSUACE), 4 2-ya Krasnoarmeyskaya str., Saint Petersburg, 190005, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 15-25

The article analyzes the architectural details and column orders construction of an outstanding architect of Pavlovsk’s classicism Vincenzo Brenna. Architectural forms creation is an important but not well investigated area in the history of architecture. Knowledge of architectural elements enables us to better understand and explore the creativity of the architect, which is necessary for époque identifying and determining the authenticity of a monument and its elements. The name of Vincenzo Brenna stands apart among the architects of the late 18th century. Works of Brenna are significantly different from the works of the other architects of the period of strict classicism. His works were severely criticized and were almost forgotten, the authorship was disputable and the projects were fathered to other architects. Though the art works of Brenna are very significant for the image of Saint Petersburg. The article identifies individual elements of architectural decisions in the orders and decorations of Brenna’s facades manifested in the Baroque freedom of drawing elements order in combination with the classical solution rigor.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.4.15-25

References
  1. Grabar’ I.E. Istoriya russkogo iskusstva. T. 3. Peterburgskaya arkhitektura v XVIII i XIX veke [History of Russian Art. Vol. 3. Architecture of Saint Petersburg in 18th and 19th Century]. Moscow, I. Knebel’ Publ., 1912, 584 p. (In Russian)
  2. Lansere N.E. Vinchentso Brenna [Vincenzo Brenna]. Saint Petersburg, Kolo Publ., 2006, 286 p. (In Russian)
  3. Shvidkovskiy D.O. Arkhitekturnaya sud’ba Pavla I [Architectural Destiny of Paul I]. Rossiya v kraskakh [Russia in Colors]. Available at: http://ricolor.org/history/mn/pv/arh/. Date of access: 12.01.2015. (In Russian)
  4. Shvidkovskiy D.O. Anglo-russkie svyazi v arkhitekture vtoroy poloviny XVIII — nachala XIX stoletiya : avtoreferat dissertatsii doktora iskusstvovedeniya [Britain-Russia Relations in the Architecture of the Second Half of 18 — Early 19 Century : Thesis of the Doctor of Art Criticism]. Moscow, VNIITAG Publ., 1994, 47 p. (In Russian)
  5. Shuyskiy V.K. Vinchentso Brenna [Vincenzo Brenna]. Zodchie Sankt-Peterburga. XVIII vek [Architects of Saint Petersburg. 18th Century]. Saint Petersburg, 1997, pp. 770—827. (In Russian)
  6. Shuyskiy V.K. Zolotoy vek barokko i klassitsizma v Sankt-Peterburge [Golden Age of Baroque and Classicism in Saint Petersburg]. Moscow, Tsentrpoligraf Publ.; Saint Petersburg, MIM-Del’ta Publ., 2008, 288 p. (In Russian)
  7. Shvidkovskiy D.O., Revzina Yu.E. Kogda rodilas’ klassicheskaya arkhitektura i est’ li u nee budushchee? [When the Classical Architecture was Born and What Kind of Future Doest it Have?]. Dom Burganova. Prostranstvo kul’tury [The House of Burganov. Cultural Space]. 2014, no. 2, pp. 15—32. (In Russian)
  8. Vin’ola Dzh. Pravilo pyati orderov arkhitektury : sbornik [The Rool of Five Orders in the Architecture]. Translated from Italian. Moscow, Vsesoyuznaya akademiya arkhitektury Publ., 1939, 168 p. (Klassiki teorii arkhitektury [Classics of Architectural Theory]). (In Russian)
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  10. Barabanova O.A. Dzhakomo Kvarengi i Klod-Nikolya Ledu [Giacomo Quarenghi and Claude-Nicolas Ledoux]. Izvestiya Ural’skogo federal’nogo universiteta. Seriya 2: Gumanitarnye nauki [News of the Ural Federal University. Series 2. Humanities]. 2006, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 119—130. (In Russian)
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  18. Nikiforova L.V. Kul’turnaya istoriya ordera: muzhskoe/zhenskoe v obrazakh ordernoy arkhitektury XVIII stoletiya [Cultural History of the Order: Male/Female in Order Architecture Forms of the 18th Century]. Obshchestvo. Sreda. Razvitie [Society. Environment. Development]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 158—162. (In Russian)
  19. Lebedeva G.S. Arkhitekturnaya teoriya Vitruviya [Architectural Theory of Vitruvius]. Iskusstvoznanie [Art Criticism]. 2009, no. 3—4, pp. 5—34. (In Russian)
  20. Kal’nitskaya E.Ya. Tsvetnoy kamen’ v istorii i restavratsii Mikhaylovskogo zamka [Colored Stones in History and Restoration of St. Michael’s Castle]. Izvestiya Ural’skogo federal’nogo universiteta. Seriya 2: Gumanitarnye nauki [News of the Ural Federal University. Series 2. Humanities]. 2008, vol. 59, no. 16, pp. 259—269. (In Russian)
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Space planning decisions for the residential buildings of mass series after reconstruction for extended families and family groups of Central Asia (on the example of Tajikistan)

Vestnik MGSU 4/2015
  • Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich - Khujand Politechnic Institute of Tajik Technical University by academic M. Osimi (PITTU); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Senior Lecturer, Khujand Politechnic Institute of Tajik Technical University by academic M. Osimi (PITTU); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 226 Lenina st., Khujand, 735700, Tajikistan; applicant, Department of Architecture of Civil and Industrial Buildings; 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 26-38

The current need for additional domestic accommodation has necessitated the formation of new housing types for different categories of families in terms of affordability and market requirements. In particular, the demand for apartments can be met by the renovation of Soviet pre-cast concrete residential blocks. Firstly, there is a need to quantify the growth of the elderly population and the ever-increasing desire to preserve friendly relations between the generations based on Tajik tradition. Secondly, there is a need to design special residential units intended for the resettlement of extended families, family groups and families consisting of several generations. The renovation of the old Soviet buildings will reduce not only the physical deterioration of a building by complete or partial replacement of individual structures, but will also eliminate obsolescence as a result of internal redesign and enhancement of a building. An analysis of the space-planning and structure of a residential building will establish the degree of obsolescence, as well as address the question of reconstruction as a dwelling for extended families through the partial redevelopment of apartments. Such redevelopment would increase the area of common rooms to include insulated terraces and loggias, the removal of some partitions and the conservation of existing sanitary cells. This article deals with the reconstruction of large apartment buildings based on Soviet mass-produced residential block series TTZH 1-464-AC-3, which is dwelling for extended families consisting of several generations. The article proposes 4 different options for redevelopment. These options will increase the living space of the reconstructed residential building from 25 to 35 %, and will increase the population density in all dwellings by 50 %. The intention is to improve space-planning of mass-produced residential blocks, series TTZH 1-464-AC-3, in order to match the demographic characteristics of Tajikistan for extended families and family groups.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.4.26-38

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  12. Velikanov N.L., Koryagin S.I. Energoeffektivnost’ zhilishchnogo fonda regiona [Energy Efficiency of Regional Housing Stock]. Tekhniko-tekhnologicheskie problemy servisa [Technical and Technological Problems of Service]. 2014, no. 3 (29), pp. 96—100. (In Russian)
  13. Kozachun G.U., Lapko N.A. Ob”emno-planirovochnye resheniya kvartir i krizis na rynke zhil’ya [Space and Planning Decisions of Flats and Crisis on Housing Market]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2009, no. 11, pp. 20—23. (In Russian)
  14. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V. O kompleksnom pokazatele teplovoy zashchity obolochki zdaniya [On Complex Indicator of Building Envelope Thermal Protection]. AVOK: Ventilyatsiya, otoplenie, konditsionirovanie vozdukha, teplosnabzhenie i stroitel’naya fizika [ABOK: Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, Heat Supply and Building Thermal Physics]. 2010, no. 4, pp. 52—61. (In Russian)
  15. Bushov A.V. Ob”emno-planirovochnoe reshenie i ego vliyanie na energoeffektivnost’ i mikroklimat pomeshcheniya [Space-Planning Decision and its Influence on Energy Efficiency and Microclimate of a Premise]. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo [Academia. Architecture and Construction]. 2010, no. 3, pp. 251—252. (In Russian)
  16. Kartashova K.K. Rekonstruktsiya gorodskogo zhilishcha s uchetom sovremennykh sotsial’nykh potrebnostey [Reconstruction of City Housing with Account for Contemporary Social Needs]. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Stroitel’stvo [News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction]. 2003, no. 7, pp. 125—131. (In Russian)
  17. Savin V.K., Sankin I.V., Savina N.V. Ob”emno-planirovochnye resheniya, ekologiya i energeticheskaya effektivnost’ zdaniy [Space-Planning Decisions, Ecology and Energy Efficiency of Buildings]. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo [Academia. Architecture and Construction]. 2010, no. 3, pp. 363—366. (In Russian)
  18. Mikhaylin M.V., Solov’ev A.K. Metodika podbora energosberegayushchikh arkhitekturnykh i tekhnologicheskikh resheniy pri rekonstruktsii zdaniy [Methods of Choosing Energy Efficient Architectural and Technological Decisions in the Process of Reconstruction of Buildings]. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo [Academia. Architecture and Construction]. 2010, no. 3, pp. 95—99. (In Russian)
  19. Chuvilova I.V., Kravchenko V.V. Kompleksnye metody rekonstruktsii i modernizatsii massovoy zhiloy zastroyki [Complex Methods of Reconstruction and Modernization of the Mass of Residential Buildings]. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo [Academia. Architecture and Construction]. 2011, no. 3, pp. 94—100. (In Russian)
  20. Bulgakov S.N. Energoeffektivnye stroitel’nye sistemy i tekhnologii [Energy Efficient Construction Systems and Technologies]. ABOK. 1999, no. 2, pp. 6—13. (In Russian)

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Wood in the modern architectureof small forms

Vestnik MGSU 5/2015
  • Samol’kina Elena Grigor’evna - Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU) postgraduate student, Depart- ment of Architectural Design, Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU), 65 Il’inskaya str., Nizhniy Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-18

The modern world dictates severe conditions, involving people in a continuous process of changes in the environment. Active building and construction work, urban densification are rapidly transforming environment, creating a new architectural space with intense impact on people. In this regard, there is much tension around the issue of provision of urban amenities, forming comfortable environment for a full human life. The comfort of the urban environment is determined by a set of visual perception of the constituent elements of this environment: architecture, design, landscape and their harmonious unity with nature. A remarkable component of visual perception, making urban space aesthetically appealing, is small architecture.Small architecture in Russia has always played a special role. Being perceived in the context of space, creating at the same time a certain mood and emotions, small forms diversified architectural environment, making it aesthetically appealing. The question about the direction of urban policy in the field of provision of urban amenities was made in 1921, when the first Congress on improvement of populated areas took place. With this legislation originated overall urban development approach as inseparable system layout of the city, its architectural appearance and landscaping. Architectural workshops developed model projects of small forms with recommendations for improvement, which helped to inexpensively create individual features in urban development. At present, the provision of urban amenities have moved to a new level, becoming more grandscale, capital-intensive.The main requirements for small architectural forms are to create a harmonious space, the fusion of architecture with the natural elements. The most harmonious perception of small architectural forms in the environment is achieved through the use of natural building materials. The use of natural materials in urban environment represents nature, creates a comfortable environment psychologically close to a person. Wood, among other natural materials, has an undoubted advantage. Absolute compatibility, unique design quality, expressive possibilities of the material and its ability to form a comfortable living environment, harmoniously combined with other materials, provide greater demand for wood in modern architecture.In the architecture of small forms wood is used everywhere: on the territories of residential quarters, parks and recreation areas, areas of office and commercial development, road environment, etc. A leading role in shaping the public space belongs to small structures for various functional purposes, such as benches, gazebos, sheds, sports facilities, children’s playgrounds.In the modern wooden architecture of small forms two directions are clearly traced. In the first one there is the desire to escape from the boring similar forms, transforming small architectural forms in art objects representing not only material, but also artistic value. The second direction is based on the centuries-old practice of folk art. Having been formed for centuries folk culture and national traditions fully meet the artistic tastes of the modern society. Summing up, it should be noted that the use of wood in architecture of small forms is a universal solution to shape the ecological framework of the urban environment, which is especially important in solving the problems of the modern city.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.5.7-18

References
  1. Stiles R. Urban Spaces — Enhancing the Attractiveness and Quality of the Urban Environment. Vienna University of Technology, 2009, 86 p.
  2. Sviderskiy V.M. Malye arkhitekturnye formy : Ogrady, fonari, vazy, skam’i [Small Architectural Forms : Fencing, Lamps, Vases, Benches]. Kiev, Izdatel’stvo Akademii arkhitektury Ukrainskoy SSR Publ., 1953, 216 p. (In Russian)
  3. Lemytskaya D.E., Kharlantov T.V. Opyt primeneniya malykh arkhitekturnykh form v zhiloy zastroyke 1930—1950-kh godov (Na primere istoricheskikh gorodov Krasnoyarskogo kraya) [Experience in the Use of Small Architectural Forms in Residential Areas 1930—1950-Ies (On the Example of the Historical Cities of the Krasnoyarsk Territory)]. Arkhitekton : izvestiya vuzov [Architecton: Proceedings of Higher Education]. 2011, no. 34 (Appendix). Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2011_22/38.Date of access: 22.10.2014. (In Russian)4. Rottle Nancy, Yocom Ken. Basics Landscape Architecture 02: Ecological Design. AVA Publishing (UK) Ltd., 2011, 178 p.
  4. Gel’fond A.L. Arkhitekturnoe proektirovanie obshchestvennykh prostranstv [Architectural Design of Public Spaces]. N. Novgorod, NNGASU Publ., 2013, 265 p. (In Russian)
  5. Sevan O. Small Forms of Wooden Architecture of the Russian North: Fences, Gates, Wicket Doors and Retaining Walls. Project Baikal. 2013, no. 36. Available at: http://www.projectbaikal.com/index.php/pb/article/view/137.Date of access: 22.10.2014.
  6. Oreshko A.N. Primenenie dereva v arkhitekture kak sposob gumanizatsii gorodskoy sredy [The Use of Wood in Architecture as a Way of Humanization of Urban Environment]. Arkhitekton : izvestiya vuzov [Architecton : Proceedings of Higher Education]. 2009, no. 26 (Appendix). Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2009_22/5.Date of access: 05.03.2015. (In Russian)
  7. Wolley H. Urban Open Spaces. London, Spon Press, 2003, 260 p.
  8. Mavlikaeva G.S. Osobennosti igrovogo prostranstva v sovremennoy urbanizirovannoy srede [Features of Player Space in Modern Urbanized Environment]. Arkhitekton : izvestiya vuzov [Architecton : Proceedings of Higher Education]. 2012, no. 38 (Appendix). Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2012_22/9.Date of access: 22.10.2014. (In Russian)
  9. Goncharova N.S. Sadovo-parkovaya semantika — klyuch dlya resheniya problem obraznosti i emotsional’noy nasyshchennosti ob”ektov landshaftnoy arkhitektury [Gardening Semantics — the Key to Solve the Problems of Imagery and Emotional Richness of Landscape Architecture]. Arkhitekton : izvestiya vuzov [Architecton : Proceedings of Higher Education]. 2004, no. 7. Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2004_2/15.Date of access: 22.10.2014. (In Russian)
  10. Novoe derevyannoe [New Wooden]. Archiwood. Available at: http://www.archiwood.ru/new_wood/.Date of access: 21.10.2014. (In Russian)
  11. ARKhIWOOD: Katalog premii 2012 [Archiwood. Award Catalogue 2012]. Ekaterinburg, Aster-Ek Publ., 2012, 128 p. (In Russian)
  12. Ivanov G.P., Voroshilin S.I., Pletnev M.V., Kokovikhin I.Yu., Fomin N.I. Sovremennye peshekhodnye mosty [Modern Footbridges]. Arkhitekton : izvestiya vuzov [Architecton : Proceedings of Higher Education]. 2009, no. 25. Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2009_1/4.Date of access: 22.10.2014. (In Russian)
  13. ARKhIWOOD: Katalog premii 2013 [Archiwood. Award Catalogue 2013]. Ekaterinburg, OAO IPP «Ural’skiy rabochiy» Publ., 2013, 128 p. (In Russian)
  14. Kurochkin V.A. Ekologicheskaya tematika v gorodskom art-dizayne [Ecological Theme in City Art Design]. Arkhitekton : izvestiya vuzov [Architecton : Proceedings of Higher Education]. 2013, no. 42. Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2013_2/16. Date of access: 22.10.2014. (In Russian)
  15. Konkurs dlya molodykh khudozhnikov i dizaynerov na luchshee mesto dlya potseluev ot Martini Art Club [Competition for Young Artists and Designers for the Best Place for Kisses from Martini Art Club]. Arhimir web site. Available at: http://www.arhimir.ru/blog/3246.html.Date of access: 21.10.2014. (In Russian)
  16. Kikot’ D.V., Kozyrenko N.E. Dizayn gorodskoy infrastruktury [Design of Urban Infrastructure]. Novye idei novogo veka : materialy Odinnadtsatoy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii IAS TOGU: v 2-kh tomakh [New Ideas of the New Century : the International Scientific Conference Proceedings of FAD PNU: in Two Volumes]. Khabarovsk, Izdatel’stvo Tikhookeanskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta Publ., 2011, vol. 1, pp. 490—492. (In Russian)
  17. McHarg Ian L. Design with Nature. Garden City, New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1992, 198 p.
  18. Lakhtin K.I., Simonova I.N., Simonov S.I. Osnovnye printsipy proektirovaniya ostanovok obshchestvennogo transporta [The Basic Principles of Public Transport Stops Designing]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov Donbasskogo gosudarstvennogo tehnicheskogo universiteta [DonSTU Scientific Works Collection]. 2013, no. 41, pp. 206—213. (In Russian)
  19. Dutsev M.V. Arkhitekturno-khudozhestvennoe formirovanie otkrytykh gorodskikh prostranstv (na primere evropeyskikh gorodov) [Architectural and Artistic Formation of Urban Open Spaces (on the Example European cities)]. Arkhitekton : izvestiya vuzov [Architecton : Proceedings of Higher Education]. 2012, no. 40. Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2012_4/4.Date of access: 22.10.2014. (In Russian)

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Wooden facade decor in the aspect of energy saving

Vestnik MGSU 8/2014
  • Samol'kina Elena Grigor'evna - Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU) postgraduate student, Department of Architectural Design, Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU), 65 Ilyinskaya str., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 20-27

In the world of today, issues of the relationship between society and nature are becoming more relevant. A process of continuous development of industrial and social activities and the negative interference in the environment cause damage to the unique biosphere. The dynamics of destructive processes necessitates conducting activities in accordance with the fundamental laws of nature. One way of solving these problems is to create a harmonious architectural environment that has minimal impact on the environment of the surrounding countryside. An important factor in the process of "sustainable architecture" formation is the use of the building materials, which are safe for humans and the environment. Special role in this aspect is played by wood possessing unquestionable priority in "sustainable architecture". Wood is a renewable natural material with unique properties. Wastelessness, low thermal conductivity, strength, unique texture, ease of processing and other quality wood help to create cozy and comfortable environment. From the perspective of ecological and energy problems the use of wood in architecture has a special role as the most optimal solution to these issues. In Russia construction of energy efficient buildings is at an early stage of development. To date, the power consumption of the existing residential and public buildings in Russia is on average about three times higher than in technically advanced countries of Scandinavia with similar climatic conditions. At the same time the tendency to steady growth of non-renewable energy resources leads to the need to improve the thermal protection of buildings. The problem of thermal protection of buildings in architecture led to widespread use of ventilated facades. Constructive solution is to install the layer of insulation on the exterior walls and to fasten cladding materials to the frame to form an air gap for air circulation. Finishing materials perform architectural function. The most common facing materials of natural origin include wooden facades. Demand for such kind of structures in contemporary architecture is explained by wide possibilities of architectural and artistic facades. Facade decor made of wood is various, it tends to be unusual, with exclusive forms, eliminating unnecessary luxury. Valuable wood panels, board with logs imitation, block house, facade boards (planken), the wood tile (shingle), etc. can be used in decoration. A large number of wooden facing materials allow to create wooden facades of different styles, and the texture and wood shades form a harmonious environment. Among the various methods of using wooden decor the most common technique is outplaying of wood texture. Wood is treated with special impregnation to give effect of the natural aging, wood is also tinted, creating a color contrast of house planes, and then is coloured, imitating the texture of precious wood. Wooden facade decor fully solves not only the problem of architectural expressiveness of structures, but also the problem of energy saving, which is especially important in the context of the global crisis. The unique capabilities of the tree, its ability to be in harmony with other materials form a comfortable environment, providing a favorable psychological impact.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.8.20-27

References
  1. Thayer Robert. Gray World, Green Heart: Technology, Nature, and the Sustainable Landscape. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1994.
  2. Union Internationale des Architectes. Declaration of Interdependence for a Sustainable Future. UIA/AIA World Congress of Architects, Chicago, June 18—21, 1993. Available at: http://server.uia-architectes.org/texte/england/2aaf1.html. Date of access: 03.05.2014.
  3. Zhukov A.D., Smirnova T.V., Naumova N.V., Mustafayev R.M. Sistemy ekologicheski ustoychivogo stroitel'stva [Environmentally Sustainable Building Systems]. Stroitel'stvo: nauka i obrazovanie [Construction: Science and Education]. 2013, no. 3. Available at: http://nsojournal.ru/public/journals/1/issues/2013/03/4.pdf. Date of access: 06.07.2014.
  4. Lawson B. Embodied Energy of Building Materials. The Environmental Design Guide, Pro 2, Royal Australian Institute of Architects, Canberra, 1998, pp. 4—5.
  5. Bad'in G.M. Stroitel'stvo i rekonstruktsiya maloetazhnogo energoeffektivnogo doma [Construction and Reconstruction of Low-rise Energy Efficient House]. St. Petersburg, BKhVPetersburg, 2011, 422 p.
  6. Korolev D.Y. Okrashivanie naruzhnykh ograzhdeniy materialami novogo pokoleniya dlya energosberegayushchey ekspluatatsii zdaniy [Painting of External Walls by New Generation Materials for Energy Efficient Operation of Buildings]. Nauchnyy vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel'nogo universiteta. Ser. Vysokie tekhnologii. Ekologiya [Scientific Bulletin of the Voronezh State University of Architecture and Engineering. Series: High Technologies. Ecology]. 2011, no. 1, pp. 128—131.
  7. Kuz'menko D.V., Vatin N.I. Novyy tip ograzhdayushchey konstruktsii — termopanel' [New Type of Walling — Thermopanel]. StroyPROFIl' [Construction Profile], 2008, no. 6, pp. 32—36.
  8. Semenova E.E., Kosheleva D.S. Issledovaniya po primeneniyu energosberegayushchikh resheniy pri proektirovanii grazhdanskikh zdaniy [Research on Application of Energysaving Solutions in the Design of Civil Buildings]. Nauchnyy vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel'nogo universiteta. Ser. Vysokie tekhnologii. Ekologiya [Scientific Bulletin of the Voronezh State University of Architecture and Engineering. Series: High Technologies. Ecology]. 2011, no. 1, pp. 150—153.
  9. Semenova E.E., Ovsyannikova M.A. Sovremennye resheniya teplozashchity naruzhnykh ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiy [Modern Solutions for the Heat Insulation of External Enclosing Structures]. Nauchnyy vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturnostroitel'nogo universiteta. Ser. Vysokie tekhnologii. Ekologiya [Scientific Bulletin of the Voronezh State University of Architecture and Engineering. Series: High Technologies. Ecology]. 2011, no. 1, pp. 154—157.
  10. Wooden Facades. Riko Haus. Available at: http://www.riko-hise.si/en/products-andsolutions/wooden-facades. Date of access: 06.07.2014.
  11. Oreshko A.N. Primenenie dereva v arkhitekture kak sposob gumanizatsii gorodskoy sredy [The Use of Wood in Architecture as a Way of Humanization the Urban Environment]. Arkhitekton: Izvestiya vuzov [Architecton: Proceedings of Higher Education]. 2009, no 26 (Appendix). Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2009_22/5. Date of access: 06.07.2014.
  12. Malinin N., Gonsales E., Shovskaya T. Novoe derevyannoe 1999—2009 [New Wooden 1999—2009]. Ekaterinburg, TATLIN Publ., 2010, 312 p.
  13. ARKhIWOOD : Katalog premii 2013 [ARCHIWOOD : Product Award 2013]. Ekaterinburg, TATLIN Publ., 2013, 128 p.
  14. Detskiy klub [Children Club]. Byuro Praktika [Practice Bureau]. Available at: http://bureau-praktika.ru/projects/Perovo-kids-club. Date of access: 03.05.2014.
  15. Dom v Yaroslavskoy oblasti [House in Yaroslavl Region]. Arkhitekturnoe byuro DK [Architectural Bureau DK]. Available at: http://www.dainov-dk.ru/ru/projects/18. Date of access: 06.07.2014.

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Logic of historical development of the formation process of architectural and construction solutions

Vestnik MGSU 5/2014
  • Baranov Valeriy Aleksandrovich - Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Theory of Buildings and Structures, Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU), 8 Sukhanova str., Vladivostok, 690950, Primorsky Krai, Russian Federation; +7(423) 245-20-10; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-15

In research field of development processes of architectural and construction decisions (ACD) there is already very considerable scientific, normative and technical material. And still in the end of the research boom in this area (the 90th) many authors stated their weak return in practical design. High methodological potential gives understanding of the act of ACD formation as a special kind of activity, and its structure - as historical phenomenon that allows to put two main methodological principles in the basis of the research: the principle of activity and the principle of level organization of historically formed objects. As a result it was succeeded to reveal 6 main stages of historical development of ACD formation process and 6 levels of its modern organization. Origin stage - is the transition from animal to human construction and emergence of the first stage of ACD formation - a measurement. The reproductive stage is characterized by centuries-old reproduction of steady volume forms of constructions. At a composite stage professional presentation detaches external form of a construction from architectural and construction actions and techniques. There occurs transformation into a subject of architectural and construction activity and creation of a method of composition on this basis. At a constructive stage engineers are involved in construction process, there is a change of style of thinking, emergence of construction designs and emergence of a new function of ACD means of configuration, and, at last, final allocation and separation of architectural and construction design from construction. Technological stage is a product of industrialization of construction on which systematization is carried out not only on the level of subject, but also in respect to the operational contents that leads to emergence of ACD program formation. At the sixth, methodological stage of development of ASP, a leading way change of the ACD formation becomes a necessary condition of its working implementation, and so-called "designing designing" becomes its necessary stage. Achievements of each of the revealed stages don't disappear, and pass into a new stage of development as a subordinated level, carrying out the certain function available to its opportunities. Each subsequent level differs from the previous one, first, in the wider covered subject content of activity of ACD formation, secondly, increase in the depth of penetration into ACD problem, and, thirdly, the contents, which is meant by the concept "architectural and construction solution" at each level.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.7-15

References
  1. Ribo T. Tvorcheskoe voobrazhenie [Artistic Imagination]. Saint Petersburg, Yu.N. Erlikh Publ., 1901, 327 p.
  2. Engel'meyer P.K. Tvorcheskaya lichnost' i sreda v oblasti tekhnicheskikh izobreteniy [Creative Personality and Environment in the Field of Technical Inventions]. Saint Petersburg, Obrazovanie Publ., 1911, 116 p.
  3. Prokhorov A.F. Konstruktor i EVM [Designer and Computer]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1987, 272 p.
  4. Lewis Henry Morgan. Houses and House-Life of the American Aborigines. Chicago, Illinois, University of Chicago Press, 1965, 319 p.
  5. Tsirkunov V.Yu. O proiskhozhdenii zodchestva [On the Origin of Architecture]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1965, 216 p.
  6. Leont'ev A.N. Problemy razvitiya psikhiki [Problems of Mental Evolution]. 4th edition. Moscow, Moscow State University Publ., 1981, 584 p.
  7. Vitruviy Mark Pollion. Desyat' knig ob arkhitekture [Ten Books on Architecture]. Translation from Latin. Leningrad, OGIZ Publ., 1936, 344 p.
  8. Kartsev V.P., Khazanovskiy P.M. Stikhiyam ne podvlasten [Not Subject to Elements]. Moscow, Znanie Publ., 1975, 176 p.
  9. Gidion Z. Prostranstvo, vremya, arkhitektura [Space, Time, Architecture]. Translation from German, Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1977, 567 p.
  10. José Ortega y Gasset. Meditación de la Técnica. Barcelona, Espasa-Calpe, S.A., 1965, p. 141.
  11. Volchok Yu.P., Kirichenko E.I., Kozlovskaya M.A., Smurova N.A. Konstruktsiya i arkhitekturnaya forma v russkom zodchestve XIX — nachala XX vv. [Structure and Architectural Form in Russian Architecture of the 19th — Beginning of the 20th Century]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1977, 176 p.
  12. Ivanov B.I., Cheshev V.V. Stanovlenie i razvitie tekhnicheskikh nauk [Establishment and Development of Technical Sciences]. Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1977, 264 p.
  13. Archer L.B. The Structure of Design Processes. Royal College of Art, London, 1968, 200 p.
  14. Jones J. Christopher. Designing Designing. Forthcoming from the Architecture. Design and Technology Press, London, 1990.
  15. Shchedrovitskiy G.P. Printsipy i obshchaya skhema metodologicheskoy organizatsii sistemno-strukturnykh issledovaniy i razrabotok [Principles and General Scheme of Methodological Organization of Systems and Structures Investigations and Solutions]. Sistemnye issledovaniya. Metodologicheskie problemy [System Investigations. Methodological Problems]. Moscow, 1981, pp. 193—227.

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SYSTEMS APPROACH TO DESIGN OF BUILDINGS DESIGNATED FOR DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS

Vestnik MGSU 5/2012
  • Istomin Boris Semenovich - Central Scientific and Research Institute of Industrial Buildings Doctor of Architectural Sciences, Professor, Chief Researcher +7 (499) 267-84-60, Central Scientific and Research Institute of Industrial Buildings, 46 Dmitrovskoe shosse, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Razin Andrey Dionisovich - Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (PFUR) Candidate of Architectural Sciences, Associated Professor, Chair, Department of Architecture and Urban Construction +7 (495) 955-07-05, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (PFUR), 6 Miklukho-Maklaya st., Moscow, 117198, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 6 - 11

The article covers the design of buildings of diplomatic missions as sophisticated, multi-functional networks of buildings and structures. Their constituents (rooms) have up to 100 different options each of which serves a particular function (namely, lobbies, reception areas, guest rooms, halls, dining rooms, offices, flats, toilets, etc.) that may be clustered into four functional groups: diplomatic missions, official areas, residential areas, service areas.
The systems approach to the process of planning and designing of buildings of diplomatic missions is to attain the following objectives, including functional development of buildings of diplomatic missions, rational arrangement of their constituents and facilities, grouping and zoning, integrity and interrelation of elements of mission buildings. As a result, the proposed approach is to ensure high-quality architectural and structural solutions.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.5.6 - 11

References
  1. Razin A.D. Arkhitekturno-planirovochnye osobennosti sovremennykh diplomaticheskikh kompleksov [Architectural and Planning Peculiarities of Modern Buildings of Diplomatic Missions]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2010, no 5, pp. 47—50.

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BI-COLOURED FORM GRAPHICS SOLUTION FOR COMPONENT-TYPE TETRAHEDRONS

Vestnik MGSU 5/2012
  • Filin Yuriy Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) consulting lecturer, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kartavtsev Ivan Sergeevich - Tula State University (TSU) postgraduate student, Tula State University (TSU), 92 prospekt Lenina, Tula 300012, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kartavtsev Nikolay Sergeevich - Bureau of Heating and Ventilation Systems, Design and Engineering Centre, branch of Tulachermet Joint Stock Company Design Engineer, Bureau of Heating and Ventilation Systems, Design and Engineering Centre, branch of Tulachermet Joint Stock Company, 102B prospekt Lenina, Tula, 300012, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 12 - 16

The authors of the article propose their original bi-coloured solution of form graphics surfaces for a pair of component-type tetrahedrons. This solution is successfully implemented in generation of images as well as in development of unique framework models and aesthetic emblems. The emblems are a visual representation of a mirror-like symmetric unity of structure and colour contrast for a pair of component-type tetrahedrons. The research results have fundamental scientific, theoretical and practical importance for architectural design purposes; it will also foster generation of structural shapes. The original form graphics solution will enjoy intensive application in structural design, structural geometry and computer-aided modeling of images of geometric objects

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.5.12 - 16

References
  1. Georgievskiy O.V., Filin Yu.N., Kartavtsev N.S. Estetizatsiya formografiki komponentnykh tetraedrov [The Aesthetic Aspect of Form Graphics of Component-Type Tetrahedrons]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 4, vol. 1, рp. 72—78.
  2. Moskvin M.A., Kartavtsev I.S., Filin Yu.N. Komponentnaya formografika izoromboida, kvadroizoromboida, gipergeksaedra i izooktaedra [Component Form Graphics of Izoromboid, Kvadroizoromboid, Hyperexaedr and Izooctaedr]. Collected papers. “Scientific and Technical Creative Activities of the Youth as the Road to the Knowledge-Based Society” Conference. Moscow, MSUCE, 2008, pp. 233—234.
  3. Filin Yu.N, Kartavtsev N.S., Kartavtsev I.S. Formoobrazovanie triady piramid peresekayushchikhsya komponentnykh tetraedrov [Formation of Triads of Pyramids of Inter-crossing Component-type Tetrahedrons]. “Integration, Partnership and Innovations in Construction Sciences and Education” International Scientific Conference. Collected papers. Moscow, MSUCE, 2011, vol. 2, pp. 769—773.

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SPACE AS THE CONTEXT FOR IDENTIFICATION

Vestnik MGSU 5/2012
  • Mamedova Nataliya Mikhaylovna - Russian State University of Trade and Economic (RSUTE) Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor +7 (495) 688-21-25, Russian State University of Trade and Economic (RSUTE), 36 Smolnaya st., Moscow, 125993, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 17 - 22

The author analyzes the process of group and personal identification from the view point of territoriality. The author considers the territory as a social, cultural, economic and political reality that is formed under the influence of the physical space, collaboration, and cultural processes. In the cultural domain, past and contemporary cultural formations coexist. The cultural space is perceived as a system of regulatory bases of the human activity and its symbolic content, embodied in the products of varied cultural practices. The shift of values and the emergence of new spatial forms and processes complicate self-determination in the present-day society. Every individual has an image of "Self" that correlates with his or her territorial affiliation. Growing regionalism is one of the present-day trends. The appeal to the functional dynamics of the economic restructuring, the crisis of traditional identities is underway. Special features of contemporary regionalism include the exclusion of regions that lie outside nation-states and the presence of inter-regional competition (cultural and organizational proximity is an economic resource, a factor of competitive advantage). New regions, in contrast to traditional ones, act as independent political units. In some cases, regionalism serves as a means of resistance to change (conservative and defensive regionalism) and vice versa, as an instrument of modernization (progressive regionalism). This process means regional identity based on the common past. The importance of the process of mythologizing is also noteworthy. Interpretations of the past, identity formation in the region can be regarded as a purposeful political process. At the same time, the important constituent of this process is the political motivation aimed at the singling out old regional characters and images and creating new regional characters and images to be introduced into the collective consciousness. Equally important in creating and maintaining the sense of social space and boundaries is the viewpoint transmitted by local media agencies. The major driver of contemporary local identity is the rise of importance of the local culture. Regions and networks constitute interdependent poles inside the new spatial logic of the modernity.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.5.17 - 22

References
  1. Kastel’s M. Informatsionnaya epokha: ekonomika, obshchestvo i kul’tura [Information Epoch: Economy, Society and Culture]. Available at: http://www.gumer.Info/bibliotek_Buks/Plolit/kastel/. Date of access: 18.05.10.
  2. Kiting M. Novyy regionalizm v Zapadnoy Evrope [New Regionalism in Western Europe]. Logos Publ., 2002, no. 6 (40), pp. 67, 70.
  3. Lefevre H. La Production de l’Espace. Paris, Anthropos Publ., 2000, pp. 154—156.
  4. Entsiklopediya postmodernizma [Encyclopedia of Postmodernism]. Available at: http://slovari.yandex.ru/dict/postmodernism. Date of access: 25.05.10.
  5. Busygina I. Territorial’nyy faktor v evropeyskom soznanii [The Territorial Factor in the European Consciousness]. Kosmopolis Publ., 2002—2003, no. 2. Available at: http://www.risa.ru/cosmopolis/archives/2/. Date of access: 04.2010.
  6. Kiting M. Novyy regionalizm v Zapadnoy Evrope [New Regionalism in Western Europe]. Logos Publ., 2002, no. 6 (40), p. 82.

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UNDERGROUND SPACE DEVELOPMENT AS A WAY TO PROTECT THE HISTORIC ENVIRONMENT OF THE CITY OF MOSCOW

Vestnik MGSU 8/2012
  • Belyaev Valeriy Lvovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associated Professor, doctoral student, Department of Urban Planning and Environmental Safety Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; vbely aev2011@mail.ru, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 6 - 14

The author believes that the issue of urban development of the underground space of Moscow
needs further research. He also provides a brief analysis of the global underground space development
experience. The author argues that due to the lack of effi cient public administration over the
Moscow areas in the course of their development, they lag far behind the same areas of Western cities.
The solution is to be based on the principles of systemic approach to urban planning (the master
plan) and development of urban programmes (special-purpose municipal programmes).
Another effective method represents experimental urban design. The author argues that it can
solve the problems of comprehensive development of underground parts of the centre of the capital
(multi-functional public areas) and preservation of the historic environment. Similarly, this method
can contribute to effective development of local sights (the Pushkin square). Improvement of the
system of public administration should be backed by the issuance of legal acts.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.8.6 - 14

References
  1. Belyaev V.L. Osnovy podzemnogo gradoustroystva [Fundamentals of Subterranean Urban Planning]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2012, 198 р.
  2. Grado: zhurnal o gradostroitel’stve i arkhitekture [Grado: Journal of Urbanism and Architecture]. 2011, no. 2, pp. 33—106.
  3. Ploshchad’ Karlsplatts-Shtkhaus. Straubing po-russki. [The Carlsplatz Stachus Square. Straubing in the Russian Style]. Available at: http://moistraubing.de/index.php/bayern/muenchen/stachus. Date of access: June 16, 2012.
  4. Obladen B., Zvarts M. Amsterdam: gorod pod gorodom [Amsterdam: the City beneath the City]. Grado: zhurnal o gradostroitel’stve i arkhitekture [Grado: Journal of Urbanism and Architecture]. 2011, no. 2, pp. 58—69.
  5. Korotaev V.P. Moskva: gradostroitel’nyy potentsial podzemnogo prostranstva [Moscow: Urban Planning Potential of Its Underground Space]. Grado: zhurnal o gradostroitel’stve i arkhitekture [Grado: Journal of Urbanism and Architecture]. 2011, no. 2, pp. 71—81.
  6. Zakon goroda Moskvy «O General’nom plane goroda Moskvy» [Law of the City of Moscow “About the Master Plan of Moscow”]. Available at: http://www. mka.mos.ru/mka/mka.nsf/va_WebPages/Genplan_2010-17zmRus. Date of access: May 29, 2012.
  7. Postanovlenie Pravitel’stva Moskvy ot 03.10.2011 № 460-PP «Ob utverzhdenii Gosudarstvennoy programmy goroda Moskvy «Gradostroitel’naya politika» na 2012-2016 gg.» [Resolution of the Government of Moscow of October 03, 2010 no. 460-PP “About the Approval of the State Programme of the City of Moscow “Urban Development Policy for 2012-2016”]. Available at: http://www. http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=MLAW;n=134756. Date of access: 29.05.2012.
  8. Otchet o nauchno-issledovatel’skoy rabote «Formirovanie kompleksnykh dannykh po sushchestvuyushchim, proektiruemym i stroyashchimsya ob”ektam podzemnogo prostranstva, dannykh o geologicheskoy srede goroda Moskvy po pervoocherednym zonam planiruemogo razmeshcheniya podzemnykh sooruzheniy v masshtabe 1:10000 i 1:2000 na osnove EGKO goroda Moskvy». [Research Report “Formation of Integrated Data Covering Existing and New Underground Structures, Data concerning the Geological Environment of the City of Moscow in the Areas of the top-Priority Underground Development in the Scale 1: 10000 and 1: 2000 on the Basis of the Unifi ed State Cartographic Map of the City of Moscow»]. Moscow, Mosgorgeotrest Publ., 2010.
  9. Gradostroitel’nyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Urban Planning Code of the Russian Federation]. Available at: http://www.base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=12279. Date of access: May 29, 2012.
  10. Podzemnyy gorod v Monreale: planirovanie, razvitie, upravlenie [Underground City in Montreal: Planning, Development and Management]. Grado: zhurnal o gradostroitel’stve i arkhitekture [Grado: Journal of Urbanism and Architecture]. 2011, no. 2, pp. 50—57.

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TESSELLATION OF GEOPLASTIC SHAPES THROUGH THE EMPLOYMENT OF REGULAR POLYHEDRA

Vestnik MGSU 8/2012
  • Burova Natalya Mikhaylovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Descriptive Geometry and Graphics +7 (499) 183-98-97, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 15 - 20

Geoplastics-related solutions are applied to generate the artifi cial terrain within the framework
of landscape design projects. The proposed solutions are employed to generate a variety of geoplastic
shapes capable of embodying particular design ideas.
The author compares the proposed geoplastic solutions with the classical problem of mathematics
that consists in the effective partition of the three-dimensional space into individual cells that
represent non-overlapping polyhedra (tessellation).
The proposed method of identifi cation of volumes of geoplastic shapes employs simple operations
to make suffi ciently accurate calculations. Countours and dimensions of patterns designed
hereunder make no impact onto the accuracy of calculations. Thus, the practical problem of generation
of an artifi cial terrain within the framework of landscape design is simplifi ed.
Therefore, the design process is reduced to the following sequence of actions:
1) Identifi cation of dimensions and contours of the geoplastic pattern;
2) Space fi lling with regular polyhedral that have preset dimensions through the employment
of CINEMA 4D software;
3) Calculation of the overall volume;
4) Alteration of initial dimensions of the surfaces employed for fi lling purposes;
5) Comparison of the results.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.8.15 - 20

References
  1. Glezer G., Poltir K. Kartiny matematiki [Images of Mathematics]. Spektrum Publ., 2002.
  2. Nikolaev V.A. Landshaftovedenie, estetika i dizayn [Landscape Studies, Aesthetics and Design]. Moscow, Aspekt Press Publ., 2005.
  3. Burova N.M., Matseevich A.V. Opredelenie ob”emov geometricheskikh poverkhnostey vtorogo poryadka pri sozdanii iskusstvennykh rel’efov [Identification of Volumes of Second Degree Geometric Surfaces within the Framework of Generation of the Artificial Terrain]. Fundamental’nye nauki v sovremennom stroitel’stve [Fundamental Sciences in Contemporary Civil Engineering]. Proceedings of the Seventh All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2010.
  4. Matseevich A.V. Issledovanie nekotorykh geometricheskikh poverkhnostey dlya formirovaniya geoplasticheskikh form v landshaftnom proektirovanii [Research of Some Geometric Surfaces Applied for the Generation of Geoplastic Shapes in Landscape Design]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo v sovremennykh usloviyakh [Industrial and Civil Engineering in the Present-day Environment]. Proceedings of the International Scientific and Practical Conference of Students. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2011.
  5. Ball P. Ideal’naya pena: vse delo v volshebnykh puzyr’kakh [Ideal Foam: It’s All about Magic Bubbles]. Available at: http://www.popmech.ru/articll/10099-idealnaya-pena. Date of access: 10.03.2012.

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TEMPORALITY OF URBAN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE: A SYSTEMIC APPROACH

Vestnik MGSU 8/2012
  • Zhuravlev M.Yu. Mikhail Yur'evich - Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering Assistant Lecturer, Department of Architecture +7 (927) 760-73-21, Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 194 Molodogvardeyskaya St., Samara, 443001, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 20 - 25

The article is focused on the contextual characteristics of architecture. From the viewpoint
of gnosiology, architecture is part of major areas of knowledge, such as science, technology, and
art. At the same time, it is of the same importance as other related areas, including history, art, and
construction technology. Being an open system, architecture is strongly interrelated both with upperlevel
and same-level fields, and no solid system is isolated. Subsequently, architecture has strong
links with history. As the result, development of architecture has a strong temporal connection with
development of all areas mentioned above.
The author argues that architecture should essentially be treated as an open dynamic system
in correlation to its context. After a closer look at urban planning, it is considered to be the essence of
architecture-related activities, and the author comes to the conclusion that it (as well as the architecture
itself) is the most large-scale and complex phenomenon from the viewpoint of time and space.
The system classifi cation by A.V. Boldachev is applied to describe the characteristics of architecture
treated as a system. In light of this theory, architecture can be described in terms of a
'dynamic system as a flow of transitions'. Based on this conclusion, the author states that architecture
as a knowledge system needs to be studied with closer attention from temporal point of view, it
should be treated as a process, a flow of changing states of the system in time.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.8.20 - 25

References
  1. Nazarli M.Dzh. Kosmogoniya i Tvorenie v sefevidskoy zhivopisi XVI veka [Cosmology and Creation in the Safavid Paintings of the 17th Century]. Vostok [East]. 1993, no. 1, pp. 83—89.
  2. Vitruviy. Desyat’ knig ob arkhitekture [Ten Books of Architecture]. Book 1. Moscow, Editorial URSS Publ., 2003.
  3. Entsiklopedicheskiy slovar’ Brokgauza i Efrona [Brockgauz and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary]. Moscow, Terra Publ., 2001, 726 p.
  4. Taranov P.S. Filosofi ya iznutri [Philosophy from the Inside]. Moscow, Ostozh’e Publ., 1996, vol. I.
  5. Lazarev S.S. Ponyatie «vremya» i geologicheskaya letopis' zemnoy kory [The Notion of Time and the Geological Record of the Earth Crust]. Voprosy filosofi i [Issues of Philosophy]. 2002, no. 1, pp. 77—89.
  6. Altunyan A.O. Arkhitektura i tekhnologicheskiy progress pervykh tsivilizatsiy [Architecture and Technology-related Progress of the First Civilizations]. Vestnik SGASU [Proceedings of SSUACE]. 2008, no. 4, pp. 14—22.
  7. Gidion Z. Prostranstvo, vremya, arkhitektura [Space, Time, Architecture]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1977, 567 p.
  8. Glazychev V.L. Gde iskat’ znanie o gorodakh? [Where Can We Find the Knowledge about the Cities?] Available at: http://tv.russia.ru/video/diskurs_12181/ Date of access: 3.09.2011.
  9. Boldachev A.V. Novatsii. Suzhdeniya v rusle evolyutsionnoy paradigmy. [Innovations. Judgments in Line with the Evolutionary Paradigm]. St. Petersburg, St.Petersburg University, 2007, 256 p.
  10. Bofill’ R. Prostranstva dlya zhizni [Space for Life]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1993, 136 p.

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METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF URBAN PLANNING

Vestnik MGSU 8/2012
  • Mezentsev Sergey Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 26 - 33

The author considers one of the most relevant theoretical problems of urban planning - philosophical
and scientifi c methodology of research. The tasks of research involve the analysis and
identifi cation of the essence of systematic, synergistic, socio-humanistic, ecological and cybernetic
approaches and their general academic signifi cance, particularly, in the fi eld of urban planning.
The systematic approach. The unity of the technological system, the strategy of the system
behavior, and the design consistency, etc. - these are the core constituents of new methods of
technical thinking. If resolution of minor technological problems and development of small systems
lead to differentiation of knowledge and to growing specialization of research, development of major
systems leads to integration and synthesis of knowledge. This integration may be illustrated by the
urban planning which incorporates design development, implementation, testing and operation of
multi-component systems.
The synergеtic approach. The synergеtic approach is employed to study the urban environment
and culture as well as their development. It encompasses the phenomena which are considered
by the systematic approach as unimportant or minor facts, namely, random connections,
volatile relationships, brevity of their existence, spontaneity, etc. These phenomena are based on
the fact that the urban community is heterogeneous; it is composed of multiple separate individuals
and social groups.
The socio-humanistic approach. Modern scientifi c theories are not not only to contribute to
the analysis of the current situation, but also to contribute to the process of formation of the technical
activity on the basis of the principle of humanism. Contemporary engineers fi nd a connection
between technical components and processes with non-technical ones, including human factors,
organizational structures, socio-cultural processes, etc.
The ecological approach. Further development of technologies, namely, construction-related
technologies, should be based on the understanding of their nature as self-suffi cient values and follow
the laws of the social ecology to improve the environment and to avoid numerous anthropogenic
and environmental disasters. Therefore, before any urban planning project is implemented, each
environmental consequence is to be considered in relation to man and society.
The cybernetic approach. Any contemporary activity in the fi eld of technology, including urban
planning, should be based on the management principles developed within the framework of sociology,
including social foresight, social prediction, social planning and social technologies.
In contrast to many other sciences, which succeed in the sphere of methodology of research,
urban planning does not always meet up-to-date requirements. The author believes that there is a
need of adherence to the above methods in urban planning. The author argues that the result of
their application at the stage of urban design will substantially reduce any negative effects at the
stage of construction and operation of technical facilities.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.8.26 - 33

References
  1. Bertalanfi L. fon. Obshchaya teoriya sistem — kriticheskiy obzor [General Theory of Systems: Critical Review]. Issledovaniya po obshchey teorii sistem [Research of the General Theory of Systems]. Collected translations. Moscow, Progress Publ., 1969, pp. 23—82.
  2. Blauberg I.V., Yudin E.G. Stanovlenie i sushchnost’ sistemnogo podkhoda [Formation and Essence of the Systems Approach]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1973, 270 p.
  3. Liseev I.K., Sadovskiy V.N., editors. Sistemnyy podkhod v sovremennoy nauke [The Systems Approach to Modern Science]. Moscow, Progress Publ., 2004, 560 p.
  4. Khaken G. Sinergetika: Ierarkhii neustoychivostey v samoorganizuyushchikhsya sistemakh i ustroystvakh. [Synergetics: Instability Hierarchies of Self-Organizing Systems and Devices]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1985, 423 p.
  5. Veber M. Izbrannoe. Obraz obshchestva [Selected Works. The Image of the Society]. Moscow, Yurist Publ., 1994, 704 p.
  6. Veber M. Issledovaniya po metodologii nauki [Studies of the Methodology of Science]. Moscow, INION AN SSSR Publ., 1980, 202 p.
  7. Kommoner B. Zamykayushchiysya krug: priroda, chelovek, tekhnologiya. [The Closed Circle: Nature, Man and Technology]. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1974, 272 p.
  8. Viner N. Kibernetika, ili upravlenie i svyaz’ v zhivotnom i mashine [Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and in the Machine]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1983, 433 p.
  9. Lenk Kh. Razmyshleniya o sovremennoy tekhnike [Refl ections on Modern Technology]. Moscow, Aspekt Publ., 1996, p. 55—56.
  10. Gusakov A.A. Sistemotekhnika stroitel’stva [Systems Engineering of Construction]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1993, 368 p.
  11. Glazychev V.L. Gorodskaya sreda. Tekhnologiya razvitiya: nastol’naya kniga [The Urban Environment. Technology of Development: a Handbook]. Moscow, Lad’ya Publ., 1995. p. 20.
  12. Rozin V.M. Gorodskaya kul’tura, chelovek, okruzhayushchaya sreda (Filosofskometodologicheskie problemy gradostroitel’nogo proektirovaniya) [Urban Culture, Man, Environment (Philosophical and Methodological Problems of Urban Design)] Voprosy filosofi i [Issues of Philosophy]. 1980, no. 1, pp. 53—62.
  13. Pochegina L.F. Mezhdunarodnaya khartiya po arkhitekturnomu obrazovaniyu i gumanizatsiya arkhitektury [International Charter for Architectural Education and Humanization of Architecture]. International Conference. Integration, Partnership and Innovations in Civil Engineering Sciences and Education. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2011, vol. 2, pp. 750—751.
  14. Fromm E. Imet’ ili byt’? [To Have or to Be?]. Moscow, AST Publ., 2000, 448 p.
  15. Skvortsova L.M. Sotsial’noe prostranstvo goroda: ekologicheskie proekty budushchego [The Social Space of the City: Ecological Projects of the Future]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 414—418.
  16. Fokina Z.T. Tendentsiya urbanizatsii i izuchenie ekologii goroda [Trend for Urbanization and Study of the Urban Ecology]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 2, vol. 2, pp. 253—259.
  17. Gusakov A.A. Sistemotekhnika [Systems Engineering]. Moscow, Novoe Tysyacheletie Publ., 2002, p. 22.
  18. Voronin V.A. Dekompozitsiya metodologicheskikh osnov proektnogo upravleniya v stroitel’stve [Decomposition of Methodological Principles of Project Management in Construction]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 530—534.
  19. Slavgorodskaya A.N. Upravlenie tipovymi proektami pri realizatsii gorodskikh stroitel’nykh programm v Moskve [Management of Model Projects for Urban Construction Programs in Moscow]. Conference. Integration, Partnership and Innovations in Civil Engineering Sciences and Education. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2011, vol. 1, pp. 740—741.
  20. Toshchenko Zh.T. Sotsiologiya. Obshchiy kurs. [Sociology. General Course]. Moscow, Prometey: Yurayt-M Publ., 2001, 511 p.

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MODELLING THE PROPERTIES OF ELLIPTICITY: LINEAR VARIATIONS

Vestnik MGSU 8/2012
  • Polezhaev Yuriy Olegovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering Associated Professor, Department of Descriptive Geometry and Graphics 8 ( 499) 183-24-83, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Borisova Anzhelika Yurevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associated Professor, Department of Descriptive Geometry and Graphics 8 (499) 183-24-83, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 34 - 38

The authors discuss some of the properties of linear variations of ellipticity within the framework
of planimetry. Six elliptic models were constructed through the employment of geometrography-
related methods: an ellipse interrelated with the (i) golden proportion and a (ii) focal plane
rectangle; (iii) a constant of the perimetry of the focal diamond; (iv) compression of the base circle
in the axial direction (y); (v) differential straight lines of the moving point of an ellipse; (vi) compass
incidence, a composition of transformations of the shift and homothety.
Characteristic lines that run in the neighborhood of some point of the ellipse are demonstrated.
The characteristic lines in question include those that can be employed as part of various composite
solutions related to the fragments of structures being constructed.
A set of closed polygons and curves with selected lines passing through the characteristic
points of the circle squaring - these are the geometrographic structures that can form the basis of
composite solutions to the problem of design. The authors also believe that the properties employed
by the golden mean increase the aesthetic constituent of the solution.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.8.34 - 38

References
  1. Gil’bert D., Kon-Fossen S. Naglyadnaya geometriya [Visual Geometry]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1951.
  2. Polezhaev Yu.O. Ratsional’nye proportsii arkhitekturno-stroitel’nykh ob”ektov v proektsionnoy geometrii [Rational Proportions of Architectural Structures in Projective Geometry]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010.
  3. Gil’bert D. Osnovaniya geometrii [Basics of Geometry]. Moscow, OGIZ Publ., 1948.
  4. Korn G. Spravochnik po matematike [Reference Book of Mathematics]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1974.
  5. Saprykina N.A. Osnovy dinamicheskogo formoobrazovaniya v arkhitekture [Fundamentals of Dynamic Shaping in the Architecture]. Moscow, Arkhitektura-S Publ., 2005.

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INDOOR LIGHT ENVIRONMENT INSIDE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN THE EVENT OF APPLICATION OF COMBINED METHODS OF SUN PROTECTION

Vestnik MGSU 8/2012
  • Stetskiy Sergey Vyacheslavovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Architecture, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Khodeir Walid Abbas - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) postgraduate student, Department of Architecture, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 39 - 45

The article deals with the problem of enhancing the light environment inside residential buildings
by means of combined methods of sun protection in the hot and sunny climate of Lebanon.
The proposed sunscreens are effective both if the insolation intensity goes up and down. For
example, the light, refl ected by the sun protection unit located below the storey in question, brings
more natural light into those sections of rooms that are located further from the window, so the illumination
factor in these areas is substantially increased. However, the aforementioned pattern
of natural light design is effi cient in the clear sky environment of the sunny climate, which differs
a lot from the standard conditions of the grey sky. On top of the above, the new approach to the
identifi cation of the T4 factor value is proposed. This factor describes the impact produced by the
sunscreen in the clear sky environment. In this case, its value shall not be taken as constant.
Theoretical and practical research was completed to identify the role of sun protection devices
(sunscreens) in the course of natural (passive) regulation of the light environment inside buildings.
The principal item of research was the condition of the illumination environment inside the premises
under consideration. The research was performed inside a residential building located in a new
district of Beirut, the capital of Lebanon. The research comprised several stages, including theoretical
and fi eld researches of the light environment inside the premises under consideration in the
aftermath of installation of sunscreens.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.8.39 - 45

References
  1. Gusev N.M. Osnovy stroitel’noy fi ziki [Fundamentals of Building Physics]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1975.
  2. Tvarovskiy M. Solntse v arkhitekture [Sun in Architecture]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1977.
  3. Mitnik M.Yu., Spiridonov A.V. Inzhenernyy metod rascheta sistem estestvennogo osveshcheniya pomeshcheniy s ratsional’noy solntsezashchitoy [Engineering Method of Analysis of Natural Lighting Systems in the Premises with Rational Sunlight Protection]. Svetotekhnika [Illumination Engineering]. 1990, no. 10. pp. 16—19.
  4. Kharnes E., Mekhta M. Regulirovanie solnechnoy radiatsii v zdaniyakh [Regulation of Solar Radiation inside Buildings]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1984.
  5. Solov’ev A.K. Otsenka svetovoy sredy proizvodstvennykh pomeshcheniy v usloviyakh yasnogo neba [Assessment of the Lighting Environment of Industrial Premises in the Clear Sky Climate]. Moscow, Svetotekhnika [Illumination Engineering]. 1987, no. 7. pp. 14—16.
  6. Stetskiy S.V., Amkhaz Kh. Rol’ solntsezashchitnykh ustroystv v pomeshcheniyakh administrativnykh zdaniy dlya usloviy Beyruta [The Role of Sun Protection Devices in the Premises of Offi ce Buildings in the Conditions of Beirut]. Stroitel’nye materialy, oborudovanie i tekhnologii XXI veka [Building Materials, Equipment and Technologies of the 21st Century]. 2004, no. 12. pp. 52—53.
  7. SNiP 23-05—95*. Estestvennoe i iskusstvennoe osveshchenie. [Construction Norms and Rules 23-05—95*. Natural and Artificial Illumination]. Moscow, State Committee for Construction, Residential Housing and Utilities, 2004.
  8. SP 23-102—2003. Estestvennoe osveshchenie zhilykh i obshchestvennykh zdaniy. [Construction Rules 23-102-2003. Natural Illumination of Residential and Public Buildings]. Moscow, State Committee for Construction, Residential Housing and Utilities, 2003.
  9. Stetskiy S.V., Suliman Samekh. Povyshenie urovney estestvennoy osveshchennosti v pomeshcheniyakh grazhdanskikh zdaniy s sistemoy bokovogo estestvennogo osveshcheniya dlya usloviy zharkogo i solnechnogo klimata [Improvement of Natural Illumination in Civic Buildings That Have a System of Natural Side Illumination in the Hot and Sunny Climate]. Moscow, Stroitel’nye materialy, oborudovanie i tekhnologii XXI veka [Building Materials, Equipment and Technologies of the 21st Century]. 2005, no. 5. pp. 82—84.
  10. Suliman Samekh. Sozdanie stroitel’nymi metodami komfortnoy akusticheskoy, svetovoy i insolyatsionnoy sredy dlya pomeshcheniy grazhdanskikh zdaniy v usloviyakh krupnykh gorodov Sirii (na primere goroda Damaska) [Employment of Civil Engineering Methods for the Generation of a Comfortable Architectural, Illumination and Insolation Environment for the Premises of Civic Buildings in Major Cities of Syria (exemplifi ed by Damascus)]. Moscow, 2006.
  11. Salo Mokhamed Ali. Povyshenie effektivnosti sistem estestvennogo osveshcheniya v proizvodstvennykh zdaniyakh Sirii (na primere predpriyatiy pishchevoy promyshlennosti) [Improvement of Efficiency of Natural Illumination Systems in Industrial Buildings of Syria (exemplifi ed by food processing enterprises)]. Moscow, 2005.

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PERIPTERY: THE MEANING OF THE WORD

Vestnik MGSU 8/2012
  • Churakov Sergey Konstantinovich - Moscow Architectural Institute Associated Professor, Department of Soviet and Modern Foreign Architecture 8 (495) 62 1-40-85, Moscow Architectural Institute, Rozhdestvenka St., Moscow, 107031, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 46 - 53

The author analyzes the origin and the history of the periptery, examines into the etymology of
this word, and traces its roots in Minoan and Mycenaean cultures.
The history of classical architecture is full of myths. One of them is related to the origin of
periptery, the main type of a classical antique temple. Traditionally, it dates back to the samples
of the 7th-4th centuries B.C., although it is obvious that this type of temples has a longer history.
The term "periptery" is said to originate from an ancient cult established prior to the construction
of the Greek Pantheon. It is composed of the two Greek words: "peri" - around, near,
and "pteron" - a side wing, a side colonnade or an outhouse. As a result, the initial defi nition is
formed - "winged from all sides", while all present-day sources (e.g. Encyclopedia Britannica) use
a much simpler translation - "rectangular building with a colonnade on all four sides".
However, speaking about the drama of post and lintel elements in the Order System, it is not
apparent why, for example, the Temple of Poseidon at Paestum or the Parthenon can be called
"winged", particularly, the Temple of Poseidon, with its ponderous Doric Order. And strictly speaking,
so sensual a tune is typical for the Hellenistic period.
The "winged" theme has nothing to do with the forms of the Periptery or its proportions. Minoan
and Mycenaean temples are a lot older than the Greek ones, therefore, the "winged" may
mean natural encircling of the temple with The Sacred Bird images. These birds were the permanent
"characters" of the Mysteries throughout the Mediterranean region and Ancient East. In the
Sumerian-Acadian culture, the word "fortune" was depicted as a hieroglyph that looked like a bird,
and fortune "management" was one of the functions of the supreme deity.
One of the translations of the word "pteron" is not just a "wing", but also a "winged creature" (a
bird, a griffi n, a sphinx). Polybius (201 - 122 B.C.) used "periptery" in the meaning of "surrounded
by columns", but much later Plutarch (46 - 127 A.D.) named it "a side colonnade" and "a side building".
Practically, the name of one of the temple elements was applied to the whole structure, which
indicated a special role of this "side colonnade", as the main visual sign of the temple being attributed
to the Supreme Deity. The classical form of the Periptery had two essential elements; they were
the two sculptures of birds on top of the columns that surrounded it on three sides, and proto-ionic
columns in front of the main Facade and in the cella (as in a temple in Neandria). Later, the main Facade
evolved as a column portico with a pediment, and on each of its corner akroterion - a sphinx
or a griffin - was placed, while the whole structure was crowned by an antefix formed as a palmette.
This is our reconstruction of the evolution of this type of temple in the course of 600 years, from
the 16th century B.C. through the 10th century B.C.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.8.46 - 53

References
  1. Losev A.F. Istoriya antichnoy estetiki [History of Ancient Aesthetics]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1979, 727 p.
  2. D’yakonov I.M. Arkhaicheskie mify Vostoka i Zapada [Archaic Myths of East and West]. Moscow, Editorial URSS Publ., 2004, 248 p.
  3. Kifi shin A.G., Akimova L.I., editor. Vvedenie v khram. Opyt rekonstruktsii shumero-vavilonskogo mifo-rituala [Introduction into the Temple. Practical Reconstruction of Mythological Rituals of Shumerians and Babylonians]. Moscow, 1998, pp. 27—49.

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THE STEREOBATE OF THE GREEK TEMPLE: THE GENESIS

Vestnik MGSU 8/2012
  • Churakov Sergey Konstantinovich - Moscow Architectural Institute Associated Professor, Department of Soviet and Modern Foreign Architecture 8 (495) 62 1-40-85, Moscow Architectural Institute, Rozhdestvenka St., Moscow, 107031, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 54 - 59

The paper covers the genesis of the stereobate and its evolution as the base of the Classic
Greek Temple. Identification of the cultural sources of the stereobate requires a research into Ancient
East, Minoan, and Mycenaean cultures. During the Classic period, an almost comprehensive
reinterpretation of the temple basic elements occurred, although its base still stood firm as it did
through the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures. These traditions are proven by a number of essential
elements, particularly, in the setting of the temple upon the stereobate.
Several earliest available images demonstrate a temple on the top of the hill, in full compliance
with the present-day Minoan tradition. In later Mycenaean images, it is already depicted standing
on an artificial platform.
This temple type has not changed significantly, as it might be observed on the Cypriot coins
of the 10th century BC that bear an image of the main temple of Paphos Aphrodite (Astarte), placed
on an artificial hill — a stereobate.
On the one hand, placing the temple on a high stereobate could be linked to the formal tradition
of erecting the sanctuary on the top of a natural hill, but, on the other hand, this tradition refers
us to an ancient ritual going back to the culture of Ur, 5-4 millennium BC. This tradition demanded
that the temple had two sections: one above the ground level accessible for humans, and the underground
one belonging to the deity and concealed inside an artificial hill.
In the Greek culture, the underground temple was known as Adyton — the Holy of Holies, an inaccessible
sanctuary, located under the temple. There is no doubt that the Greeks cherished this tradition,
inherited from the Cretan-Mycenaean and Ancient East cultures. Arthur Evans discovered similar
structures during his excavations in Crete, and one can trace a fraction of the stereobate on a piece
of vase from the Heraklion Museum, with a human figure inside a sanctuary. There are Minoan gems
that represent a clearly visible masonry of the stereobate that replace a hill with an artificial platform.
A visible temple above the ground copied an invisible one - its underground counterpart? And
together they made an entity, where the stereobate emulated a hill with a temple of God, hidden
from the mortals. Later on, through the 10th to the 12th centuries BC, this vertical pattern somehow
lost its meaning, the underground temple was moved up to the dark cell, and the whole sanctuary
was transformed into a horizontal axial composition. Ultimately, this transition produced a strong
impact on the spatial pattern of the Greek temple, so that some memories of the Minoan past could
still be seen in the remains of Classic Greece.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.8.54 - 59

References
  1. Rogozina Z.A. Istoriya Assirii [History of Assyria]. St.Petersburg, 1902, p. 126.
  2. Leonard Vuli. Ur khaldeev [Chaldean Ur]. Moscow, 1961, p. 235.
  3. Akimova L.I., Kifi shin A.G. Teni bogov. Ob ontologicheskom smysle drevnikh kopiy [Shadows of the Gods. About the Ontological Essence of Ancient Spears]. Available at: www.prof.museum.ru.
  4. Evans A. The Palace of Minos at Knossos. Vol. I., 1921.
  5. Kifi shin A.G., Akimova L.I., editor. Vvedenie v khram. Opyt rekonstruktsii shumero-vavilonskogo mifo-rituala [Introduction into the Temple. Practical Reconstruction of Mythological Rituals of Sumerians and Babylonians]. Moscow, 1998, pp. 27—49.
  6. Pavsaniy. Opisanie Ellady [Description of Hellas]. Moscow, AST-Ladomir Publ., 2002, vol. 2, pp. 496—512.

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Planning organization features of blocks of low-rise buildings in the structure of a big city irkutsk

Vestnik MGSU 11/2015
  • Yagol’nik Evgeniya Sergeevna - Irkutsk National Research Technical Univercity (INRTU) postgraduate student, Department of Architectural Design, Irkutsk National Research Technical Univercity (INRTU), 83 Lermontova str., Irkutsk, 664074, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 16-28

Low-rise residential buildings of different types occupy 48 % of residential areas of Irkutsk, which is practically a half of the housing stock of the city. That’s why the researcj of its planning structure and understanding of the features of each type formation in the city structure is quite current. In the process of investigation three main types of low-rise residential buildings were detected: private residential houses with land parcel; apartment houses; town houses. The authors investigated architectural and planning features of forming the areas of low-rise buildings of three types in the structure of a major city Irkutsk. The investigation is carried out with the aim to study the characteristic conditions of planning activity of the existing quarters of low-rise residential buildings, search for qualitative characteristics of the investigated types in the conditions of a big city.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.11.16-28

References
  1. Shpakov I.V. Praktika maloetazhnoy zastroyki v Kurske v dorevolyutsionnyy, dovoennyy periody i poslevoennoe desyatiletie [Low-rise Construction Practice in Kursk in Pre-revolution and Pre-war Periods and Postwar Decade]. Aktual’nye problemy sovremennogo regionovedeniya : sbornik materialov Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii (g. Kursk, 1 iyulya 2015 g.) [Current Problems of Contemporary Area Studies : Collection of the Materials of the International Science and Practice Conference (Kursk, June, 1, 2015)]. Kursk, OOO «Investsfera» Publ., 2015, pp. 44—48. (In Russian)
  2. Mikhalev Yu.A. Osnovy gradostroitel’stva i planirovki naselennykh punktov: uchebnoe posobie [Fundamentals of Urban Development and Populated Areas Planning: Manual]. Krasnoyarsk, 2012, 237 p. (In Russian)
  3. Igtisamov R.S. K voprosu o tipizatsii ob”ektov maloetazhnoy zastroyki i napravleniyakh razvitiya stroitel’stva maloetazhnykh zhilykh zdaniy [To the Question of Classification of the Objects of Low-Rise Construction and Development Directions of Low-rise Residential Buildings]. Izvestiya Kazanskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta [Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering News]. 2009, no. 1 (11), pp. 313—317. (In Russian)
  4. Stadnik E.B. Istoricheskie predposylki formirovaniya tipologicheskikh sistem maloetazhnogo zhilishcha v Rossii [Historical Backgrounds of Formation of Typological Systems of Low-Rise Buildings in Russia]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta [Vestnik of Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building]. 2013, no. 3 (40), pp. 47—63. (In Russian)
  5. Korobova O.P. Tendentsii razvitiya maloetazhnoy usadebnoy zastroyki v moskovskoy oblasti [Development Tendencies of Low-rise Manor Construction in Moscow Rehion]. Biosfernaya sovmestimost’: chelovek, region, tekhnologii [Biosphere Compatibility: Human, Region, Technologies]. 2015, no. 1, pp. 106—116. (In Russian)
  6. Babushkina L.V. Formirovanie komfortnykh usloviy prozhivaniya na territoriyakh zhiloy zastroyki sredstvami arkhitekturnogo blagoustroystva (na primere g. Ekaterinburga) [Forming Comfortable Living Conditions on the Territories of Residential Buildings by Means of Architectural Development]. Arkhitekton: izvestiya vuzov [Architecton: Proceedings of Higher Education]. 2011, no. 34. Supplement. Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2011_22/30. (In Russian)
  7. Ogly B.I. Irkutsk: o planirovke i arkhitekture goroda [Irkutsk: on City Planning and Architecture]. Irkutsk, Vostochno-Sibirskoe knizhnoe izdatel’stvo Publ., 1982, 112 p. (In Russian)
  8. Druzhinina I.E. Sotsial’no-prostranstvennaya sreda novykh gorodov irkutskoy oblasti na primere g. Sayanska [Social-Spatial Environment of New Cities of the Irkutsk Region on the Example of Sayansk City]. Vestnik Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta [Bulletin of Irkutsk State Technical University]. 2014, no. 11 (94), pp. 150—155. (In Russian)
  9. Ananyan I.I., Tkachev Yu.V. Tipologicheskie osobennosti lokal’nykh sotsial’no-territorial’nykh kompleksov rekonstruiruemoy zastroyki [Typological Features of Local Social-Territorial Complexes of Reconstructed Buildings]. Sovremennoe promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Modern Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2010, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 25—31. (In Russian)
  10. SP 31-107—2004. Arkhitekturno-planirovochnye resheniya mnogokvartirnykh zhilykh zdaniy [Requirements SP 31-107—2004. Architectural and Planning Solutions of Multiflat Residential Buildings]. Moscow, 2005. (In Russian)
  11. Chereshnev I.V. Ekologichnye zhilye doma dlya maloetazhnoy vysokoplotnoy zastroyki [Ecological Residential Houses for Low-rise Dense Construction]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2007, no. 11, pp. 14—17. (In Russian)
  12. Asaul A.N., Kazakov Yu.N., Pasyada N.I., Denisova I.V. Teoriya i praktika maloetazhnogo zhilishchnogo stroitel’stva v Rossii [Theory and Practice of Low-rise Residential Construction in Russia]. Saint Petersburg, Gumanistika Publ., 2005, 563 p. (In Russian)
  13. Dekterev S.A., Zherdev V.I. Model’ formirovaniya al’ternativnogo zhilishcha krupnogo goroda [Model of Forming an Alternative Housing of a Big City]. Arkhitekton: izvestiya vuzov [Architecton: Proceedings of Higher Education]. 1994, no. 39. Supplement. Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2012_33/14. (In Russian)
  14. Lisitsian M.V., Pashkovskiy V.L., Petunina Z.V., Pronin E.S., Fedorova N.V., Fedyaeva N.A. Arkhitekturnoe proektirovanie zhilykh zdaniy [Architectural Design of Residential Buildings]. Moscow, Arkhitektura-S Publ., 2006, 488 p. (In Russian)
  15. Pisarev M.S. Rol’ maloetazhnogo domostroeniya i problemy ego razvitiya v sovremennoy Rossii [Role of Low-Rise Housing Construction and Problems of its Development in Contemporary Russia]. Vestnik akademii [Proceedings of the Academy]. 2011, no. 2, pp. 132—135. (In Russian)

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Architectural and engineering principles and innovations in the construction of glass-facade buildings

Vestnik MGSU 11/2015
  • Plotnikov Aleksandr Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, senior research worker, Professor, Department of Civil and Industrial Buildings Architecture, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-15

Though the technologies are dynamically developing and there are a lot of research projects, there is still no general opinion on a glass-facade building among the European scientific community, architects and construction engineers. The increasing requirements to heat-protective qualities of translucent structures make us think of the necessity of a quantum leap both in technologies and in principal approaches to the development of architectural and constructive solutions of translucent shells. Together with economical features, the dynamics of heat-protective indicators’ increase show the tendencies to reaching the possibilities limits of mass glass units. The European construction practice usually solve this problem by developing sealed insulating glass units and by different conceptual solutions of the systems of translucent double facades. In the given article the basic theoretical principles and innovative engineering ideas are formulated dealing with the modern glass-facade building construction. “Green Building” conception is analyzed as a European new building philosophy.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.11.7-15

References
  1. Maritz Vandenberg. Farnsworth House (Architecture in Detail), Mies van der Rohe. Phaidon Press Inc., 2005, 60 p.
  2. Schossing E., Behnisch S., Fisch N. About Energy and Architecture. Profile — Architecture Magazine. Schueco International KG, 2007, no. 5, pp. 11—13.
  3. Benits-Vil’denburg Yu. Noveyshie tekhnologii teploizolyatsii i ventilyatsii s pomoshch’yu okon i fasadov [New Heat Insulating and Ventilation Technologies with the Help of Windows and Facades]. Okna. Dveri. Vitrazhi [Windows. Doors. Stained Glass]. 2008, Business Issue. Available at: http://okna.ua/library/art-novejshie_tehnologii_teploizoljacii_i_1. Date of access: 18.12.2013. (In Russian)
  4. Stratiy P.V., Boriskina I.V., Plotnikov A.A. Klimaticheskaya nagruzka na steklopakety [Climatic Load on Insulating Glass Units]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 2, vol. 2, pp. 262—267. (In Russian)
  5. Plotnikov A.A., Stratiy P.V. Raschet klimaticheskoy nagruzki na steklopaket na primere g. Moskvy [Calculating the Climatic Load on Glass Units on the Example of Moscow]. Nauchnoe obozrenie [Scientific Review]. 2013, no. 9, pp. 190—194. (In Russian)
  6. Stratiy P.V., Plotnikov A.A., Boriskina I.V. Issledovanie progibov stekol paketa pri deystvii atmosfernoy sostavlyayushchey klimaticheskoy nagruzki [Investigation of Glass Unit Deflection in the Case of Atmospheric Impact of the Climatic Load]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 33—36. (In Russian)
  7. Aleksandrov Yu.P., Glikin S.M., Drozdov V.A., Tarasov V.P. Konstruktsii s primeneniem steklopaketov [Structures with Insulating Glass Units]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1978, 193 p.(In Russian)
  8. Vakuumnyy steklopaket: budushchee poka tumanno [Sealed Insulating Glass Unit. The Future is still Cloudy]. Okna. Dveri. Fasady [Windows. Doors. Facades]. 21.04.2013. Available at: http://odf.ru/stat_end.php?id=483. Date of access: 18.12.2013. (In Russian)
  9. Rossa M. Innovatsionnoe ispol’zovanie stekla: doklad na 2-m spetsializirovannom kongresse «Okna — fasady — steklo» [Innovative Use of Glass: Report on the 2nd Subject-oriented Congress “Windows — Facades — Glass”]. Moscow, 2007. Available at: http://cwe.ru/archive/detail.php?el=1039&phrase_id=439020. Date of access: 18.12.2013. (In Russian)
  10. Tenhunen O., Lintula K., Lchtinen T., Lehtovaara J., Viljanen M., Kesti J., Makelainen P.Double Skin Facades — Structures and Building Physics. Conceptual Reference Database for Building Envelope Research. Available at: http://users.encs.concordia.ca/~raojw/crd/reference/reference001114.html. Date of access: 18.12.2013.
  11. Basnet Arjun. Architectural Integration of Photovoltaic and Solar Thermal Collector Systems into Buildings: Master’s Thesis in Sustainable Architecture. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Architecture and Fine Arts, Trondheim, June 2012, 96 p. Available at: https://www.ntnu.no/wiki/download/attachments/48431699/Master-Basnet.pdf?version=1&modificationDate=1339765553175. Date of access: 18.12.2013.
  12. Schittich S., Staib G., Balkow D., Schuler M., Sobek D. Glass Construction Manual. Birkhauser Basel, 1999, 328 p.
  13. Aschehoug Ø., Bell D. BP SOLAR SKIN — A facade concept for a sustainable future. SINTEF Report, May 2003. Available at: http://www.sintef.no/upload/BP%20Solar%20Skin%20-%20Final%20Report.pdf. Date of access: 18.12.2013.
  14. RENSON. Reference book, 2nd ed. Waregem, Belgium, 2008. Available at: http://www.rensonuk.net/reference-books-referencebook-2008.html. Date of access: 18.12.2013.
  15. Innovations / Energy2: Saving Energy — Generating Energy. Schüco International KG. 35 p. Available at: https://www.alukoenigstahl.com/AKS/UI/AKSImage.aspx?TabID=0&Alias=Stahl&Lang=hr-HR&Domain=hr&ec=1&imageID=53a7a6f9-54ee-4ac7-935d-96855e8a7546. Date of access: 18.12.2013.
  16. Boriskina I.V., Plotnikov A.A., Zakharov A.V. Proektirovanie sovremennykh okonnykh sistem grazhdanskikh zdaniy [Design of Modern Window Systems of Civil Buildings]. Kiev, Domashevskaya O.A. Publ., 2005, 312 p. (In Russian)

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