
Zolina Tatyana Vladimirovna 
Astrakhan State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (ASUACE)
Doctor of Technical Sciences, Vicerector for Professional Education Development, Head of Construction and Economics College, Astrakhan State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (ASUACE), 18 Tatishcheva st., Astrakhan, 414056, Russian Federation.
Research objective: assessment of the impact of crane loading on safe operation of building by using probabilistic methods; taking into account accumulation of damage in building’s structural elements occurring during operation period. Materials and methods: current computational schemes exploit procedures that do not take into consideration all external effects and changes in structures occurring during operation period of an industrial building. They do not provide algorithms for assessment of spatial response of building’s structures if probabilistic methods are used. Results: the experimental and theoretical research carried out by the author resulted in more precise definitions for computational models and for computational methods of analysis of industrial buildings under the action of various crane loads, including those that are not considered by regulatory documents. The suggested models and methods will enable us to design bearing structures of frameworks in accordance with their real operating conditions. The data obtained in a number of fullscale experiments lead to the conclusion that the amplitudes of vibrations caused by lateral forces when the overhead crane travels with a skew are significantly larger than the amplitudes observed during deceleration of the crane trolley. Conclusions: a hybrid algorithm has been developed; the suggested algorithm implements a complex of procedures for assessment of changes occurring in frame structures under different loading scenarios, during the service life of an industrial building.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2017.12.13521360

Zolina Tat’yana Vladimirovna 
18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, First Vicerector, 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation, .

Sadchikov Pavel Nikolaevich 
Astrakhan State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (ASUACE)
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Automated Design and Modeling Systems, Astrakhan State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (ASUACE), 18 Tatishcheva st., Astrakhan, 414056, Russian Federation.
The article presents the results of evaluation and prediction of reliability a building of the ship hull shop of Astrakhan sea plant under the action of complex combination of stresses. Basing on the values of geometric and stiffness characteristics, a computational model of the object of the study was built. The results were obtained in the course of realization of the method of limiting states, taking into account the random character of the current loads and the strength properties of the materials. Their reliability was confirmed by a multiple conduction of the searching algorithm of mathematical expectations and indicators of variations in the calculated parameters of building structures and operating loads. Numerical characteristics were determined by the results of two surveys of natural oscillations of the framework. During the study the authors evaluated stressstrain state of the building of the ship hull shop both taking into account seismic disturbances and their absence. The calculation of the perception of the seismic load was carried with choosing the earthquake model implementation by mapping the impact of the earthquake in the form of a set of random processes with defining spectra of the input and output. The presented results were obtained by the complex automation of calculating integrated indicators. Its components are: safety factor, depreciation rate of structures, reliability index and the residual resource of the framework. When predicting the durability of the research object the correlation dependencies are built in the form of: a fictitious function of generalized load; time function of stress; generalized function of the reserve coefficient; function of working capacity of the carcass structures; function of the reliability index. The developed algorithm for estimating the reliability of an industrial building can be adopted for use as a tool for further research. Its implementation allows accurately tracking the kinetics of the stressstrain state of individual elements and the overall framework of a particular object in the time of operation.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2015.10.2031
Библиографический список
 Rayzer V.D. Teoriya nadezhnosti v stroitel’nom proektirovanii [Reliability Theory in Construction Design]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 1998, 304 p. (In Russian)
 Tamrazyan A.G. Otsenka riska i nadezhnosti konstruktsiy i klyuchevykh elementov —neobkhodimoe uslovie bezopasnosti zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Assessment of Risk and Reliability of Structures and Key Elements — A Necessary Condition for Safety of Buildings and Structures]. Vestnik TsNIISK im. V.A. Kucherenko «Issledovaniya po teorii sooruzheniy» [Proceedings of Central Research Institute of Building Structures named after V.A. Kucherenko “Investigations on Theory of Structures”]. Moscow, TsNIISK Publ., 1988, 2009, no. 1, pp. 160—171. (In Russian)
 Bolotin V.V. Prognozirovanie resursa mashin i konstruktsiy [Resource Forecast of Machines and Structures]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1984, 312 p. (In Russian)
 Zolina T.V. Svodnyy algoritm rascheta promyshlennogo ob”ekta na deystvuyushchie nagruzki s otsenkoy ostatochnogo resursa [Synthesis Algorithm for Calculating Existing Load on an Industrial Facility with the Assessment of Residual Life]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 6, pp. 3—5. (In Russian)
 Zolina T.V., Sadchikov P.N. Kontseptual’naya skhema issledovaniya napryazhennodeformirovannogo sostoyaniya promyshlennogo zdaniya [Conceptual Scheme for Investigating the StressStrain State of an Industrial Building]. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturnostroitel’nogo universiteta. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo [Proceedings of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Construction Series]. 2013, no. 33 (52), pp. 47—50. (In Russian)
 Tamrazyan A.G. K zadacham monitoringa riska zdaniy i sooruzheniy [To the Tasks of Monitoring the Risks of Buildings and Structures]. Stroitel’nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka [Building Materials, Equipment, Technologies of the 21st Century]. 2013, no. 3 (170), pp. 19—21. (In Russian)
 Tamrazyan A.G. Otsenka obobshchennogo riska promyshlennykh ob”ektov, svyazannogo so stroitel’stvom i ekspluatatsiey [Estimation of Generalized Risk of Industrial Objects Associated with Construction and Operation]. Stroitel’nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka [Building Materials, Equipment, Technologies of the 21st Century]. 2011, no. 11 (154), pp. 34—35. (In Russian)
 Tamrazyan A.G. Osnovnye printsipy otsenki riska pri proektirovanii zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Basic Principles of Risk Assessment in Structural Engineering]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 2—1, pp. 21—27. (In Russian)
 Zolina T.V., Sadchikov P.N. Revisiting the Reliability Assessment of Frame Constructions of Industrial Building. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2015, vol. 752—753, pp. 1218—1223. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.752753.1218.
 Fedorov B.C., Graminovskiy N.A. Analiz skhodimosti rezul’tatov rascheta nekotorykh programmnykh kompleksov [Convergence Analysis of Calculation Results of Some Software Complexes]. Stroitel’naya mekhanika inzhenernykh konstruktsiy i sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics of Engineering Structures and Facilities]. 2007, no. 1, pp. 25—29. (In Russian)
 Zolina T.V., Sadchikov P.N. Avtomatizirovannaya sistema rascheta promyshlennogo zdaniya na kranovye i seysmicheskie nagruzki [Automated System of Calculating Crane and Seismic Loads of Industrial Buildings]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 8, pp. 14—16. (In Russian)
 Bondarenko V.M., Fedorov V.S. Modeli v teoriyakh deformatsii i razrusheniya stroitel’nykh materialov [Models in Theories of Deformation and Fracture of Building Materials]. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo [Academia. Architecture and Construction]. 2013, no. 2, pp. 103—105. (In Russian)
 Bolotin V.V. Stochastic Models of Fracture with Applications to the Reliability Theory. Structural Safety and Reliability. Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, Elsevier, 1981, pp. 31—56.
 Ditlevsen O. Reliability against Defect Generated Fracture. Journal of Structural Mechanics. 1981, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 115—137. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601218108907379.
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 Lychev A.S. Veroyatnostnye metody rascheta stroitel’nykh elementov i system [Probabilistic Methods for Calculation of Building Components and Systems]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 1995, 143 p. (In Russian)
 Gordeev V.N., LantukhLyashchenko A.I., Pashinskiy V.A., Perel’muter A.V., Pichugin S.F.Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na zdaniya i sooruzheniya [Loads and Effects on Buildings and Structures]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2007, 482 p. (In Russian)
 Gordeev V.N., LantukhLyashchenko A.I., Pashinskiy V.A., Perel’muter A.V., Pichugin S.F.Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na zdaniya i sooruzheniya [Loads and Effects on Buildings and Structures]. Moscow, 3rd edition, revised. ASV Publ., 2011, 528 p. (In Russian).
 Lin Y.K., Shih T.Y. Column Response to Horizontal and Vertical Earthquakes. Journal of Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE. 1980, vol. 106, no. EM6, pp. 1099—1109.
 Tamrazyan A.G. Raschet elementov konstruktsiy pri zadannoy nadezhnosti i normal’nom raspredelenii nagruzki i nesushchey sposobnosti [Design of Structural Elements in the Event of the Preset Reliability, Regular Load and Bearing Capacity Distribution]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 10, pp. 109—115. (In Russian)
 Pshenichkina V.A., Belousov A.S., Kuleshova A.N., Churakov A.A. Nadezhnost’ zdaniy kak prostranstvennykh sostavnykh sistem pri seysmicheskikh vozdeystviyakh [Reliability of Buildings as Spatial Composite Systems under Seismic Actions]. Volgograd, VolgGASU Publ., 2010, 180 p. (In Russian)
 Hoef N.P. Risk and Safety Considerations at Different Project Phases. Safety, Risk and Reliability — Trends in Engineering. International Conference, Malta. 2001, pp. 1—8.
 Moan T., Holand I. Risk Assessment of Offshore Structures: Experience and Principles. Structural Safety and Reliability. Eds. T. Moan, M. Shinozuka. Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, Elsevier, 1981, pp. 803—820.
 Tamrazyan A.G. Obosnovanie priemlemogo urovnya riska [Substantiation of an Acceptable Risk Level]. Izvestiya Orlovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo i transport [News of Orel State Technical University. Series: Construction and Transportation]. 2007, no. 4—16, pp. 107—108. (In Russian)

Zolina Tat’yana Vladimirovna 
State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU")
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, First Vicerector, State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU"), 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation;
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Sadchikov Pavel Nikolaevich 
State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU")
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Automated Design and Modeling Systems, State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU"), 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation;
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The article raises the problem of increasing the reliability of an industrial building bearing the entire set of frame disturbances. One of the ways to solve it is to mount extra structural elements, previously unrecorded in the design of the object. During the study we examined some of them: installation of mechanical transverse stiffening diaphragms; increasing the rigidity of the column part above the crane; arranging connecting rods located in levels of covering in the temperature seam and crane beams. Choosing the most effective option is determined by constructive and technological features of the research object. In our case, it acts as a onestorey industrial building of hull workshop of Astrakhan maritime shipyard, equipped with overhead cranes. Using this example the calculations, which were carried out, allow estimating the effect from acceptance of constructive solutions for installation of reinforced concrete diaphragms of stiffness at the edges of framework and increase the rigidity of the column part above the crane. During the study four options are considered for calculation scheme using wall panels. These should include representation of the device: as a solid wall; in two columns wide; for large aperture sizes; at the low altitude of the end of the opening. We have presented a comparative analysis of the results before and after the introduction of the corresponding elements in the calculating model of the research object. In the accepted system of constructive measures disc coating with high horizontal rigidity distributes the load on the front diaphragm. Increasing the stiffness of above the tower crane column part gives an additional effect, as an overhead crane is located closer to the cover and in case of the column of more developed section in the above the crane area, it passes the covering greater effort. In its turn, it prevents the transverse displacement and rotation, involving the entire framework into operation. The introduction of these measures contributes to: equal declining of displacements of stresses loads from the action of the nodal points of the frame, both in the level of brake beams and in the surface level; increasing the period of achieving the object’s maximal allowable condition and an extended period of its faultless operation.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2015.11.6879
Библиографический список
 Gordeev V.N., LantukhLyashchenko A.I., Pashinskiy V.A., Perel’muter A.V., Pichugin S.F. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na zdaniya i sooruzheniya [Loads and Effects on Buildings and Structures]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2007, 482 p. (In Russian)
 Gordeev V.N., LantukhLyashchenko A.I., Pashinskiy V.A., Perel’muter A.V., Pichugin S.F. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na zdaniya i sooruzheniya [Loads and Effects on Buildings and Structures]. Moscow, 3rd edition, revised. ASV Publ., 2011, 528 p. (In Russian)
 Bolotin V.V. Stochastic Models of Fracture with Applications to the Reliability Theory. Structural Safety and Reliability. Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, Elsevier, 1981, pp. 31—56.
 Bolotin V.V. Prognozirovanie resursa mashin i konstruktsiy [Resource Forecast of Machines and Structures]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1984, 312 p. (In Russian)
 Tamrazyan A.G. Otsenka riska i nadezhnosti konstruktsiy i klyuchevykh elementov —neobkhodimoe uslovie bezopasnosti zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Assessment of Risk and Reliability of Structures and Key Elements — A Necessary Condition for Safety of Buildings and Structures]. Vestnik TsNIISK im. V.A. Kucherenko «Issledovaniya po teorii sooruzheniy» [Proceedings of Central Research Institute of Building Structures named after V.A. Kucherenko “Investigations on Theory of Structures]. Moscow, TsNIISK Publ., 2009, no. 1, pp. 160—171. (In Russian)
 Zolina T.V., Sapozhnikov A.I. Patent 2401364 RF, MPK E04V1/00. Konstruktivnye sredstva uvelicheniya prostranstvennoy zhestkosti odnoetazhnykh promyshlennykh zdaniy s mostovymi kranami [Russian Patent 2401364 RF, MPK E04V1/00. Structural Means of Increasing the Space Rigidity of OneStorey Industrial Buildings with Bridge Cranes]. Patent holder AISI. Notice no. 2008130209/03; appl. 21.07.2008; publ. 10.10.2010, bulletin no. 28. 7 p. (In Russian)
 Dobshits L.M., Fedorov V.S. Povyshenie prochnosti i dolgovechnosti stroitel’nykh konstruktsiy [Raising Stability and Reliability of Building Structures]. Izvestiya Orlovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo i transport [News of Orel State Technical University. Building and Transport]. 2007, no. 2—14, pp. 196—198. (In Russian)
 Tamrazyan A.G. Raschet elementov konstruktsiy pri zadannoy nadezhnosti i normal’nom raspredelenii nagruzki i nesushchey sposobnosti [Design of Structural Elements in the Event of the Preset Reliability, Regular Load and Bearing Capacity Distribution]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 10, pp. 109—115. (In Russian)
 Zolina T.V., Sadchikov P.N. Kontseptual’naya skhema issledovaniya napryazhennodeformirovannogo sostoyaniya promyshlennogo zdaniya [Conceptual Scheme for Investigating the StressStrain State of an Industrial Building]. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturnostroitel’nogo universiteta. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo [Proceedings of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Construction Series]. 2013, no. 33 (52), pp. 47—50. (In Russian)
 Bondarenko V.M., Fedorov V.S. Modeli v teoriyakh deformatsii i razrusheniya stroitel’nykh materialov [Models in Theories of Deformation and Fracture of Building Materials]. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo [Academia. Architecture and Construction]. 2013, no. 2, pp. 103—105. (In Russian)
 Klyueva N.V., Tamrazyan A.G. Osnovopolagayushchie svoystva konstruktivnykh sistem, ponizhayushchikh risk otkaza elementov zdaniya [Fundamental Features of Structural Systems Decreasing the Risk of Structural Failures]. Izvestiya YugoZapadnogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [News of Southwest State University]. 2012, no. 5—2 (44), pp. 126—131.
 Zolina T.V., Sadchikov P.N. Revisiting the Reliability Assessment of Frame Constructions of Industrial Building. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2015, vol. 752—753, pp. 1218—1223. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.752753.1218.
 Zolina T.V., Sadchikov P.N. Avtomatizirovannaya sistema rascheta promyshlennogo zdaniya na kranovye i seysmicheskie nagruzki [Automated System of Calculating Crane and Seismic Loads of Industrial Buildings]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 8, pp. 14—16. (In Russian)
 Rayzer V.D. Teoriya nadezhnosti v stroitel’nom proektirovanii [Reliability Theory in Construction Design]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 1998, 304 p. (In Russian)
 Tamrazyan A.G. Osnovnye printsipy otsenki riska pri proektirovanii zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Basic Principles of Risk Assessment in Structural Engineering]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 2—1, pp. 21—27. (In Russian)
 Klyueva N.V., Bukhtiyarova A.S., Androsova N.B. K analizu issledovaniy zhivuchesti konstruktivnykh sistem pri zaproektnykh vozdeystviyakh [On the Survivability Analysis of Structural Systems in Case of Influences Beyond Design]. Stroitel’stvo i rekonstruktsiya [Construction and Reconstruction]. 2009, no. 4—24, pp. 15—21. (In Russian)
 Travush V.I., Kolchunov V.I., Klyueva N.V. Nekotorye napravleniya razvitiya teorii zhivuchesti konstruktivnykh sistem zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Some Development Directions of Survivability Theory of Structurel Systems of Buildings and Structures]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2015, no. 3, pp. 4—11. (In Russian)
 Tamrazyan A.G. Otsenka obobshchennogo riska promyshlennykh ob”ektov, svyazannogo so stroitel’stvom i ekspluatatsiey [Estimation of Generalized Risk of Industrial Objects Associated with Construction and Operation]. Stroitel’nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka [Building Materials, Equipment, Technologies of the 21st Century]. 2011, no. 11 (154), pp. 34—35. (In Russian)
 Kagan P.B. Analiz pokazateley investitsionnostroitel’nykh programm [Analysis of InvestmentBuilding Program Indicators]. Ekonomika i predprinimatel’stvo [Economy and Entrepreneurship]. 2015, no. 6—3 (59—3), pp. 614—616. (In Russian)
 Korol’ E.A. Analiz sostoyaniya i tendentsiy gradostroitel’noy deyatel’nosti v realizatsii proektov rekonstruktsii i renovatsii promyshlennykh zon Moskvy [Analysis of Status and Trends of Urban Development Activities While Implementing the Projects of Reconstruction and Renovation of Industrial Zones in Moscow]. Nedvizhimost’: ekonomika, upravlenie [Real Estate: Economy, Management]. 2014, no. 1—2, pp. 48—51. (In Russian)

Zolina Tat’yana Vladimirovna 
State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU")
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, First Vicerector, State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU"), 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation;
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Sadchikov Pavel Nikolaevich 
State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU")
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Automated Design and Modeling Systems, State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU"), 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation;
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When designing loadbearing framework structures using the method of limiting states it is necessary to determine the maximum possible value of snow load for the entire period of operation of an industrial building for the possibility of transition. The magnitude of the snow load is randomly changed over the time, and therefore the most appropriate form of its display is a probabilistic model of random process. The authors have identified the most preferable approach to modeling of snow load. It consists in presenting a selective sequence of the year maximums in the form of a continuous random variable distributed according to the Gumbel law. Its parameters are expressed through the mathematical expectation and the standard sample set of meteorological observations. According to the calculated values of the parameters the authors have built a graphic interpretation of the law of distribution of this random variable. When building a model of the total snow load on the roof of a building the influence of various factors should be considered, such as: • snow shedding at a given roof slope; • snow movement caused by wind; • distribution of snow depending on the roof shape; • snow melting depending on the thermal characteristics of the roof; • the ability to drain meltwater from the surface of the roof. The resulting model of snow load is adapted for implementation using software complex “DINCIBnew” developed by the authors. The proposed approach to the modeling of the snow load on the roof of an industrial building allows correlating the repeatability period of its limit calculated value with the residual life of the research object. This has become possible due to the multiple implementation of an automated algorithm for calculating an industrial building, which was developed by the authors, with account of the varying values of snow load in relation to the corresponding mathematical expectation, with registering the quantities of other components of the generalized load.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2016.8.2533

Zolina Tat’yana Vladimirovna 
State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU")
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, First Vicerector, State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU"), 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation;
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Sadchikov Pavel Nikolaevich 
State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU")
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Automated Design and Modeling Systems, State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU"), 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation;
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Geometrical characteristics of obstacles on the ground, which determine the roughness of the terrain, cause the air flow turbulence. The friction level of air flow on the surface depends on the height and density of the location of obstacles, which determines the magnitude and direction of the load on a corresponding specific object. Any obstacle located in the way of the turbulent flow experiences a corresponding wind load. In the given study we have considered a multispan onestorey industrial building as an obstacle. In order to estimate the load on the object of study caused by the wind, we decomposed the corresponding load into two components: middle and fluctuating. The first one shows the static wind load characteristics estimated according to the territorial division into districts of the Russian Federation, where the areas of calculated values of wind pressure are exhibited. Their distribution is the result of the implementation of the probabilistic model presented in the form of nonstationary random field of wind flow speeds. In order to obtain calculated values and automated processing of the value of wind load on the surface of an industrial building under blow the profiles of wind flow velocities at different heights were approximated. The resulting functional dependency on the heights is of a distinct power character. In order to describe the dynamic parameters of the process, presented in the form of the fluctuating component of wind load and the resulting reactions of structural elements of the building, we considered the random functions according to the time parameter. They represent the energy spectrum of the proportion of the wind flow power, attributable to an infinitesimal frequency band. The set of reciprocal spectral densities when selecting the points in space, each of which determines the correlation degree between the states of a random process, has allowed establishing the magnitude of the correlation coefficient of wind pressure pulsations to the entire surface of the building. When studying wind load impact on the operation of an industrial building framework, the corresponding response elements of the system are defined separately from the effects of the average and the sum of pulsation components. The combined effect which corresponds to the most unfavorable load value is achieved in case of coincidence of their signs. The present approach to the assessment of the forces caused by wind and the response to them on the part of the object became the basis of the calculation methodology as one of the components of the generalized load on the object of study.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2016.9.1525

Zolina Tat’yana Vladimirovna 
State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU")
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, First Vicerector, State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU"), 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation;
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Tusnin Aleksandr Romanovich 
Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU)
Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Metal Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
An accumulation of defects caused by the action of the loads both manmade and external leads to a decrease in the carrying capacity of the carcass structure during operation of industrial buildings. Most notably this problem manifests itself in the buildings equipped with crane equipment. During operation the columns and crane girders obtain significant deformation, and this entails a reduction in structural stiffness characteristics. At the same time a load factor is enhanced when using heavier equipment. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to identify the opportunities to ensure the reliability required for an industrial building equipped with overhead cranes. The study has developed a complex of calculation methods, the main task of which is to estimate the residual resource of a specific period of technical system operation, taking into account the random nature of a whole set of disturbances. The analysis of the results obtained by the consistent implementation of these techniques allows tracking the dynamics of changes in the stressstrain state of loadbearing structures of industrial objects in operation.In order to solve the problem of providing rigidity frames and improve the reliability of their safe operation the authors propose constructive measures to slow the rate recorded in the calculation of the bearing capacity loss of the system. For this aim we suggest setting the end face transverse stiffening diaphragms, increasing the rigidity of the column above the crane, arranging some connecting rods in the temperature seam, located in the levels of coating and under crane beams. These measures should be used together, which allows achieving a significant effect in providing transverse rigidity. The coating disk with a sufficiently high horizontal rigidity is able to transfer a portion of the load acting on the transverse frames on transverse end faces of the diaphragm. The binder rods prevent relative lateral displacement of the temperature blocks relative to each other, thereby they put the entire frame under the action of horizontal crane loads into operation. Increasing the stiffness of the column above the crane allows transferring a significant part of the effort to the coating when the bridge crane has close proximity to the coating.The proposed constructions are easy to manufacture and do not require the device holes, which weaken the structure. They can be made not only while erecting the buildings, but also in the already constructed ones by increasing the carrying capacity of the overhead cranes. In this paper we evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed measures to improve the structural rigidity of frameworks on the example of several industrial buildings. The comparative analysis of the results obtained before and after the introduction of affirmative action has shown that their arrangement reduces the horizontal displacements of the frame, in the level of crane girders, and the level of coating, with a larger effect observed in the buildings with heavyduty overhead cranes. This reduction of displacement involves the growth of bending moments values in above the crane column part and the reduction of the magnitude moments in the under crane part. At the great height under the crane portion of the column in most buildings these changes can save generally significant amounts of steel for the framework.Thus, the proposed technical solutions are aimed not only at extending the safe operation of industrial buildings, but also have a positive effect in case of reproduction associated with an increase in the lifting capacity of crane equipment, with little financial cost.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2015.6.4149
Библиографический список
 Gordeev V.N., LantukhLyashchenko A.I., Pashinskiy V.A., Perel’muter A.V., Pichugin S.F. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na zdaniya i sooruzheniya [Loads and Effects on Buildings and Structures]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2007, 482 p. (In Russian)
 Gordeev V.N., LantukhLyashchenko A.I., Pashinskiy V.A., Perel’muter A.V., Pichugin S.F. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na zdaniya i sooruzheniya [Loads and Effects on Buildings and Structures]. Moscow, 3rd edition, ASV Publ., 2011, 528 p. (In Russian)
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 Pshenichkina V.A., Belousov A.S., Kuleshova A.N., Churakov A.A. Nadezhnost’ zdaniy kak prostranstvennykh sostavnykh sistem pri seysmicheskikh vozdeystviyakh [Reliability of Buildings as Spatial Composite Systems under Seismic Actions]. Volgograd, VolgGASU Publ., 2010, 180 p. (In Russian)
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 Holicky M., Ostlund L. Vagueness of Serviceability Requirements. Proceeding of the International Conference “Design and Assessment of Building Structures”. Vol. 2. Prague, 1996, pp. 81—89.
 Hoef N.P. Risk and Safety Considerations at Different Project Phases. Safety, Risk and Reliability — Trends in Engineering. International Conference, Malta. 2001, pp. 1—8.
 Tamrazyan A.G. Otsenka riska i nadezhnosti nesushchikh konstruktsiy i klyuchevykh elementov — neobkhodimoe uslovie bezopasnosti zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Risk and Reliability Assessment of Structures and Key Elements — A Necessary Condition for the Safety of Buildings and Structures]. Vestnik NITs «Stroitel’stvo» [Proceedings of the Research Center of Construction]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 160—171. (In Russian)
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 Zolina T.V., Sapozhnikov A.I. Patent № 2401364 RF, MPK E04B001/00. Konstruktivnye sredstva uvelicheniya prostranstvennoy zhestkosti odnoetazhnykh promyshlennykh zdaniy s mostovymi kranami [Russian Patent no. 2401364 RF, MPK E04B001/00/ Constructive Means of Increasing the Spatial Rigidity of SingleStorey Industrial Buildings with Overhead Cranes]. № 2008130209/03 ; zayavl. 27.01.2010 ; opubl. 10.10.2010. Byul. № 28 [No. 2008130209/03 ; appl. 27.01.2010 ; publ. 10.10.2010, bulletin no. 28]. Patent holder GAOU AO VPO «AISI». 7 p. (In Russian)
 Zolina T.V. Obespechenie bezopasnoy ekspluatatsii promyshlennykh zdaniy s kranovym oborudovaniem [Providing Safe Operation of Industrial Buildings with Crane Equipment]. Modernizatsiya regionov Rossii: investitsii v innovatsii: materialy IV Mezhdunar. nauchnoprakticheskoy konferentsii (15 oktyabrya 2010 g.) [Modernization of the Russian Regions: Investments into Innovations. Proceedings of the 4th International Science and Practice Conference (October 15, 2010)]. Astrakhan, Sorokin R.V. Publ., 2010, pp. 16—18. (In Russian)
 Zolina T.V., Sadchikov P.N. Kontseptual’naya skhema issledovaniya napryazhennodeformirovannogo sostoyaniya promyshlennogo zdaniya [Conceptual Scheme for Investigating the StressStrain State of an Industrial Building]. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturnostroitel’nogo universiteta. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura [Proceedings of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Series: Construction and Architecture]. 2013, no. 33 (52), pp. 47—50. (In Russian)

Zolina Tat’yana Vladimirovna 
State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU")
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, First Vicerector, State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU"), 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation;
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This paper considers and asserts the need to obtain the results of inspection of a building at the stage of its commissioning in order to apply comprehensive methodology for assessing its residual life. The author proposes to build regression relationship by correlating the levels of the time series dynamics of stress at certain points of the object calculation scheme considering the results of subsequent surveys. It allows estimating the wear rate of structural elements. The assessment of the reliability and durability of the building frame in a deterministic form is based on the limit states method. The application of this method allows taking into account the random nature of not only the combination of existing loads, but also the strength properties of construction materials by creating a system of safety factors.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2014.11.98108
Библиографический список
 Rayzer V.D. Teoriya nadezhnosti v stroitel’nom proektirovanii : monografiya [Reliability Theory in Construction Design: Monograph]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 1998, 304 p. (In Russian).
 Sadchikov P.N., Zolina T.V. Sistematizatsiya metodov rascheta, analiza i prognozirovaniya rabotosposobnosti ob”ektov nedvizhimosti [Classification of Calculation Methods, Analysis and Prediction of Performance of Real Estate]. Perspektivy razvitiya stroitel'nogo kompleksa : materialy VII mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoprakticheskoy konferentsii professorskoprepodavatel'skogo sostava, molodykh uchenykh i studentov 28—31 oktyabrya 2013 [Proceedings of the 7th International Scientific and Practical Conference of Academic Staff, Young Scientists and Students, October 28—31 "Prospects of Building Complex Development]. Under the general editorship of Gutmana V.A., Khachen'yana A.L. Astrakhan, GAOU AO VPO «AISI» Publ., 2013, vol. 1, pp. 102—107. (In Russian).
 Gordeev V.N., LantukhLyashchenko A.I., Pashinskiy V.A., Perel’muter A.V., Pichugin S.F. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na zdaniya i sooruzheniya [Loads and Effects on Buildings and Structures]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2007, 482 p. (In Russian).
 Pshenichkina V.A., Belousov A.S., Kuleshova A.N., Churakov A.A. Nadezhnost’ zdaniy kak prostranstvennykh sostavnykh sistem pri seysmicheskikh vozdeystviyakh [Reliability of Buildings as Spatial Composite Systems under Seismic Actions]. Volgograd, VolgGASU Publ., 2010, 180 p. (In Russian).
 Chirkov V.P. Veroyatnostnye metody rascheta massovykh zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy [Probabilistic Methods of Calculation of Large Scale Reinforced Concrete Structures]. Moscow, Transport Publ., 1980, 134 p. (In Russian).
 Rzhanitsyn A.R. Teoriya rascheta stroitel’nykh konstruktsiy na nadezhnost’ [Theory of Reliability Calculation of Building Structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1978, 240 p.
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 Luzhin O.V. Veroyatnostnye metody rascheta sooruzheniy [Probabilistic Methods of Calculation of a Building]. Moscow, MISI im. V.V. Kuybysheva Publ., 1983, 78 p. (In Russian).
 Lychev A.S. Veroyatnostnye metody rascheta stroitel’nykh elementov i system [Probabilistic Methods of Calculation of Building Elements and Systems]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 1995, 143 p. (In Russian).
 Bulgakov S.N., Tamrazyan A.G., Rakhman I.A., Stepanov A.Yu. Snizhenie riskov v stroitel'stve pri chrezvychaynykh situatsiyakh prirodnogo i tekhnogennogo kharaktera [Reduction of Risks in Construction at the Emergencies of Natural and Technogenic Character]. Moscow, MAKS Press Publ., 2004, 304 p. (In Russian).
 Kul’terbaev Kh.P., Pshenichkina V.A. Sluchaynye protsessy i kolebaniya stroitel’nykh konstruktsiy i sooruzheniy [Casual Processes and Vibrations of Building Constructions and Structures]. Volgograd, VolgGASU Publ., 2006, 356 p. (In Russian).
 Skladnev N.N., Kurzanov A.M. Sostoyanie i puti razvitiya raschetov na seysmostoykost’ [State and Ways of Development of Seismic Strength Calculations]. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics and Calculation of Building]. 1990, no. 4, pp. 3—9. (In Russian).
 Bolotin V.V. Stochastic Models of Fracture with Applications to the Reliability Theory. Structural Safety and Reliability. Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, Elsevier, 1981, pp. 31—56.
 Ditlevsen O. Reliability against Defect Generated Fracture. Journal of Structural Mechanics. 1981, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 115—137.
 Blockley D.I. Reliability Theory — Incorporating Gross Errors. Structural Safety and Reliability. Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, Elsevier, 1981, pp. 259—282.
 Lin Y.K., Shih T.Y. Column Response to Horizontal and Vertical Earthquakes. Journal of Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE. 1980, vol. 106, no. EM6, pp. 1099—1109.
 Moan T., Holand I. Risk Assessment of Offshore Structures: Experience and Principles. Structural Safety and Reliability. Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, Elsevier, 1981, pp. 803—820.
 Brown C.B. Entropy Constructed Probabilities. Proceeding ASCE. 1980, vol. 106, no. EM4, pp. 633—640.
 Holicky M., Ostlund L. Vagueness of Serviceability Requirements. Proceeding the International Conference "Design and Assessment of Building Structures". Prague, 1996, vol. 2, pp. 81—89.
 Hoef N.P. Risk and Safety Considerations at Different Project Phases. Safety, Risk and Reliability — Trends in Engineering. International Conference. Malta, 2001, pp. 1—8.
 Pshenichkin A.P., Pshenichkina V.A. Nadezhnost’ zdaniy i osnovaniy v osobykh usloviyakh [Reliability of Buildings and Foundations in Special Conditions]. Volgograd, VolgGASU Publ., 2009, 218 p. (In Russian).
 Zolina T.V., Sadchikov P.N. Kontseptual’naya skhema issledovaniya napryazhennodeformirovannogo sostoyaniya promyshlennogo zdaniya [Conceptual Scheme for Investigating the StressStrain State of an Industrial Building]. Vestnik Volgogradskogo arkhitekturnostroitel’nogo universiteta. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura [Proceedings of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Series: Construction and Architecture]. 2013, no. 33 (52), pp. 47—50. (In Russian).
 Zolina T.V. Svodnyy algoritm rascheta promyshlennogo ob”ekta na deystvuyushchie nagruzki s otsenkoy ostatochnogo resursa [Synthesis Algorithm for Calculating Existing Load on an Industrial Facility with the Assessment of Residual Life]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 6, no. 3—5. (In Russian).
 Zolina T.V., Sadchikov P.N. Metodika otsenki ostatochnogo resursa ekspluatatsii promyshlennogo zdaniya, osnashchennogo mostovymi kranami [Methods of Assessing the Residual Life of Industrial Buildings, Equipped with Overhead Cranes]. Vestnik Volgogradskogo arkhitekturnostroitel’nogo universiteta. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura [Proceedings of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Series: Construction and Architecture]. 2013, no. 33 (52), pp. 51—56. (In Russian).
 Zolina T.V., Sadchikov P.N. Programmnoraschetnyy kompleks «DINCIBnew». Svidetel’stvo o gosudarstvennoy registratsii programmy dlya EVM ¹ 2014613866.09.04.2014. [Software and Calculation Complex "DINCIBnew". Certificate of State Registration of Computer Programs no. 2014613866, 9 April 2014]. (In Russian).

Zolina Tat'yana Vladimirovna 
Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering (AISI)
Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Associate Professor, First ViceRector, Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering (AISI), 18 Tatishchev St., Astrakhan, 414056, Russian Federation;
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Sadchikov Pavel Nikolaevich 
State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU")
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Automated Design and Modeling Systems, State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU"), 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation;
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The number of accidents at construction facilities has increased dramatically over the recent years. The engineering analysis of the reasons of accidents in the Russian Federation has revealed that the majority of accidents are caused by the loss of stability of specific structural elements, and a substantial reduction of the bearing capacity of structures. At the same time, no proper methodologies of processing and analyzing the results of inspections of structures, or methodologies of assessing the residual service life of structures are available, although advanced diagnostic tools are at hand. Therefore, advanced methods of accident risk analysis assume importance.
A quantitative assessment of the risk exposure of buildings and structures at any stage (design, construction and operation) can only be made through the employment of probabilistic calculations, especially if extreme loads are in the focus. Probabilistic methods are more robust as they evaluate the safety as the possibility of failure. Parameters are treated as stochastic variables.
Based on the research completed by the authors, a 3D computational model of a singlestorey industrial building has been developed. The software programme developed by the authors is designated for the resolution of a wide range of problems of reliability, durability, stability and accident risk analysis in respect of buildings exposed to various internal and external loads.
The software may be used to resolve both direct and inverse problems. This feature is highly relevant in assessing structural behaviour. Their structures may constitute defects that affect their rigidity, strength and stability. The behaviour pattern of a loaded structure may be identified by means of an experiment, and thereafter, its rigidity may be identified by resolving the inverse problem in order to assess the life span of the structure.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2012.10.69  76
Библиографический список
 Avarii zdaniy i sooruzheniy na territorii Rossiyskoy Federatsii v 2003 godu [Accidents of Buildings and Structures in the territory of the Russian Federation in 2003]. AllRussian Public Fund “Centre of the Construction Quality”. Moscow. 2004. Available at: http://www.stroyplan.ru. Date of access: 04.08.12.
 Ulitskiy V.M., Lisyuk M.B. Otsenka riska i obespechenie bezopasnosti v stroitel’stve [Risk Assessment and Construction Safety]. Rekonstruktsiya gorodov i geotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo [Urban Restructuring and Geotechnical Engineering] Internet Journal. 2002, no. 5. Available at: http://www.georec.spb.ru/journals. Date of access: 04.08.12.
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 Bakhvalov N.S., Zhidkov N.P., Kobel’kov G.M. Chislennye metody [Numerical Methods]. Binom. Laboratoriya znaniy. [Binom. Laboratory of Knowledge]. Moscow, 2003, 600 p.
 Zolina T.V. Raschet odnoetazhnykh promyshlennykh zdaniy, oborudovannykh mostovymi kranami, na gorizontal’noe kranovoe vozdeystvie s uchetom prostranstvennoy raboty [Analysis of Singlestorey Industrial Buildings Equipped with Overhead Cranes with Account for Horizontal Effects of Crane Operations]. Moscow, MISI Publ., 1989, 242 p.
 Zolina T.V. Raschet promyishlennyih zdaniy na kranovyie nagruzki [Analysis of Exposure of Industrial Buildings to Crane Loads]. Astrakhan, AISI Publ., 2004, 156 p.
 Gordeev V.N., LantukhLyashchenko A.I., Pashinskiy V.A., Perel’muter A.V., editor. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na zdaniya i sooruzheniya [Loads and Actions on Buildings and Structures]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2007, 482 p.
 Pshenichkina V.A., Belousov, A.S., Kuleshova A.N., Churakov A.A. Nadezhnost’ zdaniy kak prostranstvennykh sostavnykh sistem pri seysmicheskikh vozdeystviyakh [Reliability of Buildings as Spatial Composite Systems Exposed to Seismic Impacts]. Volgograd, VolgGASU Publ., 2010, 224 p.
 STO 36554501014—2008 «Nadezhnost’ stroitel’nykh konstruktsiy i osnovaniy». [Standards of Organizations 36554501014—2008 “Reliability of Structures and Beddings”]. Approved by Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Construction” Research Centre on September 23, 2008.

Tamrazyan Ashot Georgievich 
Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU)
Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, full member, Russian Engineering Academy, head of the directorate, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe Shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation;
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Zholobov Aleksandr Leonidovich 
Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering (AICI)
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of
Industrial and Civil Engineering, Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering (AICI), 18 Tatishcheva st.,
Astrakhan, 414056, Russian Federation;
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Ivannikova Nadezhda Aleksandrovna 
Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering (AICI)
postgraduate student, Department of Industrial and Civil
Engineering, Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering (AICI), 18 Tatishcheva st., Astrakhan, 414056,
Russian Federation;
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In the course of construction and restructuring of unique buildings and structures, any architect
faces the need to design complex surfaces that have curvilinear geometrical forms that cannot be
neglected. In turn, designs with complex curvilinear geometrical forms require higher skills in their
development, as the complexity of their design and implementation is a lot higher than that of elements
that have flat surfaces.
The value of plaster cannot be underestimated. Plaster applied to surfaces of various buildings
and structures (walls, partitions, columns) flattens the surface, shapes it up and protects it from
moisture and fire; it improves resistance to heat transfer; it reduces air permeability and improves
the soundproofi ng properties of protected designs, etc.
All preset parameters of plaster are to constitute the subject of random inspections, and inspection
results are to be considered in the course of acceptance of any work. The most important
though hard to control parameters of plaster include:
bond strength, thickness, moisture content and density;
flatness or its radius of curvature;
deformation properties of the plaster layer versus deformation properties of the design.
Control over compliance with the design is hard to implement as curvilinear surfaces are located
at a significant height above the ground and/or the floor level. Therefore, there is a need to develop a
nondestructive method of quality assurance of construction, restructuring and finishing works.
The solution to the problem becomes possible due to development of specific hardware and
software designated for remote though accurate identification of the surface curvature.
The authors have developed a modified rangeoriented laser methodology that employs angular
segments to remotely assess the flatness of the building structure and its radius of curvature and
to determine the deviation of its value from the designed one. The software also makes it possible
to implement the quality control of the work performed over the curved surfaces coated with various
types of plaster.
The proposed solutions have been pilot tested in practice, and they are ready for use in the
building industry, namely, in construction, repair and restructuring works.
DOI: 10.22227/19970935.2012.11.125  130
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