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Pages 7-15

In the article the Cauchy problem of the Carleman equation is considered. The Carleman system of equations is a model problem of the kinetic theory of gases. It is a discrete kinetic model of one-dimensional gas consisting of identical monatomic molecules. The molecules can have one of two speeds, which have equal values and opposite directions. This system of the equations is quasi-linear hyperbolic system of partial differential equations. There is no analytic solution for this problem in general case. So, the numerical investigation of the Cauchy problem of the Carleman system solution is very important.The paper presents and discusses the results of the numerical investigation of the Cauchy problem for the studied system solution with periodic initial conditions. The dependence of the stabilization time of the solution and the time dependence of energy exchange from small parameter are obtained.The second point of the paper is numerical investigation of the solution of the Cauchy problem with non-periodic initial conditions. The solution stabilization to the equilibrium state is obtained. The solution stabilization time is compared with stabilization time in periodic case.The final point of the paper is numerical investigation of the Cauchy problem with stationary normal processes as initial conditions. The solution to this problem is two stationary stochastic processes for any fixed value of time variable. As a rule, the practical interest is not a stochastic solution but its statistical characteristics. The stochastic solution realization is presented and discussed. The dependence of the mathematical expectation of the solution deviation modulus from equilibrium state is obtained. It demonstrates the process of the solution stabilization.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.6.7-15

- Bol'tsman L. Izbrannye trudy [Selected Works]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1984, 590 p. (Classics of Science) (In Russian)
- Godunov S.K., Sultangazin U.M. O diskretnykh modelyakh kineticheskogo uravneniya Bol’tsmana [On Discrete Models of Boltzmann Kinetic Equation]. Uspekhi Matematicheskihk Nauk [The Success of Mathematical Sciences]. 1971, vol. 26, no. 3 (159), pp. 3—51.(In Russian)
- Radkevich E.V. O diskretnykh kineticheskikh uravneniyakh [On Discrete Kinetic Equations]. Doklady Akademii nauk [Reports of the Academy of Sciences]. 2012, vol. 447, no. 4, pp. 369—373. (In Russian)
- Euler N., Steeb W.-H. Painleve Test and Discrete Boltzmann Equations. Aust. J. Phys. 1989, vol. 42, pp. 1—10. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/PH890001.
- Radkevich E.V. The Existence of Global Solutions to the Cauchy Problem for Discrete Kinetic Equations. Journal of Mathematical Science. 2012, vol. 181, no. 2, pp. 232— 280. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10958-012-0683-9.
- Radkevich E.V., Vasil’eva O.A., Dukhnovskii S.A. Local Equilibrium of the Carleman Equation. Journal of Mathematical Science. 2015, vol. 207, no. 2, pp. 296—323.
- Radkevich E.V. O povedenii na bol'shikh vremenakh resheniy zadachi Koshi dlya dvumernogo diskretnogo kineticheskogo uravneniya [The Behavior of Cauchy Problem Solutions for Two-Dimensional Discrete Kinetic Equation at Large Times]. Sovremennaya matematika. Fundamental'nye napravleniya [Contemporary Mathematics. Fundamental Directions]. 2013, vol. 47, pp. 108—139. (In Russian)
- Adzhiev S.Z., Amosov S.A., Vedenyapin V.V. Odnomernye diskretnye modeli kineticheskikh uravneniy dlya smesey [One Dimensional Discrete Models of Kinetic Equations for Mixtures]. Zhurnal vychislitel’noy matematiki i matematicheskoy fiziki [Journal of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics]. 2004, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 553—558. (In Russian)
- Il’in O.V. Izuchenie sushchestvovaniya resheniy i ustoychivosti kineticheskoy sistemy Karlemana [Investigating the Existence of Solutions and Stability of Carleman Kinetic System]. Zhurnal vychislitel’noy matematiki i matematicheskoy fiziki [Journal of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics]. 2007, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 2076—2087. (In Russian)
- Aristov V., Ilyin O. Kinetic Model of the Spatio-Temporal Turbulence. Phys. Let. A. 2010, vol. 374, no. 43, pp. 4381—4384. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physleta.2010.08.069.
- Illner R., Reed M.C., Neunzert H. The Decay of Solutions of the Carleman Model. Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 1981, vol. 3 (1), pp. 121—127. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mma.1670030110.
- Illner R., Reed M.C. Decay the Equilibrium for the Carleman Model in a Box. SIAM J. Appl. Math. 1984, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1067—1075. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/0144076.
- Aristov V.V. Direct Methods for Solving the Boltzmann Equation and Study of Nonequilibrium Flows. Kluwer Academic Publishing, 2001, 312 p.
- Radkevich E.V. Matematicheskie voprosy neravnovesnykh protsessov [Mathematical Problems of Nonequilibrium Processes]. Novosibirsk, T. Rozhkovskaya Publ., 2007, 300 p. (White Series in Mathematics and Physics. Vol. 4). (In Russian)
- Il’in O.V. Statsionarnye resheniya kineticheskoy modeli Broduella [Stationary Solutions of the Kinetic Broadwell Model]. Teoreticheskaya i matematicheskaya fizika [Theoretical and Mathematical Physics]. 2012, vol. 170, no. 3, pp. 481—488. (In Russian)
- Frishter L.Yu. Analiz napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya v vershine pryamougol’nogo klina [Analysis of Stress-strain State on Top of a Rectangular Wedge]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 5, pp. 57—62. (In Russian)
- Radkevich E.V. The Existence of Global Solutions to the Cauchy Problem for Discrete Kinetic Equations (Non-Periodic Case). Journal of Mathematical Science. 2012, vol. 184, no. 4, pp. 524—556. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10958-012-0879-z.
- Vasil’eva O.A. Issledovanie nekotorykh veroyatnostnykh kharakteristik resheniya zadachi Koshi dlya uravneniya Byurgersa-Khaksli [Investigation of Some Statistical Characteristics of the Cauchy Problem for Burgers-Huxley Equation Solution]. Trudy MAI [Works of Moscow Aviation Institute]. 2014, no. 78. Available at: http://www.mai.ru/science/trudy/published.php?ID=53684. (In Russian)
- Vasil’eva O.A. Programmnyy modul’ CORFUN 1.2.-2 [The Program Unit CORFUN 1.2.-2]. Matematika. Komp’yuter. Obrazovanie : trudy XVIII Mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii [Mathematics. Computer. Education : Works of the 18th International Conference]. 2011, no. 18, p. 193. (In Russian)
- Vasil’eva O.A. Issledovanie veroyatnostnykh kharakteristik resheniya uravneniya Byurgersa-Khaksli [Investigation of Statistical Characteristics of the Burgers-Huxley Equation Solution]. Matematika. Komp’yuter. Obrazovanie : trudy XXII Mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii [Mathematics. Computer. Education : Works of the 22nd International Conference]. 2015, no. 22, p. 130. (In Russian)

Pages 16-22

The use of fractional derivatives for describing and studying the physical processes of stochastic transport has become one of the most popular fields of physics in the recent years, many of the problems of fluid flow in highly-porous (fractal) environments also lead to the need to study boundary value problems for the equations of fractional order.The paper considers one of the boundary value problems for one-dimensional differential equation of fractional order. Using the Fourier method, the solution to this problem was explicitly written. The author also studied the qualitative properties of the solutions of the boundary value problem. It was proved that, in the case of going to infinity, the limit of the decisions recorded in the form of the function and the limit of the derivative of this solution tend to zero.The results can find application in the theory of fluid flow in a fractal environment and in order to simulate changes in temperature.Fractional integrals and derivatives of fractional integral-differential equations find wide application in contemporary studies of theoretical physics, mechanics and applied mathematics. Fractional calculus is a very powerful tool for describing the physical systems, which have memory and are non-local. Many processes in complex systems are non-locality and have long-term memory. The fractional integral operators and the fractional differential operators allow describing some of these properties. The use of fractional calculus will be useful for obtaining the dynamic models, in which integraldifferential operators describe the power of long-term memory and time coordinate and three-dimensional nonlocality for medium and complex processes.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.6.16-22

- Nakhushev A.M. Drobnoe ischislenie i ego primenenie [Fractional Calculus and its Application]. Moscow, Fizmatlit Publ., 2003, 272 p. (In Russian)
- Aleroev T.S. Kraevye zadachi dlya differentsial’nykh uravneniy drobnogo poryadka [Boundary Value Problems for Differential Equations of Fractional Order]. Sibirskie elektronnye matematicheskie izvestiya [Siberian Electronic Mathematical Reports]. 2013, no. 10, pp. 41—55. (In Russian)
- Aleroev T.S., Kirane M., Malik S.A. Determination of a Source Term for a Time Fractional Diffusion Equation with an Integral Type Over-Determining Condition. Electronic Journal of Differential Equations. 2013, vol. 2013, no. 270, pp. 1—16. Available at: http://ejde.math.txstate.edu/. Date of access: 10.03.2015.
- Tikhonov A.N., Samarskiy A.A. Uravneniya matematicheskoy fiziki [Equations of Mathematical Physics]. 6th edition. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1999, 799 p. (In Russian)
- Samko S.G., Kilbas A.A., Marichev O.I. Integraly i proizvodnye drobnogo poryadka i nekotorye ikh prilozheniya [Integrals and Derivatives of Fractional Order and Some of Their Applications]. Minsk, Nauka i tekhnika Publ., 1987, 688 p. (In Russian)
- Dzhrbashchyan M.M. Kraevaya zadacha dlya differentsial’nogo operatora tipa Shturma-Liuvillya drobnogo poryadka [Boundary Value Problem for the Differential Operator of Sturm-Liouville of Fractional Order]. Izvestiya AN Armyanskoy SSR. Seriya Matematika [News of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR. Series: Mathematics]. 1970, issue 5, no. 2, pp. 71—96. (In Russian)
- Aleroev T.S., Aleroeva Kh.T. Ob odnom klasse nesamosopryazhennykh operatorov, soputstvuyushchikh differentsial’nym uravneniyam drobnogo poryadka [On a Class of Self-Adjoint Operators Associated with Differential Equations of Fractional Order]. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Matematika [Russian Mathematics (Izvestiya VUZ)]. 2014, no. 10, pp. 3—12. (In Russian)
- Khasambiev M.V., Aleroev T.S. Kraevaya zadacha dlya odnomernogo drobnogo differentsial’nogo uravneniya advektsii-diffuzii [Boundary Value Problem for One-Dimensional Differential Advection-Dispersion Equation]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 6, pp. 71—76. (In Russian)
- Aleroev T.S., Aleroeva H.T. A Problem on the Zeros of the Mittag-Leffler Function and the Spectrum of a Fractional-Order Differential Operator. Electron. J. Qual. Theory Diff. Equ. 2009, no. 25, 18 p. Available at: https://zbmath.org/?q=an:1183.34004. Date of access: 10.03.2015.
- Aleroev T.S., Kirane M., Tang Y.-F. Boundary-Value Problems for Differential Equations of Fractional Order. Journal of Mathematical Sciences. Nov. 2013, vol. 194, no. 5, pp. 499—512. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10958-013-1543-y.
- Popov A.Yu., Sedletskiy A.M. Raspredelenie korney funktsiy Mittag-Lefflera [Distribution of Zeros of the Mittag-Leffler Functions]. Sovremennaya matematika. Fundamental’nye napravleniya [Contemporary Mathematics. Fundamental Directions]. 2011, vol. 40, pp. 3—171. (In Russian)
- Płociniczak L. Eigenvalue Asymptotics for a Fractional Boundary-Value Problem. Applied Mathematics and Computation. 15 August 2014, vol. 241, pp. 125—128. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amc.2014.05.029.
- Ushkov V.A., Abramov V.V., Lalayan V.M., Kir'yanova L.V. Slabogoryuchie epoksidnye polimerrastvory, ispol'zuemye dlya vosstanovleniya i remonta stroitel'nykh konstruktsiy [Low-Flamnable Epoxy Polyner Mortars Used for Reconstruction and Repair of Building Structures]. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost' [Fire and Explosion Safety]. 2012, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 36—40.
- Ushkov V.A., Abramov V.V., Grigor'eva L.S., Kir'yanova L.V. Termostoykost' i pozharnaya opasnost' epoksidnykh polimerrastvorov [Thermal Resistanse and Fire Hazard of Epoxy Polimer Mortars]. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011, no. 12, pp. 68-71.

Pages 23-31

At the present time the nonlinear deformation model based on deformation diagrams of the materials is believed to be the most promising for estimation of stress-strain state of reinforced concrete elements at different stages of their compression: before crack formation, in the process of crack formation, at the stage of cracked element operation, at destruction stage. Reliability of estimates depends largely on accuracy of analytical description of curvilinear diagram of concrete deformation. On the other hand we should remember that the calculated construction may be subject to different loading modes: short-term, long-term or competitive. In this regard the universal character is required from the used deformability diagrams. They should be easily transformed for calculation with different modes.The authors suggest methods of constructing such a deformation diagram using elasticity coefficient. Using the corresponding elasticity coefficients in calculations it is possible to account for different loading modes of structures (for example long-term loading). Such an analytical representation of concrete deformation diagram is more generalpurpose as compared to dependence on European standards.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.6.23-31

- Kaklauskas G., Ghaboussi J. Stress Strain Relations for Cracked Tensile Concrete from RC Beam Tests. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering. January 2001, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 64—73. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2001)127:1(64).
- Raue E. Non-linear Analysis of Composite Cross-Sections by Non-Linear Optimization. Modern Building Materials, Structures and Techniques. Abstracts of 9th Int. Conf. held in Vilnius on May 16—18, 2007. Vilnius, Technika, 2007, p. 434.
- Smith G., Young L. Ultimate Theory in Flexure by Exponential Function. Journal ACI. 1955, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 349—359. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14359/11605.
- Liebenderg A.C. Stress-Strain Function for Concrete Subjected to Short-Term Loading. Mag. of Concrete Research. 1962, vol. 14, no. 41, pp. 85—90. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/macr.1962.14.41.85.
- Saennz L.P. Discussion of Equation to the Stress-Strain Curvier of Concrete By P. Desai and S. Krishnan. ACI Journal Proc. 1964, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 1229—1235.
- Sinha B., Cerstle K., Tulin L. Stress-Strain Relations for Concrete under Cyclic Loading. Journal ACI. 1964, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 195—211. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14359/7775.
- Shah S., Winter G. Inelastic Behavior and Fracture of Concrete. Journal ACI. 1968, vol. 20, pp. 5—28.
- Bachinskiy V.Ya., Bambura A.N., Vatagin S.S. Svyaz’ mezhdu napryazheniyami i deformatsiyami betona pri kratkovremennom neodnorodnom szhatii [Connection between Stresses and Deformations of Concrete at Short-term Non-uniform Compression]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 1984, no. 10, pp. 18—19. (In Russian)
- Balan T.A. Model’ deformirovaniya betona pri kratkovremennom mnogoosnom nagruzhenii [Concrete Deformation Model at Short-Term Multiaxial Loading]. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 1986, no. 4, pp. 32—36. (In Russian)
- Baykov V.N., Dodonov M.I., Rastorguev B.S., Frolov A.K., Mukhamediev T.A., Kunizhev V.Kh. Obshchiy sluchay rascheta prochnosti elementov po normal’nym secheniyam [Common Case of Strength Calculation of Elements Across Normal Sections]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 1987, no. 5, pp. 16—18. (In Russian)
- Krol’ I.S. Empiricheskoe predstavlenie diagramm szhatiya betona (obzor literaturnykh istochnikov) [Empiric Presentation of Concrete Compression Diagrams]. Issledovanie v oblasti mekhaniki izmereniy [Investigation in the Field of Measurement Mechanics]. Moscow, VNIIFTRI Publ., 1971, no. 8 (38), pp. 306—326. (In Russian)
- Zidonis I. A Simple-To-Integrate Formula of Stress as a Function of Strain in Concrete and Its Description Procedure. Mechanica. 2007, no. 4 (66), pp. 23—30.
- Židonis I. Strength Calculation Method for Cross-Section of Reinforced Concrete Flexural Member Using Curvilinear Concrete Stress Diagram of EN-2. 11th International Conference on Modern Building Materials, Structures and Techniques. MBMST 2013. Procedia Engineering. 2013, vol. 57, pp. 1309—1318. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.04.165.
- Murashkin G.V., Mordovskiy S.S. Primenenie diagramm deformirovaniya dlya rascheta nesushchey sposobnosti vnetsentrenno szhatykh zhelezobetonnykh elementov [Using Deformation Diagrams for Bearing Capacity Calculation of Off-Center Compressed Reinforced Concrete Elements]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013, no. 3, pp. 38—40. (In Russian)
- Karpenko N.I. Obshchie modeli mekhaniki zhelezobetona [General Models of Reinforced Concrete Mechanics] Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1996, 416 p. (In Russian)
- Karpenko N.I., Karpenko S.N., Petrov A.N., Palyuvina S.N. Model’ deformirovaniya zhelezobetona v prirashcheniyakh i raschet balok-stenok i izgibaemykh plit s treshchinami [Reinforced Concrete Deformation Model in Incrementations and Calculations of Deep Beams and Bendable Plates with Cracks]. Petrozavodsk, PetrGU Publ., 2013, 156 p. (In Russian)
- Krishan A.L., Astaf’eva M.A., Narkevich M.Yu., Rimshin V.I. Opredelenie deformatsionnykh kharakteristik betona [Defining Deformation Properties of Concrete]. Estestvennye i tekhnicheskie nauki [Natural and Engineering Sciences]. 2014, no. 9—10 (77), pp. 367—369. (In Russian)
- Krishan A.L., Astaf’eva M.A., Rimshin V.I. Predel’nye otnositel’nye deformatsii tsentral’no szhatykh zhelezobetonnykh elementov [Ultimate Relative Strains of Axially Loaded Reinforced Concrete Elements]. Estestvennye i tekhnicheskie nauki [Natural and Engineering Sciences]. 2014, no. 9—10 (77), pp. 370—372. (In Russian)
- Krishan A.L., Zaikin A.I., Mel’nichuk A.S. Raschet prochnosti trubobetonnykh kolonn [Strength Calculation of Tube Confined Concrete Columns]. Stroitel’naya mekhanika inzhenernykh konstruktsiy i sooruzheniy [Construction Mechanics of Engineering Structures and Constructions]. 2010, no. 1, pp. 20—25. (In Russian)

Pages 32-40

Underground construction in dense urban areas requires solving many problems, the most important of which is to prevent excessive additional deformations of the bases, which surround the area of the construction of buildings and structures.In order to prevent deviant strains different methods are used in engineering practice. In the recent years our country began to use a very popular abroad method of compensation grouting, which is currently one of the most effective methods of protecting the land-based facilities from the influence of underground facilities. This method has another important advantage, which allows using it rather for stabilizing yield of buildings and structures continuing for various reasons (geological, technological, etc.), or for lifting them if the settlement has exceeded the standard value.The method involves injection of a slowly hardening compensation grouting solution of a definite viscosity, which has a mineral base (suspension), into the foundation soil of the structure, the settlement of which should be controlled or compensated.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.6.32-40

- Jean-Louis Valet. Kompensatsionnoe nagnetanie: tekhnologiya v real’nom vremeni [Сompensation Grouting: the Technology in Real Time]. Metro i tonneli [Underground and Tunnels]. 2002, no. 4, pp. 16—19. (In Russian)
- Kravchenko V.V. Issledovanie ukrepleniya gruntovogo massiva pri stroitel’stve tonneley zakrytym sposobom metodom kompensatsionnogo nagnetaniya [Study of Strengthening the Soil Mass in the Construction of Tunnels by Closed Method of Compensation Grouting]. Issledovaniya avtodorozhnykh i gorodskikh mostov i tonneley : sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Investigation of Motor Road and City Bridges and Tunnels : Collection of Scientific Works]. Moscow, MADI (GTU) Publ., 2009, pp. 20—28. (In Russian)
- Makovskiy L.V., Chebotarev S.V. Ogranichenie osadok poverkhnosti zemli putem kompensatsionnogo nagnetaniya pri stroitel’stve tonneley zakrytym sposobom [Limiting the Settlement of Earth Surface by Compensation Grouting during the Construction of Tunnels by Closed Method]. Transport: nauka, tekhnika, upravlenie [Transport: Science, Technology, Management]. 2000, no. 2, pp. 44—47. (In Russian)
- Makovskiy L.V., Kravchenko V.V. Primenenie kompensatsionnogo nagnetaniya pri stroitel’stve podzemnykh sooruzheniy v slozhnykh gradostroitel’nykh usloviyakh [The Use of Compensation Grouting in the Construction of Underground Structures in Complex Urban Conditions]. Transportnoe tonnelestroenie. Sovremennyy opyt i perspektivnye razrabotki : sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Transport Tunneling. Current Experience and Future Developments: Collection of Scientific Works]. Moscow, TsNIIS Publ., 2008, pp. 112—120. (In Russian)
- Makovskiy L.V., Kravchenko V.V. Opredelenie parametrov kompensatsionnogo nagnetaniya pri stroitel’stve tonneley v slozhnykh gradostroitel’nykh usloviyakh [Defining the Parameters of the Compensation Grouting for Tunnel Construction Projects in Complex Urban Conditions]. Proektirovanie avtomobil’nykh dorog : sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Automobile Road Design : Collection of Scientific Works]. Moscow, MADI (GTU) Publ., 2009, pp. 119—124. (In Russian)
- Merkin V.E., Vinogradov B.N., Makovskiy L.V. O normativnom obespechenii proektirovaniya gorodskikh avtotransportnykh tonneley. Tonneli XXI veka [On Regulatory Support of Urban Road Tunnels Design. Tunnels of the 21st Century]. Dorogi Rossii XXI veka [Roads of Russia of the 21st Century]. 2007, no. 2, pp. 14—19. (In Russian)
- Merkin V.E., Makovskiy L.V., Pankina S.F. K vyboru varianta ispolneniya avtodorozhnogo tonnelya v rayone Lefortovo [On the Choice of Design Variant of the Road Tunnel in Lefortovo]. Podzemnoe prostranstvo Mira [Underground Space of the World]. 1996, no. 4, pp. 11—14. (In Russian)
- Meyr R., Khayt D. Tekhnologiya kompensiruyushchego in”etsirovaniya rastvorov v grunt [Compensating Injection Technology of Solutions into the Ground]. Daydzhest zarubezhnoy informatsii [Digest of Foreign Information]. 1995, no. 2, pp. 43—52. (In Russian)
- Rashendorfer Yu., Zhukov V.N., Mayer K. Kompensatsionnoe nagnetanie kak sposob obespecheniya ustoychivosti zdaniy i sooruzheniy pri prokhodke tonneley: spetsial'nye sposoby rabot [Compensatory Injection as a Method Sustainability of Buildings and Structures in Tunneling: Special Working Methods]. Metro i tonneli [Underground and Tunnels]. 2008, no. 4, pp. 26—28. (In Russian)
- Smirnova G.O., Golubev V.G. Kompensatsionnoe nagnetanie pri prokhodke Lefortovskogo tonnelya pod Alekseevskim uchilishchem [Compensatory Injection When Driving Lefortovo Tunnel under Alekseevsky College]. Spetsial'nye sposoby rabot i materialy, ispol'zuemye pri sooruzhenii gorodskikh transportnykh tonneley : sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Special Methods of Work and Materials Used in the Construction of Transport Tunnels: Collection of Scientific Works]. Moscow, TsNIIS Publ., 2003, issue 218, pp. 120—130. (In Russian)
- Bezuijen A., F. van Tol. Compensation Grouting in Sand, Fractures and Compaction. Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Rotterdam, 2007, pp. 1257—1262.
- Burland J.B., Standing J.R., Jardine F.M. Building Response to Tunneling. Case Studies from Construction of the Jubilee Line Extension. London, 2001, pp. 134—145. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/brttcsfcotjlelv1pam.30176.
- Knitsch H. Visualization of Relevant Data for Compensation Grouting. Tunnel. 2008, no. 3, pp. 38—45.
- Pleithner M., Bernatzik W. A New Method of Compensating Settlement of Buildings by Injections of Cement Grout. 1953.
- Schweiger H.F., Falk E. Reduction of Settlements by Compensation Grouting — Numerical Studies and Experience From Lisbon Underground. Tunnels and Metropolises. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1998, pp. 1047—1052.
- Telford T. Sprayed Concrete Linings (NATM) for Tunnels in Soft Ground. London, 2004, pp. 10—12.

Pages 41-49

An accumulation of defects caused by the action of the loads both man-made and external leads to a decrease in the carrying capacity of the carcass structure during operation of industrial buildings. Most notably this problem manifests itself in the buildings equipped with crane equipment. During operation the columns and crane girders obtain significant deformation, and this entails a reduction in structural stiffness characteristics. At the same time a load factor is enhanced when using heavier equipment. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to identify the opportunities to ensure the reliability required for an industrial building equipped with overhead cranes. The study has developed a complex of calculation methods, the main task of which is to estimate the residual resource of a specific period of technical system operation, taking into account the random nature of a whole set of disturbances. The analysis of the results obtained by the consistent implementation of these techniques allows tracking the dynamics of changes in the stress-strain state of load-bearing structures of industrial objects in operation.In order to solve the problem of providing rigidity frames and improve the reliability of their safe operation the authors propose constructive measures to slow the rate recorded in the calculation of the bearing capacity loss of the system. For this aim we suggest setting the end face transverse stiffening diaphragms, increasing the rigidity of the column above the crane, arranging some connecting rods in the temperature seam, located in the levels of coating and under crane beams. These measures should be used together, which allows achieving a significant effect in providing transverse rigidity. The coating disk with a sufficiently high horizontal rigidity is able to transfer a portion of the load acting on the transverse frames on transverse end faces of the diaphragm. The binder rods prevent relative lateral displacement of the temperature blocks relative to each other, thereby they put the entire frame under the action of horizontal crane loads into operation. Increasing the stiffness of the column above the crane allows transferring a significant part of the effort to the coating when the bridge crane has close proximity to the coating.The proposed constructions are easy to manufacture and do not require the device holes, which weaken the structure. They can be made not only while erecting the buildings, but also in the already constructed ones by increasing the carrying capacity of the overhead cranes. In this paper we evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed measures to improve the structural rigidity of frameworks on the example of several industrial buildings. The comparative analysis of the results obtained before and after the introduction of affirmative action has shown that their arrangement reduces the horizontal displacements of the frame, in the level of crane girders, and the level of coating, with a larger effect observed in the buildings with heavy-duty overhead cranes. This reduction of displacement involves the growth of bending moments values in above the crane column part and the reduction of the magnitude moments in the under crane part. At the great height under the crane portion of the column in most buildings these changes can save generally significant amounts of steel for the framework.Thus, the proposed technical solutions are aimed not only at extending the safe operation of industrial buildings, but also have a positive effect in case of re-production associated with an increase in the lifting capacity of crane equipment, with little financial cost.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.6.41-49

- Gordeev V.N., Lantukh-Lyashchenko A.I., Pashinskiy V.A., Perel’muter A.V., Pichugin S.F. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na zdaniya i sooruzheniya [Loads and Effects on Buildings and Structures]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2007, 482 p. (In Russian)
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Pages 50-63

Today great attention is paid to production and research of the mechanical and termal properties of nanocomposites based on polyimides. These polymers are heatresisting and possess the increased mechanical properties in wide range of temperatures. Various nanoparticles are introduced into polyimides: graphite nanotubes and flatparticles, the particles of SiO , the surface of which is modified, the particles of ZrOandmontmorillonite, etc.The authors analyzed the influence of nanoparticles on the glass transition temper-ature T and elastic modulus E of the polyimides based on 1,3-bis-(3,3’,4,4’-dicarboxy-phenoxy)benzene and 4,4’-bis-(4-aminophenoxy)biphenyl, and pyromellitic dianhydride and oxydianiline. Nanoparticles introduced in small amounts are produced of graphite and ZrO . The suggested ratios take into account the chemical structure of the polymer and nanoparticles, as well as the structure of their surface in case of chemical modification; the concentration of nanoparticles and their form, the number of polar groups on the surface. The number of polar groups and nanoparticles’ concentration have the greatest influence on T . The elastic modulus of nanocomposites depending on nanoparticles’ concentration is connected with van der Waals volume of the repeating unit of polymer and nanoparticle.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.6.50-63

- Ok-Kyung Park, Jun-Yeon Hwang, Munju Goh, Joong Hee Lee, Bon-Cheol Ku, Nam-Ho You. Mechanically Strong and Multifunctional Polyimide Nanocomposites Using Amimophenyl Functionalized Graphene Nanosheets. Macromolecules. 2013, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 3505—3511. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma400185j.
- Jun Lim, Hyeonuk Yeo, Munju Goh, Bon-Cheol Ku, Seo Gyun Kim, Heon Sang Lee, Byoungnam Park, Nam-Ho You. Grafting of Polyimide onto Chemically-Functionalized Graphene Nanosheets for Mechanically-Strong Barrier Membranes. Chem. Mater. 2015, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 2040—2047. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cm5044254.
- Wei-Hao Liao, Shin-Yi Yang, Sheng-Tsung Hsiao, Yu-Sheng Wang, Shin-Ming Li, Chen-Chi M. Ma, Hsi-Wen Tien, Shi-Jun Zeng. Effect of Octa(aminophenyl) Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Functionalized Graphene Oxide on the Mechanical and Dielectric Properties of Polyimide Composites. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 2014, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 15802—15812. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am504342j. Epub 2014 Sep 2.
- Young-Jae Kim, Jong-Heon Kim, Shin-Woo Ha, Dongil Kwon and Jin-Kyu Lee. Pol-yimide Nanocomposites with Functionalized Sio2 Nanoparticles: Enhanced Processability, Thermal and Mechanical Properties. RSC Adv. 2014, no. 4, pp. 43371—43377. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C4RA04952G.
- Yoonessi M., Shi Y., Scheiman D.A., Lebron-Colon M., Tigelaar D.M., Weiss R.A., Meador M.A. Graphene Polyimide Nanocomposites; Thermal, Mechanical, and High-Temperature Shape Memory Effects. ACS Nano. 2012, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 7644—7655. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn302871y.
- Li-Bin Zhang, Jin-Qing Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Ye Xu, Zhao-Feng Wang, Zhang-Peng Li, Yong-Juan Mi, Sheng-Rong Yang. Preparation, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Functionalized Graphene/Polyimide Nanocomposites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 2012, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1537—1545. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2012.03.026.
- Cheol Heo, Jin-Hae Chang. Polyimide Nanocomposites Based on Functionalized Graphene Sheets: Morphologies, Thermal Properties, and Electrical and Thermal Conductivities. Solid State Sciences. 2013, vol. 24, pp. 6—14. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solidstatesciences.2013.06.012
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- Dan Chen, Hong Zhu and Tianxi Liu. In Situ Thermal Preparation of Polyimide Nanocomposite Films Containing Functionalized Graphene Sheets. Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2010, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 3702—3708. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am1008437.
- Ok-Kyung Park, Seon-Guk Kim, Nam-Ho You, Bon-Cheol Ku, David Hui, Joong Hee Lee. Synthesis and Properties of Iodo Functionalized Graphene Oxide/Polyimide Nanocomposites. Composites, Part B: Engineering. 2014, vol. 56, pp. 365—371. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2013.08.065.
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Pages 64-72

This article considers some aspects and common problems associated with the organization of parallel calculations in the problems of hydrodynamics. As an example the authors consider the calculation problem of the velocity field in the area of river and sea water mixing and the simulation of sedimentation of terrigenous material.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.6.64-72

Pages 73-87

Basing on life cycle analysis of building materials produced of waste products the authors defined the formation stages of environmental risks of adverse impacts on the environment. The studies have revealed that one of the main environmental risks is the occurrence of secondary emission of pollutants from building materials produced of waste products when used by the end-user, which is not taken into account by the existing regulatory documents defining the environmental safety of construction materials. The questions of prevention of the possible negative impact of the construction materials based on or with addition of production waste while their use on the environment and population as a result of a number of natural and anthropogenic factors, which can lead to negative ecological effects, which are difficult to forecast, are not regulated enough. In the present conditions of the absence of regulatory framework of their ecological safety the wide use of production waste for obtaining construction materials without account for the possible ecological risks may lead to technogenic burden exceeding the acceptable level.The authors defined the main ways to reduce the environmental risks when using the resource potential of waste for the production of building materials by reducing the emissions of these pollutants while reducing their permeability.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.6.73-87

- Leont’ev L.I., Dyubanov V.G. Tekhnogennye otkhody chernoy i tsvetnoy metallurgii i problemy okruzhayushchey sredy [Technogenic Waste of Ferrous and Non-ferrous Industry and the Environmental Problems]. Ekologiya i promyshlennost’ Rossii [Ecology and Industry of Russia]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 32—35. (In Russian)
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- Fthenakis V., Wang W., Kim C.H. Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of the Production of Metals Used in Photovoltaics. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2009, no. 13 (3), pp. 493—517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2007.11.012.
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- Pugin K.G. Negativnoe vozdeystvie shlakovykh otvalov chernoy metallurgii na ob”ekty okruzhayushchey sredy na primere goroda Chusovogo [Negative Impact of Iron Industry Slagheaps on Environmental Medium on an Exapmple of Chusovoy City]. Ekologiya urbanizirovannykh territoriy [Ecology of Urbanized Territory]. 2011, no. 2, pp. 86—90. (In Russian)
- Pugin K.G. Voprosy ekologii ispol’zovaniya tverdykh otkhodov chernoy metallurgii v stroitel’nykh materialakh [Ecological Problems of Iron Industry Solid Waste in Construction Materials]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012, no. 8, pp. 54—56. (In Russian)
- Schwab O., Bayer P., Juraske R., Verones F., Hellweg S. Beyond the Material Grave: Life Cycle Impact Assessment of Leaching from Secondary Materials in Road and Earth Constructions. Waste Management. 2014, 34 (10), pp. 1884—1896. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2014.04.022.
- Mroueh U.M., Eskola P., Laine-Ylijoki J. Life-Cycle Impacts of the Use of Industrial By-Products in Road and Earth Construction. Waste Management. Oxford, 2001, 21(3), pp. 271—277. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0713-2743(00)80055-0.
- Susset B., Grathwohl P. Leaching Standards for Mineral Recycling Materials — a Harmonized Regulatory Concept for the Upcoming German Recycling Decree. Waste Management. Oxford, 2011, 31 (2), pp. 201—214. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2010.08.017.
- Kozlov S.G., Vyazovikova I.V., Chernyy S.A., Krepysheva I.V. Ispol’zovanie otkhodov sodovogo proizvodstva v dorozhnom stroitel’stve [Application of Soda Production Waste in Road Construction]. Fundamental’nye issledovaniya [Fundamental Research]. 2013, no. 10—12, pp. 2604—2611. Available at: www.rae.ru/fs/?section=content&op= show_article&article_id=10002106. Date of access: 28.03.2015. (In Russian)
- Bhander G.S., Christensen T.H., Hauschild M.Z. EASEWASTE — Life Cycle Modeling Capabilities for Waste Management Technologies. Int. J. Life Cycle Assess. 2010, 15, pp. 403—416.
- Gabler H.E., Gluh K., Bahr A., Utermann J. Quantification of Vanadium Adsorption by German Soils. J. Geochem. Explor. 2009, 103 (1), pp. 37—44. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2009.05.002.
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- Olsson S., Karrman E., Gustafsson J.P. Environmental Systems Analysis of the Use of Bottom Ash from Incineration of Municipal Waste for Road Construction. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2006, 48, pp. 26—40.

Pages 88-102

The activity of housing services and utilities results in great amounts of waste: sludge of water and wastewater utilities, waste waters of TPPs and recycling water supply. The known ways of such waste utilization are related to production of construction materials and secondary reactants for wastewater treatment. Though the volumes of sludge most often exceed the regional demand in raw materials for local construction materials or coagulants. Moreover sludge as man-made raw material cannot compete with their natural analogues in terms of quality.The basic characteristics of housing and communal services sludge storages were considered from the perspective of their target development. The system of state assessment of sludge storages was represented by the multidimensional data analysis. The waste disposal facilities considered in this study were classified into three groups from the perspective of the feasibility and practicability of their abandoning. An example of the digital matrix of waste disposal facilities’ condition was given. The constructive and technological design of the system of recultivating materials production was given.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.6.88-102

- Gulyaeva I.S., D’yakov M.S., Glushankova I.S., Belen’kiy M.B. Utilizatsiya osadkov stochnykh vod s polucheniem produktov, obladayushchikh tovarnymi svoystvami [Utilization of Wastewater Sludge with Obtaining Marketable Products]. Zashchita okruzhayushchey sredy v neftegazovom komplekse [Environmental Protection in Oil and Gas Sector]. 2012, no. 7, pp. 43—49. (In Russian)
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- Nikolaeva L.A., Nedzvetskaya R.Ya. Issledovanie utilizatsii shlama vodopodgotovki TES v kachestve sorbenta pri biologicheskoy ochistke stochnykh vod promyshlennykh predpriyatiy [Investigation of TPP Wastewater Sludge Utilization as Sorbent at Biological Wastewater Treatment at Industrial Plants]. Voda: khimiya i ekologiya [Water: Chemistry and Ecology]. 2012, no. 8, pp. 80—84. (In Russian)
- Tarakanov O.V., Pronina T.V., Tarakanov A.O. Primenenie mineral’nykh shlamov v proizvodstve stroitel’nykh rastvorov [The Use of Mineral Sludge in Production of Construction Mortars]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008, no. 4, pp. 68—70. (In Russian)
- Chumachenko N.G., Koren’kova E.A. Promyshlennye otkhody — perspektivnoe syr’e dlya proizvodstva stroitel’nykh materialov [Industrial Waste — Perspective Raw Material for Construction Materials Production]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 3, pp. 20—24. (In Russian)
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- Kizinievic O., Zurauskiene R., Kizinievic V., Zurauskas R. Utilisation of Sludge Waste from Water Treatment for Ceramic Products. Construction and Building Materials. 2013, vol. 41, pp. 464—473. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.12.041.
- Almir Sales, Francis Rodrigues de Souza. Concretes and Mortars Recycled with Water Treatment Sludge and Construction and Demolition Rubble. Construction and Building Materials. 2009, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 2362—2370. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2008.11.001.
- Carine Julcour Lebigue, Caroline Andriantsiferana, N’Guessan Krou, Catherine Ayral, Elham Mohamed, Anne-Marie Wilhelm, Henri Delmas, Laurence Le Coq, Claire Gerente, Karl M. Smith, Suangusa Pullket, Geoffrey D. Fowler, Nigel J.D. Graham. Application of Sludge-Based Carbonaceous Materials in a Hybrid Water Treatment Process Based on Adsorption and Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation. Journal of Environmental Management. 2010, no. 91 (12), pp. 2432—2439. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.06.008.
- Siswoyo E., Mihara Y., Tanaka S. Determination of Key Components and Adsorption Capacity of a Low Cost Adsorbent Based on Sludge of Drinking Water Treatment Plant to Adsorb Cadmium Ion in Water. Applied Clay Science. 2014, vol. 97—98, pp. 146—152. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2014.05.024.
- Almir Sales, Francis Rodrigues de Souza, Fernando do Couto Rosa Almeida. Mechanical properties of concrete produced with a composite of water treatment sludge and sawdust. Construction and Building Materials. 2011, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 2793—2798. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.12.057.
- Rotermel’ M.V., Buchel’nikov D.Yu., Krasnenko T.I., Sirina T.P. Shlamy khimicheskoy vodopodgotovki: sostav, svoystva, perspektivy retsiklinga [Chemical Water Treatment Sludge: Composition, Properties, Recycling Prospect]. Tekhnosfernaya bezopasnost’ [Technosphere Safety]. 2014, no. 1 (2). Available at: http://uigps.ru/sites/default/files/jyrnal/stat%20PB%202/12.pdf. Date of access: 20.12.2014. (In Russian)
- Review of Mine Drainage Treatment and Sludge Management Operations Project 603054. REPORT CANMET-MMSL 10-058(CR). Version-March 2013.
- Kriven’ A.P. Vybor oborudovaniya dlya obezvozhivaniya osadkov stochnykh vod i proizvodstvennykh shlamov [Choosing the Equipment for Wastewater and Industrial Sludge Dewatering]. Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaya tekhnika [Water Supply and Sanitary Technique]. 2012, no. 5, pp. 67—74. (In Russian)
- Boizonella D., Cavinato C., Fatone F., et al. High Rate Mesophilic, Thermophilic, and Temperature Phased Anaerobic Digestion of Waste Activated Sludge. A Pilot Scale Study. Waste Management. 2012, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1196–1201.
- Dmitriev V.V. Opredelenie integral’nogo pokazatelya sostoyaniya prirodnogo ob”ekta kak slozhnoy sistemy [Measuring the Integral Index of an Natural Object’s State as a Complicated System]. Obshchestvo. Sreda. Razvitie [Society. Environment. Development]. 2009, no. 4, pp. 146—165. (In Russian)
- Pryakhin S.I. Metodika geoekologicheskogo analiza prirodno-tekhnicheskikh geosistem yuga Privolzhskoy vozvyshennosti (v predelakh Volgogradskoy oblasti) [Methods of Geoecological Analysis of Netural-Technical Geosystems of the South of Volga Upland (Within the Volgograd Region)]. Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Geografiya. Geoekologiya [Proceedings of Voronezh State University. Series: Geography, Geoecology]. 2007, no. 2, pp. 78—86. (In Russian)
- Lied T.T., Geladi P., Esbensen K.H. Multivariate Image Regression (MIR): Implementation of Image PLSR — First Forays. Chemometrics. 2000, vol. 14, no. 5—6, pp. 585—599. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-128X(200009/12)14:5/63.0.CO;2-Q
- Bykov D.E., Tupitsyna O.V., Gladyshev N.G., Zelentsov D.V., Gvozdeva N.V., Samarina O.A., Tsimbalyuk A.E., Chertes K.L. Kompleks biodestruktsii nefteotkhodov [Biodegradation Complex for Oil-Processing Waste]. Ekologiya i promyshlennost’ Rossii [Ecology and Industry of Russia]. 2011. No. 3. Pp. 33—34. (In Russian)

Pages 103-109

In this article the questions of kinematic structure of steady turbulent flow near a solid boundary are considered. It has been established that due to friction the value of the local Reynolds number decreases and always becomes smaller than the critical value of the Reynolds number, which leads to formation of viscous flow near a wall. Velocity profiles for the area of viscous flow with constant and variable shear stress are obtained. The experimental investigations of different authors showed that in this area the flow is of unsteady character, where viscous flow occurs intermittently with turbulent flow. With increasing distance from the wall the flow becomes fully turbulent. In the area where generation and dissipation of turbulence are very intensive, there is a developed turbulent flow with increasing distance from the wall. Dissipation of turbulence is an action of viscous force. The logarithmic velocity profile was obtained by L. Prandtl disregarding the viscous component and the linear variation of the shear stress in the depth flow. The profile parameters C and k were determined from Nikuradze’s experiments. The detailed investigations of Nikuradze’s experiments established the part of the flow where the logarithmic velocity profile is correctly confirmed.This part of the flow was called “Prandtl layer”. The measured velocity distribution above this layer deviates in the direction of greater values. Processing of experimental data revealed that the thickness of the “Prandtl layer”, normalized to the radius of a pipe, depend on a drag coefficient. The formula for determining the thickness of the “Prandtl layer” with the known value of the drag coefficient is obtained. It is shown that the thickness of “Prandtl layer” almost coincides with the boundary layer displacement thickness formed on the wall of the pipe.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.6.103-109

- Millikan C.B. A Critical Discussion of Turbulent Flows in Channels and Circular Tubes. Proc. 5th Int. Congress of Appl. Mech., Cambridge, Mass. 1938. Pp. 386—392.
- Coles D. The Law of the Wake in Turbulent Boundary Layers. J. Fluid. Mech. 1956, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 191—226. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022112056000135.
- Newton I. Matematicheskie nachala natural’noy filosofii [Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy]. Translated from Latin by A.N. Krylov. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1989, 688 p.(In Russian)
- Mikhailov M.D., Freire A.P.S. Feasible Domain of Walker’s Unsteady Wall-Layer Model for the Velocity Profile in Turbulent Flows. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences. 2014, no. 86 (4), pp. 2121—2135. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201420130528.
- Einstein H.A., Li H. The Viscous Sublayer Along а Smooth Boundary. Proc. Am. Soc. Civil Engrs. Paper. 1956, vol. 82, p. 945.
- Hutchins N., Marusic I. Evidence of Very Long Meandering Features in the Logarithmic Region of Turbulent Boundary Layers. J. Fluid Mech. 2007, vol. 579, pp. 1—28. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022112006003946.
- Emmons H.W., Bryson A.E. The Laminar-Turbulent Transition in a Boundary Layer. Part I. JAS. 1951, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 490—498; Part II. Proc. First US National Congress Appl. Mech., 1952, pp. 859—868.
- Schubauer G.B., Klebanoff P.S. Contribution on the Mechanics of Boundary Layer Transition. NACA Report 1289, 1956, pp. 853—863.
- Dryden H.L. Recent Investigation of the Problem of Transition. ZFW 4. 1956, pp. 89—65.
- Borovkov V.S., Bryanskaya Yu.V. Raschet soprotivleniya v perekhodnoy oblasti s uchetom peremezhaemosti techeniya v vyazkom podsloe [Transitional Resistance Calculation with Mixing Flow in the Viscous Sublayer]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo [Hydraulic Engineering]. 2001, no. 7, pp. 20—22. (In Russian)
- Mazzuoli M., Vittori G., Blondeaux P. Turbulent Spots in a Stokes Boundary Layer. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 318 (032032), 2011, pp. 1—10. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/318/3/032032.
- Bogomolov A.I., Borovkov V.S., Mayranovskiy F.G. Vysokoskorostnye potoki so svobodnoy poverkhnost’yu [High-speed Flows with Free Surface]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1979, 344 p. (In Russian)
- Schlichting H., Gersten K. Boundary-Layer Theory. Springer, 8th edition, 2000, 800 p.
- Kiselev P.G. Gidravlika. Osnovy mekhaniki zhidkosti [Hydraulics. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics]. Moscow, Energiya Publ., 1980, 360 p. (In Russian)
- Nikuradse I. Gesetzmaessigkelten der turbulenten Stroemung in glatten Rohren. Forschungs-heft (Forschungs auf dem Gebiete des Ingenieur-wesens). 1932, no. 356, pp. 1—36.
- Nikuradse I. Stroemungsgesetze in rauhen Rohren. Forschungs-Heft (Forschungs auf dem Gebiete des Ingenieur-wesens). 1933, no. 361, pp. 1—22.
- Prandtl‘ L. Rezul‘taty rabot poslednego vremeni po izucheniyu turbulentnosti [The Results of Recent Works on Turbulence Study]. Problemy turbulentnosti : sbornik [Turbulence Problems : Collection]. Moscow, Leningrad, ONTI NKTP Publ., 1936, pp. 9—35. (In Russian)
- Hinze I.O. Turbulence. An Introduction to Its Mechanism and Theory. New York, Toronto, London, McGRAW-HILL, 1959, 680 р.
- Clauzer F.H. The turbulent boundary layer. Advances Appl. Mech. NY, Academic Press, 1956, vol. 4, pp. 1—51.
- Zanoun E.-S., Durst F., Nagib H. Scaling Laws for Turbulent Channel and Pipe Flows over a Wide Range of Reynolds Numbers. 4th International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics. 2005, paper number: ZF2.
- Stelian C. Analysis of Turbulent Flow in Closed and Open Channels with Application in Electromagnetic Velocimetry. Magnetohydrodynamics. 2012, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 637—649.
- Bryanskaya Yu.V. Techenie v pristenochnom sloe i za ego predelami (v trube, ka-nale i pogranichnom sloe) [Boundary Layer and Core Flow Characteristics]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 4—2, pp. 60—65. (In Russian)
- Borovkov V.S., Koryvanova V.D. Osobennosti prostranstvennogo techeniya v tunnele pri sherokhovatykh stenkakh [Features of Spatial Flow in the Tunnel with Rough Wall]. Voprosy gidravliki i vodosnabzheniya : sbornik trudov [Questions of hydraulics and water supply :Collection of Works]. 1980, no. 174, pp. 59—64. (In Russian)

Pages 110-114

The author considers the influences of the forces of viscosity and superficial tension on the discharge ratio in a channel with side narrowing. In the article the equation is presented that takes into account the influence of all the factors: the pressure, the speed of the liquid, liquid density, dynamic viscosity, superficial tension, gravity acceleration, expense per unit of width, width of the course, width of narrowing. Superficial tension and liquid density for the used liquids changed a little.The narrowing in the rectangular tray was achieved by force of flowing liquid between rectangular parallelepipeds, which were attached to the wall of the tray. The dimensions of the rectangular parallelepipeds were: the length L = 200 mm, the width B = 33 mm, and the depth of the mouth b = 34 mm.The findings of the experiment proved that the increase in the Reynolds number causes the increase flow discharge ratio and it approaches the constant value at Re ? 4000.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.6.110-114

- Kabiri-Samani A.R., Shams M.-R. Discharge Coefficient of Subsurface Weirs. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Water Management. 2014, vol. 167, no. 4, pp. 187—193. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/wama.12.00050.
- Ramamurthy A.S., Kai J., Han S.S. V-Shaped Multislit Weirs. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 2013, vol. 139, no. 7, pp. 582—585. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000574.
- Aydin I., Ger A.M., Hincal O. Measurement of Small Discharges in Open Channels by Slit Weir. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 2002, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 234—237. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2002)128:2(234).
- Ranga Raju K.G., Srivastava R., Porey P.D. Scale Effects in Modelling Flow over Broad-Crested Weirs. Irrigation & Power. 1990, vol. 47, no. 30, pp. 101—106.
- Roche N., Daïan J.-F., Lawrence D.S.L. Hydraulic Modeling of Runoff over a Rough Surface under Partial Inundation. Water Resources Research. 2007, vol. 43, no. 8. W08410, pp. 1—11. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006wr005484.
- Raju R., Asawa L. Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on Weir Flow. J. of the Hydraulics div. ASCE. 1977, vol. 103, no. 10, pp. 1227—1231.
- Raju R., Ali J., Ahmad J. Discharge Relationship for Suppressed and Contracted. Thin-plate Weirs. J. of the Inst. of Engnrs. India. 1972, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 286—293.
- Zhang K., Wang G., Sun X., Yang F., Lü H. Experiment on Hydraulic Characteristics of Shallow open Channel Flow on Slope. Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. 2014, vol. 30, no. 15, pp. 182—189. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1002-6819.2014.15.024.
- Maxwell W., Hall C., Weggel J. Surface Tension in Froude Models. J. of Hydraulics Division. ASCE. 1969, vol. 95, no. HY2, March, pp. 677—704.
- Milano V. Ricerca sperimentale sull eflusse di cerenti lente au stramazzi in parete sottile a bassa soglia. Idrotecnica. 1981, no. 6, pp. 263—274.
- Linford A. The Application of Models to Hydraulic Engineering — Reservoir Spill-ways. Water and Water Engn. Oct. 1965, pp. 411—417.
- Medzveliya M.L., Pipiya V.V. Usloviya obrazovaniya svobodnoy strui na vodoslive s ostrym porogom [Conditions of Formation of a Free Flow over a Sharp Crest Weir]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 1, pp. 185—189. (In Russian)
- Al’tshul’ A.D. Istechenie iz otverstiy zhidkostey s povyshennoy vyazkost’yu [Outflows of Hyperviscosity Liquids through Holes]. Neftyanoe khozyaystvo [Crude Oil Economy]. 1950, no. 2, pp. 55—60. (In Russian)
- Medzveliya M.L., Pipiya V.V. Koeffitsient raskhoda vodosliva s shirokim porogom v oblasti malykh naporov [Discharge Ratio of the Broad-crested Weir Flow in the Low Head Area]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 4, pp. 167—171. (In Russian)
- Medzveliya M.L. Uchet poverkhnostnogo natyazheniya pri gidravlicheskom modelirovanii vodosliva s ostroy kromkoy [Account for the Surface Tension in Hydraulic Modeling of the Weir with a Sharp Threshold]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 9, pp. 100—105. (In Russian)

Pages 115-123

In 2012 the boundaries of Moscow extended in the direction of Kaluga region. The change in territory boundaries resulted in increasing the area of the city, after that the total population increased. It is supposed, that the majority of the agglomerated population will use the care-giving institutions of the “New Moscow”, that’s why its territory requires the transport system adapted for all the population groups. Special attention should be paid to creation of the constant barrier-free transport system reconstructing the existing junctions and creating new ones answering the modern demands on availability for citizens with limited mobility.The article reviews the development of the transport system on the territory of “New Moscow” basing on the data of Federal State Statistics Service. The suggestions on the barrier-free environment development, multipurpose road junctions are given with account for the number of citizens with disabilities. Only in “New Moscow” there are about1,2 mln of them. The variety of means of transport requires new approaches to organization of transfers from one transport to another. The solution will be in hubs, which will be both available for common and disabled people.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.6.115-123

- O sovmestnykh predlozheniyakh Pravitel’stva Moskvy i Pravitel’stva Moskovskoy oblasti po izmeneniyu granits stolitsy Rossiyskoy Federatsii — goroda Moskvy [On the Contemporary Proposals of the Moscow Region Government on Changing the Boundaries of the Capital of the Russian Federation — Moscow city]. Ofitsial’nyy portal Mera i Pravitel’stva Moskvy. 11 iyulya 2011 goda [Official Portal of Moscow Major and Government. July 11, 2011]. Available at: http://www.mos.ru/press-center/press_releases/index.php?id_4=19417/. Date of access: 15.03.2015. (In Russian)
- O vnesenii izmeneniy v Zakon goroda Moskvy ot 5 iyulya 1995 goda № 13-47 «O territorial’nom delenii goroda Moskvy». Zakon g. Moskvy ot 09.09.1998 № 20 [On Amendments to the Legislation of Moscow from July 5, 1995 no. 13-47 “On Administrative Division of Moscow”. Law of the City of Moscow from 09.09.1998 no. 20]. BestPravo.ru. Informatsionnyy pravovoy portal [Bestpravo.ru. Informational Legislative Portal]. Available at: http://www.bestpravo.ru/moskva/eh-instrukcii/t8n.htm. Date of access: 15.03.2015. (In Russian)
- Moldavskiy S., Zabalueva T.R. Tipologiya transportno-peresadochnykh uzlov [Typology of Transport-Transfer Hubs]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 3, pp. 30—32. (In Russian)
- Obshchaya chislennost’ invalidov po gruppam invalidnosti (na 1 yanvarya goda) [Total Number of Disabled with Account for Disability Group (for the 1st of January)]. Federal’naya sluzhba gosudarstvennoy statistiki [Federal State Statistics Service]. Available at: http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/population/disabilities/#1.1/. Date of access: 15.03.2015. (In Russian)
- Tesler K.I. Razvitie adaptirovannykh dlya malomobil’nykh grupp naseleniya marshrutov obshchestvennogo transporta v istoricheskoy chasti g. Moskvy [Development of Public Transport Routes Adapted for Citizens with Limited Mobility in Historic Area of Moscow]. Internet-vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya: Politematicheskaya [Internet Proceedings of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Polythematic series]. 2014, no. 4 (35), article 23. Available at: http://vestnik.vgasu.ru/attachments/23TeslerK.pdf. Date of access: 15.03.2015. (In Russian)
- Semenova S.A., Shreyber A.A., Kompleksnaya otsenka gorodskoy sredy s uchetom potrebnostey malomobil’nykh grupp naseleniya i invalidov [Complex Evaluation of City Environment with Account for the Needs of Citizens with Limited Mobility and Disabled]. Arkhitektura i gradostroitel’stvo [Architecture and Urban Development]. 2011, no. 7, pp. 26—33. (In Russian)
- Tesler K.I., Korobeynikova A.A. Printsipy sozdaniya obshchedostupnoy sredy v bol’shikh gorodakh na primere g. Moskvy [Principles of Creating the Generally Accessible Environment in Big Cities on the Example of Moscow]. Sbornik dokladov konferentsii po itogam nauchno-issledovatel’skikh rabot studentov [Collection of Conference Reports on Scientific Research Works of Students]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2011/2012, pp. 71—74. (In Russian)
- Vlasov D.N., Danilina N.V. Sovremennoe sostoyanie i perspektivy razvitiya sistemy «perekhvatyvayushchikh» parkovok v Moskovskoy aglomeratsii [Present State and Development Prospects of the Intercepting Parking System in Moscow Agglomeration]. Gradostroitel’stvo [City and Town Planning]. 2014, no. 4 (32), pp. 36—39. (In Russian)
- Vlasov D.N. Struktura sistemy transportno-peresadochnykh uzlov aglomeratsii [The Structure of Transport-Transfer Hubs System of an Agglomeration]. Gradostroitel’stvo [City and Town Planning]. 2013, no. 2 (24), pp. 84—88. (In Russian)
- Danilina N.V. Osobennosti formirovaniya sistemy perekhvatyvayushchikh parkovok v aglomeratsiyakh [Features of Intercepting Parking System Formation in Agglomerations]. Internet-vestnik VolgGASU [Internet Proceedings of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 2. Available at: http://vestnik.vgasu.ru/?source=4&articleno=1643/. Date of access: 15.03.2015. (In Russian)
- Alekseev Yu.V., Trofimova T.E. Kompleksnoe razvitie pyatietazhnoy zastroyki 1950-60-kh godov. Organizatsionno-metodicheskie aspekty [Complex Development of 5-Storeyed Buildings of the 1950-60s. Organizational and Methodological Aspects]. Arkhitektura, stroitel’stvo, dizayn [Architecture, Construction, Design]. 2005, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 7—9. (In Russian)
- Rodionovskaya I.S., Zhelnakova L.V. Znachimost’ ozeleneniya zhiloy sredy dlya sotsial’no opekaemykh lyudey [Importance of Living Environment Planting for Socially Cared People]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014, no. 4, p. 44. (In Russian)
- Balakina A.E., Nanasova S.M., Sarvut T.O. Dostizheniya budushchikh inzhenerov-arkhitektorov [Achievements of the Future Engineers-Architects]. Stroitel’nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XX veka [Construction Materials, Equipment, Technologies of the 20th Century]. 2007, no. 7, pp. 88—89. (In Russian)
- O poryadke vydachi meditsinskogo zaklyucheniya na detey-invalidov v vozraste do 16 let. Prikaz Minzdrava RF № 117-1 ot 4 iyulya 1991 goda [On Medical Assessment Procedure for Disabled Children under 16. Order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation no. 117-1 from July 4, 1991]. BestPravo.ru. Informatsionnyy pravovoy portal [Bestpravo.ru. Informational Legislative Portal]. Available at: http://www.bestpravo.ru/federalnoje/gn-dokumenty/l5k.htm. Date of access: 15.03.2015. (In Russian)
- Rotenberg V.S., Arshavskiy V.V. Poiskovaya aktivnost’ i adaptatsiya [Search Activity and Adaptation]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1984, 184 p. (In Russian)
- Brokgauz, F.A. Efron I.A., publishers. Arsen’ev K.K., Pertushevskiy F.F., editors. Entsiklopedicheskiy slovar’ : v 86 tomakh [Encyclopedic Dictionary : in 86 volumes]. Saint Petersburg, Tipografiya aktsionernogo obshchestva Brokgauz-Efron Publ., 1894, vol. 11A (22), Evreinovy — Zhilon, pp. 772—832. (In Russian)
- Saltykov I.P. Sozdanie komfortnoy sredy obitaniya v pomeshcheniyakh zhilykh zdaniy s uchetom arkhitekturnykh, inzhenernykh i ekologicheskikh aspektov [Creation of a Comfortable Environment in Premises of Residential Buildings with Account for Architectural, Engineering and Ecological Aspects]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 8, pp. 189—196. (In Russian)
- Shcherbina E.V., Vlasov D.N. Razvitie sistemy transportno-peresadochnykh uzlov Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Development of the Transport-Transfer System of the Russian Federation]. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo Rossii [Architecture and Construction in Russia]. 2013, no. 6, pp. 2—7. (In Russian)
- Loeschcke G., Marx L., Pourat D. Barrierefreies Bauen. Band 1. Berlin, Wien, Zurich, BeuthV erlag GmbH, 2011, 296 p.
- Stepanov V.K., Starikov A.S. Predposylki formirovaniya arkhitekturnoy sredy dlya sportsmenov invalidov [Prerequisites of Architectural Environment Formation for Sportsmen and Disabled]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 4, pp. 214—218. (In Russian)

Pages 124-130

The accumulated experience of constructing technically complicated objects and the modern design technologies in general allow conducting deep analysis of construction technological solutions, though, during the project implementation there usually appears an objective necessity to substitute a wide list of technological equipment by the analogues with most close technological characteristics. In the production process it is a rather timeconsuming and organizationally complicated task, which is firstly connected with the choice of reliable supplier and contractor, logistic coordination, providing the purchase procedure. The enumerated factors critically influence the terms of energy project implementation.In the article special aspects of the construction of power engineering facilities is considered. The authors justified the necessity of the researches on the life cycle period related to preparation for construction operations, during which the project is influenced by a lot of negative factors and circumstances different in their form and intensity. The examples and the definitions of unforeseen events and circumstances, which can influence on the realization of the project, are given. The solution to the problem of risk management in the process of technological equipment supply during the construction of power engineering facilities is given. They allow implementing the goal function in the best way providing the required efficiency.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.6.124-130

- Morozenko A.A. Osobennosti zhiznennogo tsikla i etapy razrabotki investitsionno-stroitel’nogo proekta [Features of the Life Cycle and Phases of Development of an Investment Construction Project]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 6, pp. 223—228. (In Russian)
- Telichenko V.I., Lapidus A.A., Morozenko A.A. Informatsionnoe modelirovanie tekhnologiy i biznes-protsessov v stroitel’stve [Informational Modeling of the Technologies and Business-Processes in the Construction]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2008, 144 p. (In Russian)
- Volovik M.V., Ishin A.V., Lapidus A.A., Leybman M.E., Lyang O.P., Tumanov D.K., Fel’dman O.A. Aktual’nye voprosy tekhnologii i organizatsii stroitel’nogo proizvodstva [Current Problems of Technologies and Organization of the Construction Production]. Tekhnologiya i organizatsiya stroitel’nogo proizvodstva [Technologies and Organization of the Construction Production]. 2012, no. 1 (1), pp. 14—19. (In Russian)
- Volkov A.A., Losev Yu.G., Losev K.Yu. Informatsionnaya podderzhka zhiznennogo tsikla ob”ektov stroitel’stva [Information Support of Construction Project Lifecycle]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 11, pp. 253—258. (In Russian)
- Danilova T.Yu. Iz chego skladyvaetsya stoimost’ 1 kVt∙ch AES [How is the Price of 1 kW an Hour of NPP Composed?]. Atomnyy ekspert [Nuclear Expert]. 2014, no. 5—6 (26—27), pp. 10—15. (In Russian)
- Lapidus A.A. Potentsial effektivnosti organizatsionno-tekhnologicheskikh resheniy stroitel’nogo ob”ekta [Efficiency Potential of Management and Technical Solutions for a Construction Object]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 1, pp. 175—180. (In Russian)
- Tripoten' E., Romanova S., Shul'ga I. Sravnenie sovremennoy udel’noy stoimosti stroitel’stva AES v raznykh stranakh; kak optimizirovat’ etot pokazatel’ — rossiyskiy podkhod [Comparison of the Contemporary Incremental Cost of NPP Construction in Different Countries; How to Improve this Factor Russian Approach]. Atomnyy ekspert [Nuclear Expert]. 2014, no. 5—6, pp. 16—23. (In Russian)
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- Morozenko A.A. Formirovanie optimal’noy s tochki zreniya ustoychivosti organizatsionnoy struktury investitsionno-stroitel’nogo proekta [Forming the Optimal in Terms of Stability Organizational Structure of an Investment and Construction Project]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 12, pp. 33—34. (In Russian)
- Titarenko B.P. Formirovanie effektivnogo portfelya innovatsionnykh proektov v usloviyakh riska i ogranicheniy po resursam [Forming the Efficient Portfolio of Innovational Projects in the Conditions of Risk and Scarce Resources]. Sotsial’naya politika i sotsiologiya [Social Policy and Sociology]. 2011, no. 1 (67), pp. 118—131. (In Russian)
- Ginzburg A.V., Nesterova E.I. Tekhnologiya nepreryvnoy informatsionnoy podderzhki zhiznennogo tsikla stroitel’nogo ob
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- Morozenko A.A. Refleksno-adaptivnaya model’ organizatsionnoy struktury investitsionno-stroitel’nykh proektov [Reflex-adaptive Model of the Organizational Structure of Investment and Construction Projects]. Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy Vestnik Povolzh’ya [Scientific and Technical Volga region Bulletin]. 2013, no. 3, pp. 209–—213.
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Pages 131-139

N the conditions of economical instability accompanying the change of technological modes and generation of «economy of knowledge” the stable competitive advantages of organization may be formed only on an innovative basis. Implementation of innovations in equipment and technology is accompanied, and sometimes even reasoned, by organizational innovations, which are the basis of organizational development of modern enterprises. Although there is a sufficient number of investigations in the field, the problems of justification of the criteria and estimation of organizational innovations’ efficiency don’t have a generally accepted solution, which takes into account the specific character of this type of innovations.In the article the methods of efficiency estimation for organizational innovation on an enterprise are developed. The methods are based on multicriteria optimization of efficiency indicators of organizational communications, which are changing at implementing innovations. The communicational approach is justified, which is the basis for organizational innovations implementation in an enterprise as a social-econoomic system, the key criteria are identified and the algorithm for efficiency estimation for organizational innovations in frames of the communicative approach is developed. Application of the suggested methodological approach contributes to the reasoned planning and implementation of organizational innovations into an enterprise activity.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.6.131-139

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- Rodionova S.V. Obosnovanie innovatsionnogo genezisa organizatsionnykh izmeneniy [Innovational Genesis Justification of Organizational Changes]. Novoe slovo v nauke i praktike: gipotezy i aprobatsiya rezul'tatov issledovaniy v ekonomike, upravlenii proektami, pedagogike, prave, istorii, kul'turologii, yazykoznanii, prirodopol'zovanii, rastenievodstve, biologii, zoologii, khimii, politologii, psikhologii, meditsine, filologii, filosofii, sotsiologii, matematike, tekhnike, fizike, informatike, gradostroitel'stve : sbornik nauchnykh statey po itogam Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii (28—29 noyabrya 2014 g.) [New Dawn in Science and Practice: Theories and Approbation of Investigation Results in Economy, Project Management, Pedagogics, Law, History, Culturology, Linguistics, Environmental Management, Crop Science, Biology, Zoology, Chemistry, Politology, Psychology, Medicine, Philology, Philosophy, Sociology, Mathematics, Technology, Physics, Informatics, Urban Development : Collection of Scientific Articles as a Result of International Science and Practice Conference (November 28—29, 2014)]. Saint Petersburg, 2014, pp. 132—133. (In Russian)
- Ageeva M.A. Sushchnost' i soderzhanie proektnykh kommunikatsiy [Essence and Content of Project Communications]. Vestnik universiteta (Gosudarstvennyy universitet upravleniya) [Proceedings of the University (State University of Management)]. 2011, no. 8, pp. 119—118. (In Russian)
- Ageeva M.A. Upravlenie kommunikatsiyami v proekte: sistemnyy vzglyad [Management of Communications in a Project: System View]. Vestnik universiteta (Gosudarstvennyy universitet upravleniya) [Proceedings of the University (State University of Management)]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 116—118. (In Russian)
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- Prikaz Rosstata ot 29.08.2013 № 349 «Ob utverzhdenii statisticheskogo instrumentariya dlya organizatsii federal'nogo statisticheskogo nablyudeniya za chislennost'yu, usloviyami i oplatoy truda rabotnikov, deyatel'nost'yu v sfere obrazovaniya» [Order of Federal State Statistics Service from 29.08.2013 no. 349 “On Approving the Statistical Instruments for Federal Statistical Observation Organization over the Number, Conditions and Salary of Workers, Activity in Educational Sphere”]. Konsul'tantPlyus [Consultant Plus]. Available at: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_161671/. Date of access: 29.09.2014. (In Russian)
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- Jablin F.M., Putnam L.L. The New Handbook of Organizational Communication: Advances in Theory, Research, and Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage, 2001.
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- Rodionova S.V. Upravlenie organizatsionnymi innovatsiyami na predpriyatii s tochki zreniya sistemnogo podkhoda [Management of Organizational Innovations on an Enterprise in Frames of System Approach]. Ekonomika i predprinimatel'stvo [Economy and Business]. 2015, no. 3-2 (56-2), pp. 727—729. (In Russian)
- Saratovtsev Yu.I., Tyukova S.Yu. Formirovanie sotsial'no-ekonomicheskikh i kross-kul'turnykh kommunikatsiy organizatsii [Formation of Social, Economic and Cross-Cultural Communications of Organizations]. Menedzhment i organizatsiya proizvodstva : tematicheskiy sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Management and Production Organization : Subject Collection of Scientific Works] Saint Petersburg, SPbGIEU Publ., 2006, pp. 259—263. (In Russian)
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- Tyukova S.Yu. Metodologicheskie osnovy formirovaniya mekhanizma upravleniya organizatsionnymi izmeneniyami [Methodological Fundamentals of Management Mechanism Formation of Organizational Changes]. Vestnik INZhEKONa. Seriya: Ekonomika [Proceedings of Saint Petersburg State Engineering and Economical Journal. Series: Economy]. 2009, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 316—319. (In Russian)
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- Griffm E. A First Look at Communication Theory. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2000.
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Pages 140-151

In modern integrated monitoring systems and systems of automated control of technological processes there are several essential algorithms and procedures for obtaining primary information about an object and its behavior. The primary information is characteristics of static and moving objects: distance, speed, position in space etc. In order to obtain such information in the present work we proposed to use photos and video detectors that could provide the system with high-quality images of the object with high resolution. In the modern systems of video monitoring and automated control there are several ways of obtaining primary data on the behaviour and state of the studied objects: a multisensor approach (stereovision), building an image perspective, the use of fixed cameras and additional lighting of the object, and a special calibration of photo or video detector.In the present paper the authors develop a method of determining the distances to objects by analyzing a series of images using depth evaluation using defocusing. This method is based on the physical effect of the dependence of the determined distance to the object on the image from the focal length or aperture of the lens. When focusing the photodetector on the object at a certain distance, the other objects both closer and farther than a focal point, form a spot of blur depending on the distance to them in terms of images. Image blur of an object can be of different nature, it may be caused by the motion of the object or the detector, by the nature of the image boundaries of the object, by the object’s aggregate state, as well as by different settings of the photo-detector (focal length, shutter speed and aperture).When calculating the diameter of the blur spot it is assumed that blur at the point occurs equally in all directions. For more precise estimates of the geometrical parameters determination of the behavior and state of the object under study a statistical approach is used to determine the individual parameters and estimate their accuracy. A statistical approach is used to evaluate the deviation of the dependence of distance from the blur from different types of standard functions (logarithmic, exponential, linear). In the statistical approach the evaluation method of least squares and the method of least modules are included, as well as the Bayesian estimation, for which it is necessary to minimize the risks under different loss functions (quadratic, rectangular, linear) with known probability density (we consider normal, lognormal, Laplace, uniform distribution). As a result of the research it was established that the error variance of a function, the parameters of which are estimated using the least squares method, will be less than the error variance of the method of least modules, that is, the evaluation method of least squares is more stable. Also the errors’ estimation when using the method of least squares is unbiased, whereas the mathematical expectation when using the method of least modules is not zero, which indicates the displacement of error estimations. Therefore it is advisable to use the least squares method in the determination of the parameters of the function.In order to smooth out the possible outliers we use the Kalman filter to process the results of the initial observations and evaluation analysis, the method of least squares and the method of least three standard modules for the functions after applying the filter with different coefficients.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.6.140-151

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